Tindall/Shi Chapter 19 The South and West Transformed



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America: A Narrative History (Ninth Edition)

Tindall/Shi


Chapter 19 - The South and West Transformed

  • I. Prophets and goals of the New South

    • A. Henry Grady of the Atlanta Constitution

      • 1. Advocated popular ideas to create a “New South“

  • II. Economic growth in the New South

    • A. Textile mills

    • B. Tobacco

      • 1. The Dukes and the American Tobacco Company

    • C. Coal and iron ore

    • D. Lumber

  • III. Agriculture in the New South

    • A. Problems in southern agriculture

      • 1. Land ownership rare

        • a. Sharecropping

        • b. Tenant farming

      • 2. Small landholders use the crop-lien system

        • a. Fosters perennial debt among small landowners

        • b. Pushes farmers to grow cash crops, primarily cotton or tobacco

      • 3. Efforts to increase yield of cash crops cause immense environmental damage

        • a. Tenants lack incentive to protect the soil

        • b. Fertilizers and over-cultivation exhaust fertility of land

        • c. Abandoned lands lead to further problems with erosion

    • B. Impact of rural stagnation

      • 1. High poverty and low education levels throughout South

        • a. Both whites and blacks affected

        • b. Former slaves affected most

  • IV. The political leaders of the New South

    • A. The “Redeemers“

      • 1. Wealthy southern leaders who supposedly saved South from “Yankee dominations“

        • a. Rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs

        • b. Eager to promote more diversified industrial economy

      • 2. Called “Bourbons“ by opponents who sought to paint them as reactionaries

        • a. Name refers to French royal family that supposedly learned nothing from the French Revolution

        • b. “Redeemers“ supposedly learned nothing from theCivil War

    • B. Bourbon policies

      • 1. Greatly reduced spending on education

      • 2. Convict leasing

        • a. Primarily black convicts leased to work for white farmers

        • b. Saved prison expenses and generated revenue

        • c. Justified on basis of black inferiority and benefits to blacks who would experience the discipline of working for others

      • 3. Flexibility in Bourbon race relations

        • a. Believed in white supremacy

        • b. Allowed enough black voting and political involvement to disarm contemporary critics

      • 4. Led South into new economic era without sacrificing mythic reverence for the “Old South“

  • V. Development of the New West

    • A. Emigrants to the West

      • 1. Mexicans, Canadians, Germans, Scandinavians, Irish, and others

      • 2. Exodusters, or African Americans from the South

        • a. Benjamin Singleton

        • b. The Exoduster experience

      • 3. Buffalo soldiers

    • B. Mining the West

      • 1. Valuable mineral deposits foster development of mining communities

      • 2. Great gold and silver strikes of latter half of nineteenth century

        • a. Concentrated in California, Colorado, and Nevada

      • 3. Western states admitted to the Union




      • 4. Mining and the environment

        • a. Individual “placer“ mining gives way to industrial corporate mining

        • b. Hydraulic, draft, and shaft mining transform landscapes and pollute streams

        • c. First major environmental lawsuit, Woodruff v. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company

  • VI. Native Americans in the West

    • A. Emigrant and Indian conflict

      • 1. Fort Laramie meeting, 1851

      • 2. The Sand Creek Massacre, 1864

      • 3. “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,“ 1867

        • a. Decision to place Indians on reservations

      • 4. George Custer and the Battle of Little Bighorn, 1876

      • 5. Continued Native American resistance

        • a. Modocs, 1871–1872

        • b. Nez Pearce and Chief Joseph, 1877

        • c. Geronimo and the Apache, 1886

        • d. The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee, 1890

    • B. Demise of the buffalo

    • C. Reform of Indian policy

      • 1. Impact of Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor

      • 2. The Dawes Severalty Act

        • a. