1. Work in iron; usually toner, that jiait of any-
thing that is made of iron, or articles made of iron
nateantl o'tftfr iiorV." Mj^-jinWillis&Cfark"C^s
UB86) I. 44-J For Iron and Iron worke abowte the Roode.
ttaa-% in $wuy\\cS*ru»tCAmrcA-w. Ace. (1806) 141 Ira work
aboujjhl the church. 1613 Pumchas Pilgrt$nage (1614) 88
Itivcnters of Artea .. building, yron-workes, tents, and such
like. 1691T. H[alk] Acc. Ne*» invent 11 The ill condition
uf the Harwich's Iron-work* discovered at her cleaning in
1682. 17M De Foe Col. Jack (1840) 167,1 had more iron*
work saved out of the ship. tM6 Kocbks Azric. £
Prices I. xxi. 54s Wheel* fitted with their iron-work.
2. An establishment where iron is smelted, or
where heavy iron goods are made. Now always
in //. form ironworks (which is sometimes con-
strued as a sing.).
venient swat for an iron-work. 1645 Uoate ireL Sat. Hist,
(1652) 13a Of the lesser Iron-works, called Bloomcrics. 1683
Petty Last Wilt in '/><«:/« (1769) p. vi, I set up iron-works
and pilchard-fobing in Kerry. 1855 Macau lav Hist. Engm
xx. IV. 466 A man of great merit, who, having begun life
with nothing, had created a noble estate by ironworks.
+ b. A mine for digging iron-ore. Obs.
1713 Phil. Trans. XXV11I. 990 The Hath-Fabric had Ore
and Fuel from the Silures.. where Adrian sunk an Iron*
3. ait rib.
1674 Pkttv Disc. Dufil. Proport. 104 In Iron-work Fur-
naces are the greatest and most regular moving Mellows that
are any where used. 1899 Wes tin. Gas. 30 Dec. 8/j Two
Hence Xronworkja. (nonte-wd.), abounding in
or characterized by ironwork.
1B86 Kuskin Pretterita I. vL 189, I was already wise
enough to feel the Cathedral stiff and iron-worky.
Ironworker (si'Mniwi/jkai). One who works
in iron; one engaged at ironworks.
14.. Voc. in Wr.-Wflicker 583/3 I*errarius% an yreworchere
or an yremongere, or a ferrour. 188a Ouida Marewwa I.
1 Si The ironworkers of Follonica beating the ore of Elba
into shape, 1889 Boy's Otvn Pa/er 7 Sept. 779/1 That
picturesquo town of ironworkers.
So Iron-worked ppL a.% worked in iron, of
wrought iron; X'ron-wo^alng1 vbl. sb. and ///. a.
1730 in Willis & Clark Cambridge (1886) I. 231 An Iron-
worfd Desk for y Bible. 1846 C. & Prowett PronutK
Bound 33 On thy left hand the iron-working tribe. 1874
Kaymonh Statist. Mints Q Mining 499 Apparatus for iron*
working Is not yet represented in the laboratories. 1895
Daily fftws 23 ScpL 7/4 Increased fctreiijgth lias been im-
parted to the iron-working branches by the further advance
this week in unmarked iron. 1897 Maky Kingsley W.
Africa 314 The other iron-working West Coast tribes.
I*ronwort (-wtfxt). [f. Iron sb. + Wort, tr. L.
sidtritis (Pliny), a. Gr. city pint, name of a herb
having the reputed power of healing sword-wounds,
f. oUhjpot iron.] Name for plants of the genus
Siderttis (N.O. Labiatm); also applied to some
other labiates, as species of Galeopsu.
tejfa Turner Herbal 11. 135 b, Thys kimle [of Sideritis] is
called in Due-he Glitkraut, it may be called in English
Yronwurt or Rock sage. 168* Grew Anat. Flowers App.
f 11 The Top is.. Poynted, or at least, Roundish, an in
Lamium, Ironwort. 1866 Treas.Bot.t Iron wort, Siaeritis\
also Galeofisis Ladanunu Yellow I., Calais is villosa.
Irony (w»*rsb. (ad. L. ironia (Cicero),
a. Gr7*lpvy*ia ' dissimulation, ignorance purposely
affected . Cf. F. ironie (yronie, Oresrae, 14th a).
In early use often in Lat form ironia*.]
1. A figure of speech in which the intended
meaning is the opposite of that expressed by the
words used; usually taking the form of sarcasm
or ridicule in which laudatory expressions are used
to imply condemnation or contempt.
Ironia* which we call the drye mooki 1617 Moryson 7tin.
