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The Tale of Genji, 236–237, 239

Musa, Mansa, 156, 162

music

influence of Central Asia on Chinese, 206

influence on Japanese, 226

Muslim Spain, 115

West African, 168–169

Muslims, 83

impact of crusades on, 125

invasion of Ghana’s empire, 148

unification under caliph Uthman, 89

mystery play, 50

mysticism, 113
N

Nara, Japan capital, 222, 230

nationalism, Protestantism and, 366–367

natural law, 38, 400

natural rights, 403

nave, 36–37

navigation, Muslim scholars and, 110

Nero, 8

New Testament, 355

Newton, Isaac, 373, 394

ngoni, 168

Niger River, 138

Noah, 94, 96

nobility

in Aztec society, 280

in Inca society, 292

in Mayan society, 262

See also lords and ladies; monarchs/monarchy

noble, 23

Noh theatre, 239

Nok people, 140

nomads, Arabian Peninsula, 77, 78

North America, European exploration of, 384–385

numerals, use of Roman, 15

nun, 35, 40–41
Page 455

O

oases, Arabian Peninsula, 78

observatory, 209, 261

Old Testament, 355

Olmec people, 260–261

On Crimes and Punishments (Beccaria), 406

On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres (Copernicus), 338

On the Structure of the Human Body (Vesalius), 339

oppression, 405

oracle, 297

Ottoman Empire, 128
P

paddlewheel boat, 196–197

page, 25, 26

pagoda, 226

painting, during the Renaissance, 326

Palestine, 119

Pantheon, 12

papacy, 349

paper making, 198

paper money, 201

patriarch, 64–65

patrilineal inheritance, Islam and, 159

patron, 318

Paul III, Pope, 364

Peace of Augsburg, 353

Peace of Westphalia (1648), 366

peasants

in Aztec society, 281

during feudal times, 28–29

in Mayan society, 263

persecutions, by Romans of Christians, 32

Persian Letters (Montesquieu), 404

perspective, 316, 326

Petrarch, Francesco, 320

pharmacists, 112

Philip II of Spain, King, 385

Philip IV of France, 349

philosophers, 399

classical and Christian influences on, 400–401

philosophy, legacy of Roman, 16

pictograph, 305

pilgrimage, 35

Pillow Book (Sei Shonagon), 237, 239

Pizarro, Francisco, 383

plantations, 379

plateaus, 77

playing cards, 201

plaza, 274

poetry

during Japan Heian period, 236–237

samurai, 246

pok-a-tok, 267

political instability, late Roman Empire, 8

polo, 116

Polo, Marco, 192, 209, 318

polygamy, 282

polytheism, 84

Mayan civilization, 266

Poor Clares order, 41

pope, 20, 32

population, impact of bubonic plague on Europe and Asia, 56–57

porcelain, 199

porter, 149

Portugal, Age of Exploration and, 378–379

predestination, 360

priests

in Aztec society, 280

in Mayan society, 262, 266

printing

Gutenberg and, 334

woodblock, 198, 209

Procopius, 63

projectiles, path of, 392

prophet, 83

proportions, 337

Protestant sects

See Lutheranism

Protestantism/Protestants, 347

Catholic Church’s response to, 364–365

See also Anglicanism; Calvinism; Lutheranism

proverbs

influence of Roman, 15

West African, 167

province, Muslim Empire, 89

Ptolemy, 391

Guide to Geography, 377

public works, under Justinian, 63

pulpit, 361

Puritans, 367
Page 456

Q

qadis, 159

qibla, 97

Qur’an (Koran), 86, 93, 94, 95
R

rainforest, 138

Ramadan, 99

ransom, 122

rationalism, 390

Reconquista, 122

Reformation, 347

early leaders, 354–355

Enlightenment and the, 400

in Europe, 312

religious/civil wars and, 366

reformers, Catholic Church, 364–365

regent, 220

relics, 35

religions/religious practices

Aztec civilization, 286–287

Chinese tolerance for different, 207

Incas, 296–297

Mayan civilization, 266–267

West Africa, 158

See also Buddhism; Shinto

religious order, 41

Renaissance, 11

definition and origin of, 315

Enlightenment and the, 400

in Europe, 312

interest in classical world, 315–316

spread through Europe, 334

republic, 319

rhetoric, 38

rice

culture in China, 188–189

culture in Japan, 220

Richard the Lionheart, 122

rockets, technology developed in China, 200

Roman Catholic Church, 20

calls for reform in the, 350–351

central role of medieval, 31

conflict with Eastern Orthodox Church, 66

corruption within, 348

Counter-Reformation, 364–365

establishment of, 32–33

Roman Catholic Church (continued)

Henry II’s conflict with, 54

increasing power of, 33

Luther’s calls for reform in, 352–353

organization of, 32–33

political conflicts with European rulers, 349

See also Eastern Orthodox Church

Roman Empire

end of, 8

fall of, 9

problems in the late, 8

weakening of frontiers, 8

Rumi, 113
S

sacraments

Calvinism and, 361

Lutheranism and, 359

Roman Catholic Church and, 34

sacrifice, 266

Safavid Empire, 128

Salah-al-Din (Saladin), 122, 125

salat, 97

salt, gold for, 150–151

salvation, 34

Anglican belief about, 362

Calvinism belief about, 360

Lutheran belief about, 358

samurai, 241

armor and weapons, 243

code of values, 248

code of values’ influence on modern times, 250

mental training, 245

military training, 244

rise of, 242

tea ceremony training, 246

satire, 343

scaffolding, 162

schism, between Eastern and Roman churches, 67

science

advances during the Renaissance, 329

(See also Copernicus, Nicolaus; Vesalius, Andreas)

