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See also hajj; salat; shahadah; siyam; zakat

flamethrowers, 200

Florence, Italy, 319, 323, 324

politics in, 330

flying buttresses, 36

folktale, 167

Fontenelle, Bernard de, 399

food, in Aztec society, 284

Francis of Assisi, 41

Franciscan order, 41

Franks, war against the Roman army, 20

Frederick the Great of Prussia, King, 407

free speech, right of, 405

French Revolution, Enlightenment and, 407

frescoes, 10

friar, 41

Fujiwara family, 231
G

Gabriel, 86, 96

Galileo, Galilei, 329, 389, 392–393

application of the scientific method, 395

conflict with the church, 393

discoveries, 392

gargoyles, 36–37

garrison towns, 90

genealogy, 166

Genghis Khan, 127

geocentric theory, 391

Geoffrin, Madame, 408

geography, Muslim scholars and, 110

Ghana

decline of, 153

geographic situation, 145

government of, 146

Islam in, 156

military, 147

glyphs, 303

gold trade, through Ghana, 146, 148, 150–151

Gothic-style cathedrals, 36–37

government

according to Hobbes, 402

according to Locke, 403

according to Montesquieu, 404

Ghana, 146

impact of the Enlightenment on, 407

imperial China, 180–181

Japan’s imitation of China’s, 221

officials in Aztec society, 280

gravity, law of, 394

Great Schism, 349

Gregory VII, Pope, 33

Gregory XI, Pope, 349, 351

griot, Mande people, 166–167

Guide to Geography (Ptolemy), 377

guilds, 45

See also entertainment/leisure

gunpowder, 200, 209

Gutenberg, Johannes, 334
Page 451

H

habeas corpus, 55

hadith, 95

Hagar, 83, 100

Hagia Sophia (Constantinople), 63, 64

haiku, 246

hajj, 100

Han dynasty, 180, 181

Harris, Joel Chandler, Brer Rabbit stories, 167

harrow, 188

Hastings, Battle of, 23

He, Zheng, maritime expeditions by, 210–211

headdress, Ghana’s soldiers, 147

Heian-kyo, 230

Heian period

demise of the, 238

Japan, 229

legacy of the, 239

social rank during the, 232

heliocentric theory, 391

Henry II, 54

Henry IV, 33

Henry the Navigator, Prince, 378

Henry VIII, King of England, 355

heresy/heretics, 59, 350

Catholic Church’s fight against, 365

hierarchy, 24

hieroglyph, Mayan, 261

Hippodrome, 62

Hobbes, Thomas, 402

hoist, 325

holidays, medieval Europe, 39, 50

Holy Land, 119

homes and households, in medieval towns, 47

housing

medieval peasants’, 29

See also castle; manor

Hudson, Henry, 384

humanism, 315

development during the Renaissance, 320–321

humanities, 320

Hundred Years’ War, 53, 58–59

impact of, 59

Hus, Jan, 351

hygiene, 48

hypothesis, 395
I

Iberian Peninsula, 122

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), 108

The Canon of Medicine, 112

iconoclasm, 66

icons, 65

Ieyasu, Tokugawa, 242

Ignatius of Loyola, 365

illuminated manuscript, 40

imam, 97

immortality, of the soul in Islam, 108

immune system, 202

Inca Empire/Incas

achievements of the, 306–307

beginnings of the, 290–291

class structure, 292–293

communication in the, 289, 291

family life, 294–295

impact of Spanish Conquest on the, 383

relations with other people, 298–299

religion in the, 296–297

India, cultural influences on Japan, 220

indulgences, 348

Luther’s reaction to, 352

industry, imperial China, 198–199

inflation, 383

inoculation, 202

Inquisition, 122, 365

Galileo and the, 393

Irene, Empress, 67

ironworking, West African towns’ growth and, 140

irrigation, 79, 189

in Islamic civilization, 109

Isabella I, Queen of Spain, 122, 340, 380

Ishmael, 83, 100

Islam/Islamic civilization, 83, 94, 106

bookmaking and literature in, 113

city building and architecture, 107

geography and navigation in, 110–111

in Ghana, 156

in Mali, 156–157

medicine and, 112

rise of, 72–73

scholarship and learning, 108

science and technology in, 109

Songhai people and, 157

spread of, 88, 128–129

teachings of, 93

Italy, city-states, 319
Page 452

J

Japan

creation of, 216–217

cultural influences on, 220

Heian period in, 229

move of capital from Nara, 230

rise of the Fujiwara family in, 231

vs. western Europe during the Middle Ages, 250

warrior class in, 241

(See also samurai)

Jenne-jeno, 141

Jerusalem, 87, 119, 120, 121

Jesuits, 365

spread of Christianity by, 367

Jesus, 94, 96

Jews

impact of crusades on, 126

medieval towns’ prejudice against, 46, 48, 56

(See also anti-Semitism)

