Title / Content Area: Spanish American War



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Title / Content Area:

Spanish American War



Developed by:

LaTonya Amboree, Secondary Social Studies Helping Teacher, Fort Bend Independent School District (TX)

Grade Level:

10th grade World History

Essential Question:

What were the underlying causes of the Spanish-American War?

Contextual Paragraph:


On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands. But, was the sinking of the USS Maine the only cause, or was that event just the straw that broke the camel’s back?

Key Events Surrounding the Spanish-American War

  • 1500—Spanish Colonize Cuba

  • July, 1845—Journalist John O'Sullivan coins the term “Manifest Destiny”

  • 1846–1848—Mexican-American War

  • 1861–1865—U.S. Civil War

  • 1868–1878—Cuban War for Independence

  • 1884–1885—Berlin Conference: Africa divided into colonies by Europe

  • 1890- Mahan book advocates U.S. taking Caribbean as colonies

  • 1893—Frederick Jackson Turner’s “Frontier Thesis”

  • April 1898—U.S. declares war on Spain

  • 1898—Spanish-American War ended with the Treaty of Paris

Annotated Resource Set (ARS)





Resource Set

Former Slaves in Puerto Rico,

Teller Amendment

Imperialism Political Cartoon

Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders

The Mambises

The USS Maine

Leaders of the Puerto Rican abolitionist movement, including José Julián Acosta, Francisco Mariano Quiñones, Julio L. de Vizcarrondo, Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis, waged a long struggle to end slavery on the island.

In April 1898, Senator Henry M. Teller proposed an amendment to the U.S. declaration of war against Spain that proclaimed that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba.

Puck magazine published the following cartoon depicting Cuba's difficult situation in the 1890s.

The "Rough Riders" were the most famous unit to fight in the Spanish-American War and was the name given to the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt.

The Mambises were Cuban guerilla war fighters who urged the slaves to revolt and whose tactics led the Spanish to adopt inhumane reconcentration policies in Cuba.

The blowing up of the battleship USS Maine in Havana was a critical event on the road to the Spanish-American War.














http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/slaves.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/teller.html

http://theomahaproject.org/module_display.php?mod_id=93&review=yes

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/roughriders.html

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mambises.htm

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html



Political Cartoon: Spanish Politeness

Political Cartoon: Hooray for the Fourth of July

Song: Awake United States

Newspaper: The San Francisco Call

Monroe Doctrine (1823)

Spanish Cruelty

The Spanish-American War is considered the world’s first media war. Before the Spanish-American War began, drawings depicting Spain as evil, Cuba as innocent, and President McKinley as a coward, helped rally sympathy for the Cuban people and fuel a pro-war feeling in America.

The Spanish-American War is considered the world’s first media war. Before the Spanish-American War began, drawings depicting Spain as evil, Cuba as innocent, and President McKinley as a coward, helped rally sympathy for the Cuban people and fuel a pro-war feeling in America.

This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 16, 1898 and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898.

Newspaper from 1898 after the sinking of the USS Maine.

The Monroe Doctrine signified a departure from the U.S. policy of isolationism. The principles he laid out in the speech would influence policy decisions thereafter.

Picture of Spanish colonial cruelty in Cuba from a book by Gonzalo de Quesada in 1896 called The War in Cuba. Such books aroused American opinion against Spain.















http://www.pbs.org/crucible/cartoons.html

http://www.pbs.org/crucible/cartoons.html

http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/hasm_a8934/

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1898-04-05/ed-1/seq-1/

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=041/llac041.db&recNum=4

http://spanishamericanwar.info/causes.htm

Foundations Annotations

Curriculum Connections

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for World History

1E: Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment’s impact on political revolutions.



Curriculum Standards

ELA writing standards

Content & Thinking Objectives

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for World History

29B: explain how historians, when examining sources, analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events;

29C: Explain the difference between primary and secondary sources and examine those sources to analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

29F: Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.



29G: construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence

Inquiry Activities & Strategies

Have a set of documents on each table, and have students examine the documents in small groups. Then, have the small groups use the documents to brainstorm a list of causes of the Spanish-American War. Give students the opportunity to conduct further research on classroom computers, mobile library, or smart phones, and then have them rank the causes in order of significance. Based on their rankings, have students perform a RAFT of their choice showing how their cause was instrumental in starting the Spanish-American War.

Assessment Strategies

RAFT Rubric




4

3

2

1

Accuracy

Information, details in RAFT always accurate. Properly reflects information, ideas, and themes related to the subject.

Provides accurate information in RAFT but could use more support.

Provides information in RAFT that has some inaccuracies or omissions.

Provides information in RAFT that is incomplete and/or inaccurate.

Perspective

RAFT maintains clear, consistent point of view, tone, and ideas relevant to role played; ideas and information always tied to role and audience.

Explains how character would feel about the event(s).

Shows little insight into how character would feel or act during the event(s).

Does not accurately develop characters, thoughts or reactions to the event(s).

Focus

RAFT stays on topic, never drifts from required form or type; details and information are included that are pertinent only to developed purpose.

Spends most of the RAFT discussing issues on topic, but occasionally strays from the focus.

Spends some time discussing issues off topic.

Spends most of RAFT on issues that do not directly deal with the RAFT chosen.

Class Time

Uses class time appropriately to research the era and create well-written stories.

Seldom needs to be reminded to get back on task.

Uses library and computer time to do work for other classes and/or chat with friends or lounge on couches.

Treats research time as an open period to be seen chatting with friends and hanging out on the couches.

Mechanics

Essay contains few to no fragments, run-on sentences; rare errors or mechanical mistakes; writing is fluent.

Essay contains some fragments, run-ons or other errors; occasional mistakes; writing is generally clear.

Essay contains several sentence errors and mechanical mistakes that may interfere with ideas and clarity of ideas in writing.

Essay contains mechanical mistakes; is marred by numerous errors.

A+ (20) A (19) A- (18) B+ (17) B (16) B- (15) C+ (14) C (13) D (12) F (11 and below)



Other Resources

Web Resources


Library of Congress: Spanish American War in Motion Pictures http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sawhtml/sawhome.html

Spanish American War History Resources http://www.historesearch.com/spainamwarmil.html



Secondary Sources

Boorstin, Daniel J. and Brooks Mather Kelley. A History of the United States. Needham, Massachusetts: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005. Chapter 19: The United States and the World. Section 3: War with Spain Pages: 510–517 (up to “A new status for Puerto Rico”)

Appleby, Joyce, Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, James M. McPherson, and Donald A. Ritchie. The American Vision. New York, NY: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 2003. Chapter 17: Becoming a World Power; Section 2: The Spanish-American War; Pages: 527–531.

Danzer, Gerald, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, and Nancy Woloch. The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition).

McDougal Littell, 2006.Chapter 10: America Claims an Empire; Section 2: The Spanish-American War; Pages: 346–351

Ayers, Edward L. and Robert D. Schulzinger, Jesus F. de la Teja, and Deborah Gray White. American Anthem: Modern American History (California Ediion). Orlando: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2007.Chapter 7: Entering the World Stage; Sections 1 & 2; Pages 200–201 and 206–212.


Print and Other Media Resources

The Crucible Empire (PBS Film) http://www.pbs.org/crucible/



Teaching with Primary Sources - Annotated Resource Set




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