Aztecs’ achievements in technology and, 304

Incas’ achievements in technology and, 306

Islamic civilization’s technology and, 109

Mayan achievements in technology and, 302
Page 457

scientific method, 395

Scientific Revolution, 373, 389

Enlightenment and, 400

reasons for, 390

scribe, 14

scriptorium, 40

sculpture

during Japan Heian period, 235

Japanese carving techniques’ origins, 225

during the Renaissance, 327

(See also Michelangelo)

West African, 170

sedentary way of life, 78

segmental arch bridge, 197

Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, 237, 239

Seljuks Turks, 119, 120

defeat to the Mongols, 127

separation of powers, government, 404

serfs, 22, 28–29

Seventeen Articles Constitution, Japan, 221

shah, 128

shahadah, 96

Shakespeare, William, 342

shari’ah, 93, 102

vs. customary law in West Africa, 159

Shi’a, Sunnis vs., 90

Shinto, vs. Buddhism, 222, 223

ship construction, improvement by Chinese, 196

shogun, 242

Shotoku, Prince, 220, 221

Siddhartha Gautama, 222–223

siege, 88

Silk Road, 206, 208

simony, 348

sin

Anglican beliefs about, 362

Calvinist beliefs about, 360

Lutheran beliefs about, 358

Sistine Chapel, painting by Michelangelo, 335

siyam, 99

slash-and-burn agriculture, 268

slaves

in Aztec society, 281

explorations and, 379, 381

in Mayan society, 263

social contract, 403

social pyramid, 262

Society of Jesus

See Jesuits

solar year, 302

Song dynasty, 180, 182, 183

agriculture’s changes under, 188–189

Songhai people, Islam and, 157

Spain

armada, defeated by England, 341, 385

conquest and later explorations, 382–383

early explorations, 380–381

Muslim invasion of, 90

unification as Catholic country, 340

spices, 376

explorations and, 378, 379

Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu), 404

squire, 25, 26

steel, production in China, 199

steles, 302

Stoicism, 16

succession, 159

Sufism, 113

Sui dynasty, 180, 181

sultan, 119

Sunnah, 93, 95

Sunnis, vs. Shi’a, 90

suspension bridge, 306

syllables, 224

synagogue, 125
T

Taghaza, salt from, 150–151

Taika Reforms, in Japan, 221

tallage, 29

Tang dynasty, 180, 181, 182, 190

China foreign contacts during, 206–207

tanka, Japanese poetry, 224, 239

taxes

army and, 8

Ghana’s system of, 151

imperial China’s farmers and, 181

serfs’ payment of, 28

Tenochtitlan, 271, 273, 274–275

Teresa of Avila, 364

terra-cotta, 170

terraces, 80

textiles

Florence’s production of, 331

Incas, 306

Muslim civilization and, 115

West Africa, 163

West African, 170–171
Page 458

The Gossamer Years, 237

The Praise of Folly (Erasmus), 351

The Tale of Genji (Murasaki Shikibu), 236–237, 239

theocracy, 361

Theodora, 63

theology, 38

thermometer, 396

Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648), 366

Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), A, 113

Timbuktu, University of Sankore in, 160

timeline

Civilization of the Americas, 308–309

Imperial China, 212–213

Islam, 130–131

Medieval Europe, 68–69

Medieval Japan, 252–253

Modern Europe, 410–411

Renaissance and Reformation, 368–369

West Africa, 172–173

Timur Lang, 128

tithe, 33

Titian, 336

tobacco, 383

tolerance, religious, 405

Toltec civilization, 272, 273

Torah, 94

Torricelli, Evangelista, 396

Toure, Askia Mohammed, 157

Tours, Battle of, 90

towns

development in West Africa, 140

growth of medieval, 44

trade

bubonic plague’s impact on, 57

commerce and, 46

Florence’s economic development and, 331

gold-salt, 150–151

growth during the Renaissance, 318

growth in imperial China, 190–191

medieval town growth and, 44, 46

Mongols’s development of maritime, 208

between Native Americans and Europeans, 385

routes to India and exploration, 376

through the Arabian Peninsula, 76, 79

trans-Saharan, 148–149

West African, 139

West Africa’s town growth and, 140

See also guilds; markets

tragedy, 342

transepts, 36–37

trephination, 306

tribe, 84

tributary, of China, 210

tribute, 142, 276

truce, 58

Tyndale, William, 355
U

Umayyad dynasty, Mu’awiyah founds the, 90

unemployment, in late Roman Empire, 8

universities, 38

Urban II, Pope, 119

urbanization, in imperial China, 192–193

Usamah ibn-Munqidh, 125

Uthman, Caliph, 95
V

vaccines, development by the Chinese, 203

Vasari, Giorgio, 327

vassal, 22

See also noble

vault, 12

Vesalius, Andreas, 339

Vikings, threat to western Europe, 21

Voltaire, 405
W

Wangara

gold from, 150

trading of gold for other goods, 152

ward, 281

warlords, imperial China, 181

water transportation, in China and trade development, 190

weaponry

developed by the Chinese, 200

exploration and improvement of, 377
Page 459

West Africa

adoption of Arabic language, 161

early communities and villages, 139p

geography and trade, 138–139

impact of exploration on, 379, 381, 387

introduction, 134–135, 137

West Africa
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