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tragedy a serious play with a sad ending

trans-Saharan trade trade that requires crossing the Sahara Desert

travel to journey to other places

trephination a type of surgery that involves penetrating the skull

tribe a social group that shares a common ancestry, leadership, and traditions

tributary a ruler or country that pays tribute to a conqueror

tribute a payment made by one ruler or country to another for protection or as a sign of submission

truce an agreed-upon halt in fighting
U

university a school of advanced learning

urbanization the growth of cities
Page 445

V

vaccine a substance used to immunize people against a disease

vault an arched structure used to hold up a ceiling or a roof

village a small community

visual arts artforms that are viewed with the eyes, such as paintings and sculpture
W

ward a neighborhood that is a political unit within a city

warlord a military leader operating outside the control of the government

woodcut a print of an image that has been carved in wood

woodland forest an area of abundant trees and shrubs

writer someone who expresses ideas and stories with written words and language

writing letters, words, and symbols formed on a surface, such as paper, using an instrument

written traditions the particular forms of writing used to record a culture’s history
Z

zoology the scientific study of animals
Page 446

Index

A

Abbasid dynasty, 106

end of, 127

Abraham, 83, 94, 100

Abu Bakr, 89

Abu Talib, 87

Adam, 94, 96

Adams, Abigail, 408

Age of Explorations, 372–373

motives for the, 376

agriculture

in imperial China, 188–189

Mayan techniques of, 268

al-Din, Jamal, introduction of astronomical instruments, 208–209

al-Khwarizmi, 111

Al-Kindi, 108

al-Razi, 112

Al-Saheli, 162

alchemy, 200

algebra, 111

Ali, Sunni, 157

Alighieri, Dante, 324

Allah, 86

alliance, 273

almsgiving, 98

American Revolution, Enlightenment and, 407

amulet, 158

Anatolia, 120

Anglicanism, 362–363

anti-Semitism, 125

Antioch, 121

appliqué, 171

apprentice, 45

aqueducts, 13

Aquinas, Thomas, 38

arabesque, 114

Arabian Peninsula

geography of, 77–81

importance of, 76

Arabic language and civilization, 90

Archbishop of Canterbury, 362

archdiocese, 33
architecture

advances during the Renaissance, 325

Aztecs’ achievements in, 305

in Byzantine Empire, 65

Incas’ achievements in, 306–307

Islamic civilization’s city building and, 107

legacy of Roman, 12

Mayan achievements in, 302–303

Mayan civilization’s building techniques and, 261

during the Middle Ages, 36–37

new styles in West Africa, 162

origins of Japanese, 226

See also Tenochtitlan

aristocracy

development in Japan, 221

imperial China, 182

Aristotle, 38, 389, 390, 391

armor, 26

army

Aztecs’, 276–277

in Ghana, 147

military technology developed by the Chinese, 200–201

taxes and, 8

See also samurai

art

Aztecs’ achievements in, 305

in Byzantine Empire, 65

characteristics of Greece and Rome classical, 316

characteristics of medieval, 317

characteristics of Renaissance, 317

(See also da Vinci, Leonardo; Dürer, Albrecht; Titian)