1. 160 Your quip..that you were ashamed to write to mee
for your rude stile. Very good, I tinde the Irony. ieeo
Middletom A Rowlbv World Tost at Tennis 124 By his
needle he undo/stands ironia. That with one eye looks two
ways at once. 1788 Mad. D'Arblay Diary 13 Feb., He
believed Irony the ablest weapon of oratory. i8s8 Whatblv
Rhet. in Encycf. Metro/. (1845) 1.065/1 Aristotle mentions
..Eironeia, which in his time was commonly employed to
signify, not according to the modem use of l Irony, saying
the contrary to what is meant', but, what later writers
usually expresit by Litotes, i. e. ' naying less than is meant'.
1837 Macaulay Ess.. Bacon (1887) 438 A drayman, in a
passion, calls out, 'You are a pretty fellow*, without
passion, calls c
. b. with an and //. An instance of this; an
ironical utterance or expression.
SMI OAKOiNBa Sacratn. ?» He *pnke It by an Ironie
or skome. 1611-15 \h\ Hall Content/1., O. T. xix. til,
' Ironic* deny strongest in affirming. 1696 E. Rkynka Rules
< CnT't. Tongue 927 An Iroivy Is a nipping jeast, or a speech
; that hath the honey of pleasantnesae In its moutn, and a
Ming of rebuke in its taile. 1706-7 Krjlcx. u/on Ridicule aai
Subtil and delicate Ironies. 1718 Wakburton Dtv. Legat.
I. Ded. 9 A thorough Iroay addressed to some hot Bigots.
1894 W. J. Dawson Making ofManhood 39 Smart sneers
and barbed ironies at the ex|>ense of every movement which
seeks to meliorate the common lot.
2. fig, A condition of affairs or events of a char-
acter opposite to what was, or might naturally be,
expected; a contradictory outcome of events as if
in mockery of the promise and fitness of things.
(In F. ironit du sort.)
1649 G. Daniel Trinarch\% Hen. V% exeviii, Yet heret
(and: 'tis the Ironie of Warre Where Arrowen forme the
Argument,) he beat Acmiitts himselfe, who doth a Hone
prefer To his proud Rider. 1833 T»iihi.wall in Phitol.
room for the exhibition of tragic irony, i860 W. Collins
Worn. White in. xi. 413 The irony of circumstances holds
no mortal catastrophe in respect. 1878 Mohley Car/We. 194
With no eye for..the irony of their fate. 1884 Nonconf.
* Indep. Lit. Suppl. 6 Nov. t/i The irony of time is wonder-
ful. 1894 T. Hardy (title) Lire's Little Ironies.
3. In etymological sense: Dissimulation, pre-
tence; esp. in reference to the dissimulation of
ignorance practised by Socrates as a means of con-
futing an adversary (Socratic irony).
150a Ord. Crysttn Men (W. dc W. 1506) iv. xxii. 993 To
say of hym sclfe ony thynge of hi* leblencsscs & neces-
sytes, or of his synnes. .to the end that a man 1*5 renowmed
& reputed humble abiect & Krcte thynge in mcrytes & dc-
uocyons before god. .such synne is named >Tonye, not that
the whiche is orjerammare, by the whiche a man sayth one
& gyueth to underatande the contrarye. 1655 Stanlky
Hist. Philfls. 111. (1701) 76/1 The whole confirmation of the
Cause, even the whole Life seems to carry an Irony, such
was the Life of Socrates, who was for that reason called
9*nmy; that U, one that personates an unlearned Man, and
i* an admirer of others as WLse. 1848 H. Rogers Ess. I.
vi. 318 The irony of Socrates .. may be not unfittingly
expressed by saying, that it is a logical Masked battery*
x86o Kmkkson Cond, L(/e. Consist. Wk«. (Rohn) II.
416 Like Socrates, with his famous irony; like Bacon, with
Irony (ai'auii, ai^-rani), a. Also 4-7 yrony,
-ie, 6 yrnye. [f. Iron sb.l + -t.] Consisting of
iron; of the nature of iron; resembling iron in
some quality, as hardness, taste, or colour; abound-
ing in or containing iron.
198a Wvclif Dent, xxviii. 33 De hcucne that is nboue
thee braasny [1388 brasun]; and the lond that thou tredUt
yruny [1388 yrun. 1611 of iron]. 1583 Stanyhl'rst s&nris,
etc Ps. li. (Arb.) 127 From oure persons pluck we there
yrnye yokes. 1654 Hammond /undatnentals (T.), It is
not strange if the irony chains have more solidity than
the contemplative. 1704 Nat. Hist, in Ann. Reg. 82/9
I-rooted, i-roted, ME. pa. pple. of Root v.
