Tindall/Shi Chapter 22 Seizing an American Empire



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America: A Narrative History (Ninth Edition)

Tindall/Shi


Chapter 22 - Seizing an American Empire


  • I. Toward the new imperialism

    • A. Reasons for American expansion

      • 1. Quest for new markets, raw materials, and investment opportunities

        • a. Connection to missionary activities

      • 2. American advocates for expansion

      • 3. Naval power

        • a. Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History

        • b. Expansion of navy

      • 4. Racial thought

        • a. Social Darwinism

        • b. John Fiske’s American Political Ideas

        • c. Josiah Strong’s Our Country

    • B. William Seward and the purchase of Alaska

    • C. Expansion in the Pacific

      • 1. Samoa

        • a. Treaty of 1878

        • b. After 1889, tripartite protectorate over Samoa

      • 2. Hawaii

        • a. Boom in sugar production

        • b. American influence in economy and government

          • (1) McKinley tariff hurts Hawaiian sugar trade

        • c. Queen Liliuokalani opposed Americans

        • d. Americans rebel, proclaim Republic of Hawaii

  • II. Wars against Spain and the Philippines

    • A. “Cuba libre“

      • 1. Rebellion broke out in Cuba in 1895

        • a. “Butcher“ Weyler and the reconcentrado policy

      • 2. Newspaper coverage in the United States

        • a. Yellow journalism

    • B. Pressure for war

      • 1. Cleveland refused to intervene

      • 2. McKinley’s desire to assist insurgents increases after taking office

      • 3. Spain offered Cuba autonomy in return for peace

      • 4. de L™me letter

      • 5. Explosion of the Maine

      • 6. U.S. actions

        • a. Congress declared Cuba independent

        • b. Teller Amendment: United States disavows interest in Cuban territory

        • c. McKinley signs war resolution

      • 7. Summary of reasons for war

    • C. Campaigns

      • 1. Philippines

        • a. Commodore George Dewey

        • b. Captured Manila Bay

        • c. Filipino nationalist movement led by Emilio Aguinaldo helps Americans take the city of Manila

      • 2. Cuba

        • a. U.S. navy blockades Spanish navy in Santiago harbor

        • b. 17,000 American troops assembled

          • (1) Included Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders

        • c. Spain quickly defeated

    • D. End of the Spanish-American War

      • 1. Spain loses its remaining colonies

        • a. Including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines

      • 2. Minimal U.S. casualties

      • 3. Impact of the war on the United States

        • a. U.S. emerges as an imperial power



      • 4. Annexation of the Philippines

        • a. Little desire for Philippines before war

        • b. McKinley’s reasons for annexation

        • c. Other areas in Pacific annexed at this time

          • (1) Hawaii, Guam, Wake Island, and Samoa Islands

        • d. Opposition to Treaty of Paris in Senate

          • (1) Leading Democrat William Jennings Bryan voices support for treaty

            • (a) Believed ending the war paved the way for Philippine independence in the near future

          • (2) Bryan’s support convinces enough Democrats to vote in favor of and secure passage of the treaty.

    • E. The Philippine-American War

      • 1. The cost for suppression of Filipino nationalism

        • a. Deaths

      • 2. Atrocities committed

        • a. Water torture

      • 3. Anti-imperialist thought

    • F. Religion and American empire

      • 1. American Protestant Christianity’s support for war against Spain and acquisition of colonies

        • a. Racial “superiority“ and religion

        • b. American anti-Catholicism

  • III. Organizing the new territorial acquisitions

    • A. Philippines

      • 1. Intense debate over its future

      • 2. Philippine Government Act: made Philippines an unorganized territory

      • 3. Jones Act set up elected legislature, affirmed U.S. intentions to grant independence

      • 4. Tydings-McDuffie Act offered independence in ten years

    • B. Puerto Rico

      • 1. Foraker Act set up civil government

      • 2. Jones Act granted U.S. citizenship

    • C. Cuba

      • 1. Trouble with Cuban rebels

      • 2. Platt Amendment restricted Cuban independence

      • 3. Continued American intervention in Cuba

  • IV. Imperial rivalries in East Asia

    • A. Imperial rivalries in China

      • 1. Russia, Germany, France, and Great Britain

    • B. Open Door policy (1899)

      • 1. Proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis

    • C. The Boxer Rebellion (1900)

      • 1. Rebellion against foreign encroachments in China

      • 2. International expedition including U.S. intervened and quelled rebellion

  • V. Roosevelt’s “big-stick“ diplomacy

    • A. Theodore Roosevelt before the presidency

      • 1. Early years

      • 2. Election of 1900

        • a. W. J. Bryan against McKinley (and Roosevelt)

        • b. Election issues, especially imperialism

        • c. Mark Hanna’s concerns over Roosevelt as vice president

      • 3. McKinley assassinated

      • 4. Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to the presidency

    • B. Panama Canal

      • 1. Early treaties with Colombia and stalled canal efforts

        • a. Panama was initially part of Colombia

      • 2. Hay Herrán Treaty (1903) negotiated to give U.S. rights to build a canal

        • a. U.S. Senate ratifies but Colombian Senate rejects

        • b. U.S. lends support to a rebellion against Colombia in Panama

        • c. Independent Panama gives U.S. rights to build a canal

          • (1) Panama Canal opened in 1914

    • C. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

      • 1. Economic crisis in Dominican Republic threatened foreign intervention to force collection of debts owed to foreign interests

      • 2. Claims U.S. had the right to intervene in Latin American countries to forestall involvement by others



    • D. Russo-Japanese War

      • 1. Sparked by Russo-Japanese rivalry over ambitions in China and Korea

      • 2. Theodore Roosevelt helped negotiate the peace settlement, Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)

      • 3. Russia forced to make many concessions to Japan

        • a. Russians ceded dominance in Korea to Japan

    • E. U.S. relations with Japan under Roosevelt

      • 1. Concern over Japanese strength near the Philippines

        • a. Taft-Katsura agreement (1905): U.S. accepts Japanese control of Korea, Japan disavows designs on Philippines

        • b. Root-Takahira Agreement (1908): endorses status quo in Asia and affirms support of Open Door in China

      • 2. American fears of “yellow peril“ at home

        • a. Discrimination against Japanese in California

        • b. “Gentlemen’s Agreement“ restricted Japanese immigration

    • F. Crisis in North Africa

      • 1. German animosity toward French and British interests in North Africa sparks crisis, threatens war

        • a. Roosevelt mediated a settlement in Morocco

        • b. Resulted in compromise, the Act of Algeciras (1906)

          • (1) Independence of Morocco affirmed

          • (2) Open door for trade guaranteed

          • (3) France and Spain responsible for training and controlling Moroccan police

    • G. Roosevelt sends “Great White Fleet“ on global tour from 1907–1909

      • 1. Showed off America’s naval strength

    • H. Roosevelt’s foreign policy assessed

      • 1. Ideas reflected prominence of the era’s racial thought

      • 2. Embraced warfare

      • 3. Roosevelt’s self-righteous bigotry defied America’s egalitarian ideals


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