Incas’ achievements in, 306–307

during Japan Heian period, 235

legacy of Roman, 10–11

Mayan achievements in, 302–303

during the Middle Ages, 36–37

Muslim, 114–115

West Africa decorative, 163

See also painting

artisans, in the Mayan society, 263

astrolabe, 109, 377

astronomy, 109

Mayan studies of, 261

See also Copernicus, Nicolaus

aviary, Aztecs’, 275

ayllu, 294
Page 447

Aztecs

achievements of the, 304–305

building of empire, 276–277

class structure, 276–277

family life, 283

food, 284

impact of Spanish Conquest on the, 383

markets, 285

marriage customs, 282

origins of the, 271

settlement in the Valley of Mexico, 272–273

Spanish exploration and collapse of the, 382–383
B

Babur, 129

Bacon, Francis, 395

Baghdad, 106, 107

bailey, 24

balafon, 168

banking

development during the Renaissance, 318

money landing in medieval towns and, 46

barbarians, 20

barge, 190

barometer, 396

bartering, 78

Basho, Matsuo, 246

Basil, Saint, 65

basket making, West African, 171

Battuta, Ibn, 149, 158

beauty, as a value in Japan Heian period, 233

Beccaria, Cesare, 406

Becket, Thomas, 54

Bedouins, 77

Benedict, Saint, 40

Benedictine order, 40

Bible, 390, 391

bill of rights, 403

Black Death

See bubonic plague

blacksmith, 140

blasphemy, 361

Botticelli, Sandro, Adoration of the Magi, 326

boycott, 87

Brunelleschi, Filippo, 325

bubonic plague, 48, 53, 56–57

Buddha, variations in sculptures of, 225

Buddhism, 183, 205

Amida, 247

introduction in Japan, 222–223

Zen, 247

bureaucracy, imperial China, 181, 182

Bushido, samurai code, 248

Byzantine Empire, Rome and, 9

Byzantium, 61
C

Cabot, John, 384

Cabral, Pedro, 378

Caesar Augustus, 8

Cairo, 106, 108

calendar, Mayan, 267

Caligula, 8

caliph, 89

call and response, West African song, 168

calligraphy, 114–115

Japanese, 236–237

samurai’s training in, 246

Calvin, John, 354–355

See also Calvinism

Calvinism, 360–361

rituals and worship, 361

source of authority for, 360–361

camels, 77, 148

cameo, 11

Canada, claimed for England, 384

canal lock, 197

Candide (Voltaire), 405

capital punishment, 406

capitalism, 386

caravans, 76

caravel, 377

Cardano, Girolamo, 329

cardinals, 33

cartography, explorations and, 377

castle, 24

catapult, 200

cathedrals, 12, 36–37

Catherine of Siena, 351

Catherine the Great of Russia, Queen, 407

causeway, 275

Cerularius, excommunication by Pope Leo IX, 67

Cervantes, Miguel, 343

chain pump, 189
Page 448

Charlemagne

education and, 38, 68

empire of, 20–21

charter, 44

Chartres Cathedral, construction of, 36, 68

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Canterbury Tales, 35

chess, 116

childhood, in Inca Empire, 294–295

China

breakup and reunification, 181

cultural influences on Japan, 219, 220

imperial dynasties, 180

introduction to imperial, 176, 179

chivalry, 27

chocolate, 383

Christianity, 20

Christians

impact of crusades on, 124

persecutions by Romans of, 32

circumference, Earth’s, 110

citizenship, legacy of Roman, 17

city building

Islamic civilization’s architecture and, 107

in Japan, 222, 230

city-states, 319

civil service examination

imperial China, 182, 183, 184

limits of imperial China, 185

clans

in Aztec society

(See ayllu)