jihad, 93, 101

Joan of Arc, 58–59

Jocho, 235

Joseph II of Austria, King, 407

journeyman, 45

jousts and tournaments, 27

Justinian I, reign of, 63

Justinian’s Code, 63
K

Ka’ba, 83, 84

kente cloth, 171

Kepler, Johannes, 391

Khadijah, 85, 86, 87

Khan, Kublai, 184, 208

King James Bible, 355, 363

knights

during feudal times, 26–27

responsibilities and daily life, 27

training to become a, 26

kora, 168

Koran (Qur’an), 86, 93, 94, 95

Korea, cultural influences on Japan, 220

Kumbi (Ghana), 152

Muslim settlements in, 156
L

labor, value of, 386

language

Aztecs’ achievements in, 305

dialects and Mayan, 303

Incas, 291

legacy of Roman, 14–15

Quechua as Incas’, 307

Latin language

influence of, 14–15

Renaissance literature and, 328

latitude, 377

law and justice

legacy of Roman, 16

See also shari’ah

law and order, medieval towns, 49

Leeuwenhoek, Anotonie van, 396

Leo III, Pope, 20–21, 66–67

Leo X, Pope, 352

leprosy, 48

Li Yuan, 181

literature

under Elizabeth I of England, 341

(See also Shakespeare, William)

in Japan, 224

during Japan Heian period, 236–237

Muslim civilization and, 113

during the Renaissance, 328

samurai’s training in, 246

women’s place in Japan Heian period, 236–237

See also Cervantes, Miguel

litter, 292

Little Brothers of the Poor, 41

liturgy, 65

Locke, John, 403

longbow, 58

longitude, 377

lords and ladies

during feudal times, 24–25

responsibilities and daily life, 25

Luther, Martin, 347, 351, 352–353

Lutheranism, 353, 358–359

beliefs, 358

and the Bible, 359

community life, 359

rituals and worship, 359
Page 453

M

Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince, 330

Madinah, 88

Magellan, Ferdinand, 375, 380–381

Magna Carta, 53, 69, 403

King John and, 54–55

magnetic compass, 190, 195

travel by sea and, 196

Magyars, threat to western Europe, 21

Mahayana, 223

Makkah, 83, 84

pilgrimage to, 100

(See also hajj)

Mali

decline of Ghana and rise of, 153

Mande people acceptance of Islam, 156–157

Mamluks, 127

manor, 24

maps

Africa, Regions of, 135

Africa, Vegetation Zones of, 135

Americas, Climate Regions of, 257

Americas, Physical Features of, 257

Arabian Peninsula, 76, 84

Asia, 177

Aztec Empire, 276

Byzantine Empire, 62

Christian Religions in Europe, 366

Countries That Influenced Japanese Culture, 220

Crusades, Major, 121

Europe, 4, 313

Europe, Climate Zones of, 5

European Exploration and Land Claims, 372–373

European Trade Routes, 386

Expansion of Islam, 89

Inca Empire, 290

Islamic World, 900–1500, 129

Italian City-States During the Renaissance, 319

Japan, Physical Map, 216

Japan, Population of, 217

Kingdom of Ghana, 147

Kingdoms of West Africa at Their Heights, 134

Mayan, Aztec, and Inca Civilizations, 256

Mayan Civilization, 261

Medieval European Towns and Trade Routes, 44

maps (continued)

Naval Voyages of Zheng He, 211

North African Trade Routes, 149

Roman Empire at Its Height, 9

Route of Marco Polo, 1271–1295, 208–209

Routes of European Explorers, 385

Routes of Portugal’s Explorers, 379

Routes of Spain’s Early Explorers, 380–381

Routes of Spain’s Later Explorers, 383

Silk Road During the Tang Dynasty, 206

Spread of the Plague, 56

Valley of Mexico, 273

West African Kingdoms, 142

Marcus Aurelius, 16

market economy, 386

markets, 285

marriage customs

in Aztec society, 282

in Inca society, 295

in Mayan society, 265

Martel, Charles, 90

martial arts, 244

Mary, 94

masks, West African, 170

mass-production, Chinese porcelain, 199

massacre, 121, 366

mathematics

advances during the Renaissance, 329

Muslim scholars’ study of, 110–111

matrilineal inheritance, in Ghana, 147, 159

Mayan civilization

achievements of, 302–303

class structure, 262–263

family life in, 264–265

origins of, 260

periods of, 260–261

religious beliefs and practices, 266–267

Medici family, 324, 326, 330

medicine/medical treatment

and disease during the Middle Ages, 48

disease prevention in China and, 202–203

Islamic civilization and, 112

See also Vesalius, Andreas

medieval times

definition of, 4

periods of, 4–5

meditation, 223

mendicant, 41

mercantilism, 387

Mercator, Gerardus, 377
Page 454

mercenary, 272, 273

merchant guilds, 45, 46

merchants/merchant class

in China, 191

in Mayan society, 263

meritocracy, 183

Mesoamerica, 260

Michelangelo, 324, 335

ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 11

David, 327

microscope, 396

military leaders, in Aztec society, 280

Ming dynasty, 180, 184

foreign contacts under, 210–211

minstrel, 50

miracle play, 50

missionaries, 365

to China, 208

protection of natives against colonizers, 379

moat, 24

Model Parliament, 55

Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 344

monarchs/monarchy, 22

absolute, 367

constitutional, 403

enlightened, 407

during feudal times, 23

monasteries, 32

monasticism, 40

Mongols

foreign contacts under, 208–209

invasion of Muslim empires, 127

rule of China, 184

monks, 32, 40–41

monotheism, 86, 94, 96

Montesquieu, Baron de, 404

Montezuma, 382

mosaics, 10

Moses, 94, 96

mosque, 107

motte, 24

mountains, in the Arabian Peninsula, 80

movable type, 198–199

Mughal Empire, 129

Muhammad, 72, 75, 83

call to prophethood, 86

early life, 85

migration to Madinah and end of life, 88

rejection of teaching of, 87

murals, 10

Murasaki Shikibu,
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