|Title: Race Versus Ethnicity
1. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Race is determined by heredity.
b. Ethnicity is determined by environment.
*c. Race and ethnicity are the same characteristic.
d. Race and ethnicity are both determined by heredity.
Title: Trends in Minority Populations
2. Which of the following statements is false?
a. The Hispanic population is the fastest growing in the United States.
*b. The African American population is on the decline.
c. Whites may be a minority population by 2050.
d. Intermarriage has made it more difficult to define race.
Title: Minorities in Sport
3. Overall, at most levels of competition, sports in America are dominated by
b. African Americans
d. Asian Americans
4. African Americans dominate basketball, football, and track and field because of
a. a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers
b. less body fat, longer arms, and slim hips
*c. cultural influence and opportunity
d. coolness under pressure
Title: Latinos in Baseball
5. Compared to African Americans, who make up approximately 8.5% of professional baseball players, Latinos in Major League Baseball now account for
6. The baseball player who broke the color barrier in baseball in the late 1940s was
a. Babe Ruth
b. Henry Aaron
*c. Jackie Robinson
d. Reggie Jackson
Title: Stacking in Sport
7. Which of the following is not attributed to the concept of stacking by race?
a. Quarterbacks, centers, and offensive lineman were White.
b. Pitchers and catchers were White.
c. Running backs, wide receivers, and outfielders were African American.
*d. Placekickers tended to be foreign.
Title: Racial Report Card
8. Discuss the significance of the Racial and Gender Report Card that is distributed annually by Richard Lapchick.
a. It is an independent, definitive summary of the percentage of each racial group represented in sports at the college and professional levels. It includes statistics on players, coaches, administrators, and owners. Without such a baseline, it is impossible to determine trends or to develop policies and procedures that ensure equal opportunity regardless of race.
Title: Female African Americans in Sport
9. Discuss the double jeopardy that African American females face in the world of sports.
a. African American females are forced to combat barriers against being female and Black. Both groups have been historically underrepresented in sports at every level. In spite of fairly recent gains by both females and Blacks, African American girls make up only 5% of high school athletes, 10% of college athletes, and 2% of coaches. Lack of talent is not the problem, as has been shown by exceptional Black females; rather, their underrepresentation seems to be a cultural issue.
10. Analyze how the use of Native American nicknames is a form of discrimination.
a. Using Native American nicknames encourages stereotyping of a population that has been displaced, discriminated against, and forced to live in near-poverty conditions. These symbols demean the history, culture, and current desperate state of Native Americans. The use of Native American nicknames and symbols in sports rubs salt in the wounds of a proud people who have endured insult and near extinction.