in Japan, 220, 221

in the Muslim world, 83

See also extended family

Clement V, Pope, 349

clergy, 32

clock, mechanical, 201

cloister, 40

Clotilda, 20

Clovis, 20

coastal plain, Arabian Peninsula, 79

colonies, establishment in Brazil of Portuguese, 379

Colosseum, the, 12, 13

Columbus, Christopher, 340, 375, 376, 380

comedy, 342

coming-of-age ceremony, Mayan, 265
commerce, 46

Florence’s economic development and, 331

growth during the Renaissance, 318

growth in imperial China, 190–191

impact of explorations on European economies and, 386–387

common law, 49

commoners, 55

in Aztec society, 281

in Inca society, 293

communal land, 294

Comnena, Anna, 124

concrete, 12

Confucius, 182, 183

conquistadors, 382, 383

conservatory, 115

Constantine, Emperor, 9, 61

Constantinople, 61, 62

Constitutions of Clarendon, 54

convent, 35

convert, 86

Copernicus, Nicolaus, 338, 391

Cordoba, 106, 108

corn, 284

corruption, 230

Cortes, Herman, 382–383

cottage industry, 387

Council of Trent, 364

Counter-Reformation, 357, 364–365

court system

Henry II’s reform of, 54

trial by ordeal or combat vs., 49

courtier, 233

craft guilds, 45

Crecy, Battle of, 58, 69

criminology, 406

crossbow, 58

crusades, 35, 119

antecedents to the, 120

Christians and the, 124

First Crusade (1096–1099), 121

Jews and the, 126

later, 122–123

Muslims and the, 125

Second Crusade (1146–1148), 122

Third Crusade (1189–1192), 122

currency, increase and Chinese development of commerce, 190

Cuzco, 290

Cyril, Saint, 65
Page 449

D

da Gama, Vasco, 378

da Verrazano, Giovanni, 384

da Vinci, Leonardo, 324, 329, 333, 344

daily life

medieval knights, 27

medieval lords and ladies, 25

medieval peasants, 28–29

daimyo, 242

dance, in West Africa, 169

Daoism, 183

de Gouges, Olympe, 408

deposits, salt, 150

Descartes, Rene, 395

desert

Arabian Peninsula, 77

See also oases

despotism, 404

Dhar Tichitt, 139

dialects, 303

Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo), 393

Dias, Bartolomeu, 378

diet, medieval peasants’, 29

dike, 275

diocese, 33

disinfectant, use by the Chinese, 202

dissection, 339

divination, Inca priests, 297

Divine Comedy (Alighieri), 328

divine right of kings, 23

Djingareyber, 154, 162

doctrine of the church, 350

domain, feudal lord, 44

dome, 12

Don Quixote (Cervantes), 343

Donatello, 327

dowry, 282

Drake, Francis, 385

drums/drumming, West Africa, 169

duke, 23

Dürer, Albrecht, 337, 344

dynasty, 90

in China, 180
E

Eastern Orthodox Church, 61, 64–65

conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, 66

hierarchy in, 64

liturgy and prayer in the, 65

role in the empire, 64

See also Roman Catholic Church

economic and social problems, late Roman Empire, 8

Edo (Tokyo), Japan capital, 242

education

in Aztec society, 283

of girls in medieval towns, 47

Islamic civilization and, 108

in the Middle Ages, 38

studies of humanities during the Renaissance, 320

in West Africa, 160

Edward I, King, Model Parliament and, 55

Eleazar ben Judah, 126

Elizabeth I, Queen of England, 341

Anglicanism and, 363

emperor

Inca Empire, 292

powers of Chinese vs. Japanese, 221

engineering

advances during the Renaissance, 325

legacy of Roman, 13

England, political development in, 54–55

English Peasants’ War, 57

engraving, 337

Enlightenment, 373

inspiration for the, 399

questioning of old beliefs, 401

roots of the, 400–401

entertainment/leisure

Aztecs, 287

Islamic culture, 116

at Japan Heian court, 234

in medieval Europe, 50–51

environment, Arabian Peninsula, 77

epidemics, 383

Erasmus, Desiderius, 351

Europe

climate zones, 5

waterways and mountain ranges in, 4

everyday objects

in imperial China, 201

West African decorating of, 171
Page 450

evolution, 109

excavation, 141

excommunication, 33

expulsion, 122

extended family, 139
F

Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel, 396

family life

in Aztec society, 283

in Mayan society, 264–265

farming, in the Arabian Peninsula, 80

fashion, in Japan Heian period, 233

Fatimid dynasty, 106

Ferdinand of Aragon, King, 122, 340, 380

feudalism, 19

decline of, 53, 55, 57, 59

definition of, 5

establishment of order under, 22

introduction in England, 23, 69

lords and ladies under, 24–25

monarchs under, 23

fief, 22

Five Pillars of Faith, 93, 95

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