I-rost, -eRoast v. I-roted9 i-rotted,
of Rot v, i*rouned9 of Roun v.f to whisper.
t IroU'r. Obs. Also 4 irrour. [a. AF. irour,
OK. iror, irur (12th c), later ireur anger — Pn
iror, f, L. ira Ire, with ending of furor, horror,
terror, etc] Ire, anger.
13.. Seuyn Sag. (W.) 954 With herte wroth, ft gret
irour. a 1380 St. Ambrosias 824 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg.
ai pe biddyug of |>e emperoar J>rctc^ me wij> gret irrour.
tl'roiUI, a. Obs. Also 4 irwis, irose, 4-6
irua, yrouj, -ows, 5 irows, -ooua, irrous, 5-6
iroasa. fa. AF. irons9 OF. iro$% irtts, later ireux, -
Pr. iros, tt.irosoi-pop.L. type *Tn>s-ust f. fro Ire.]
1. Given to anger, hot-tempered, irascible.
1303 R. Brukne Handl. Synne 715a Charyte ys nat irus,
And charyte y* nat coveytous. ai4«o Ant. de la Tour
(1868) 74 THii Henana was yroui and felon, and of euyl lyf.
1530 Elyot Gov. 1. U, By a cruell and irous maUter the wittes
of children be dulled. 1^74 Hkllowks Gueuara't Fam.
Ep. (1584) 114 Solon Solonio being demanded whom we call
voperly iroiw, answered, hee tha£ little csteemeth to loose
us friendes. and maketh no account to recover cnimies,
2. Wrathful, angry, enraged. . c
13.. K. Alls. 330 (MS. Bodl.) His leue took Neptenabus,
To his In wel yrous. a 1340 Hampolk Psalter xvii. 51 My
dclyuerere of myn enmys yrous. c 1386 Chaucer Pars. T.
r 545 Swich cursynge as comth of Irous herte. £14*5
wvntoun Cron. vii. vii. ao6 Agayne hym thai ware all irows*
1474 Caxton Chesse tu lit C j b, An angry and yrous persone
weneth that for to doo evyl is good counceyl. t smm Mho
Notbroun* Mayd 435 in Hasf £. P. P. III. 18 His irous
brayde Wyll not be Tayed For me nor yet for you.
trrotl«lyf <*&. Obs. [f.j)rcc. + -LY2,] In an
angry manner, angrily, wrathinlly.
137S Bahbouh Bruce vm. 144 Thairfor he antueryt irnsly.
c 1450 Lonhuch Grail xiv. 363 Fol Irownly torned they
Into that pres. c 147s Partenay 4099 Gaflray. .After sped
Apace, yrously being.
t Irp#, sb. Obs. ran. [Origin unknown; found
with the following in Ben Jonson.] Some kind
of gesture: ?a toss or jerk of the head, the act of
perking. Gifford suggested 'a fantastic grimace,
or contortion of the body*.
>889 B. Jonson Cynthia's Rev. v. Ill Palinode, From
SpSush shrugs. French laces, smirks, Irpct, and all affected
humours. Good Mercury defend us.
So t^ep^ftf.,? perk, smart. Obs.
1399 B, Jonson Cynthia's Rev. 111. v, Maintaine your
station, brisk, and upe, shew the supple motion of your
IrrftdllUO* (ir/t-di&ns). [f. Irradiamt : see
-AifOK.] The fact of irradiating; the emission of
rays of light, emitted rad^nce. Alsoy^. in refer-
ence to spiritual or toalficfnal radiance.
S667 Milton P. L. vnE^nfttttMhev mix Irradiance,
virtual or Immediate touch? inpNl|NoKB Univ.
Beauty vl 939 Thou awful Depth of ITii fTflmijL' il I
Thou Height, where never human fancy soar'd I SupMN
Irradiance I a 1160 \.H.B*own* Poems, Design+ 1
come for irradiance.
Irradianoy (ir^-diinsi). [f. as prcc: tee
-ancyJ The quality or fact of being irradiant.
1646 Sir T. Brownk Pseud. E/. il L 55 As for irradiancy
or sparkling which is found In many gems it is not dis-
coverable in this. 1830 Eraser's Mag. I. 3x8 Mark.. the
benign irradiancy of hi* eyes. 1880-3 Schaff Encycl. Re tig.
Knowl II. 1658 That luminous irradiancy which was sup-
posed to emanate and surround a divine being.
Irradiant fii/'-dUbit), a. [ad. L. irradiant'
em, pr. pple. of irradinre to Irbaduts,] •Emit-
ting rays of light; shining brightly. Alsoyfc. in
reference to spiritual or intellectual radiance.
is* PHgr. Per/ (W. de W. Is?*) 999 b, Moost dere beme
& irradyant splendour of y* glory eternall. 159a R. D.
Hy/netvtomachia 1 He crysped up his irradient heyres.
1611 Spf.kd Hist. Gt Brit. tx. xiL 1109.604 The just bnght-
nesse of his itTadiant vertues. .adorning her with Garland*,
conquered Spoyles. and Trophee*. 1710 Brit. Ajfollo HI.
No. 15. 3/1 As Fire cxtinguish'd by th* I mutant Sun.
sett* Pusey Truth Eng. Ch. 21 Effulgent with the glory
of His Godhead, irradiant with His uivine love. 188s
Myers Renewal Youth 160 O Nature** darling, pure and
fair, From light foot to irradiant hair I
Irradiate (itfMift), ///. a. [ad. L. irradi&tus,
pa. pple. of irradidrg (see next).] Illumined;
made bright or brilliant. Const as pple. or adj.
13* Pilgr. Per/ or made bryght with the lyght of the aungell. 17*5 Pops
Odyss. x. 583 The Theban Hard, depriv*d of sight, Within,
irradiate with prophetic licht. 1719 Savage Wanderer 11.
86 A phambc, with irradiate crest. 1814 Cary Dante
(Chandus) 977 The sky Erewhile irradiate only with his
lieam. 1874 Symohds Sk. Italy If Greece (1898) I. i. 34
Sailing through, .tracts of light irradiate heavens.
Irradiate (M'-dirt;, v. Also 7 inradiate.
[f. ppl. stem of L. irradidre to shine forth, f. ir-
(Ir- ») + radian to shine, f. radius ray: cf. prcc]
1. trans. To direct rays of light upon; to shine
upon; to make bright by causing light to fall upon;
16*3 Cock KB am, Irradiate, to shine vpon. 1669 Gale
Crt. Gentiles 1. 1. I 7 As the greater light irradiates and
enlightens the world. 41704 Sim W. Tomb Hytnn to
Lacshmt Wks. 1799 VI. 363 When thy smile irradiates yon
blue fields, Observant India sheds the genial show'r. 1805
Southey Madoc 11. xviii, The midnight lightning*.. That
with their awful blase, irradiate heaven, Then leave a blacker
night. 1873 L. Fkkguson Disc. 64 The face that was
irradiated on the Mount was the very lace his disciples
knew so well.
b. spec, in Astrol. To cast beams upon. Also
1603 Sia C. Heydoh Jud. Astrol xxiii. 498 Originally
they were friendly irradiated of Iupiter, the Sunoe, Venus,
and Mercune. i6ai Burton Anat. Mel. 1. ii. 1. Iv. 75 In
the Horoscope, irradiated by those quartile aspects of
Saturne or Mars, the childe shall be mad or melancholy.
1686 Goad Celest. Bodies in. i. 393 h from the Opposite
Sign irradiates between 6* and 9 so posited.
i c. To influence with or as with rays of heat
or anything else of radiant character. Obs.
1668 CuLnpfEa ft Gout Barthol. Anat. t. xvil 48 The
neighbouring Spermatlck Vessels are irradiated and vfr-
tuated by the Kidneys, even as the Brain irradiates the
lower Parts, by an inbred property resembling light, a i&n
Hale Prim. Orig. Man. 1. uT76 That Ethereal or Solar
heat, that miut digest, influence, Irradiate, and put those
more simple parts of Matter into motion and coalition.
2. fig. and trans/, a. To illumine with spiritual
or intellectual light; to throw light upon anything
16*7 Fbltmam Resolves 11. [i.!
the soul. 1638 Rouse Heav.
to Irradiate and teach them. . _,_„ ....
v. (R.), That bin mind was irradiated with a divine illumina-
tion, 1838-9 Hallam ///*/. Lit. IV. iv. viiL § 48. 368 He
first irradiated the entire annals of antiquity .. with flashes
of light. 1864 BowEN£<*rfcioWlth their light they irradiate
and make clearly intelligible everything to whicn they an
b. To brighten as with ligh
face) with beauty, gladness, an
1651 Shiuibubnb Rapt 0/ Helen P
did.his Looks irradia7e.V 1805 Wa
A virtue which Iradiats and lu
b. To brighten at with light; to light tip (the
m _ ^ m Foams 5s Sudi 9#auty
_-.-— Ifoks irradiate, slag Womsw* PreJudi IU §30
A virtue which Irradiates and exalts Objects through widest
a Toradiatt} to maid forth in or as in rays.
tits* Eunm LocU (1034) xtj Ugh* irradiated upon our
t *¥ • -***"- ^^etcdjHeatcannot
Oj, trans/ To adorn with splendcmr;
1717 PorzEtoiss 136 No weeping orphan saw Ms father*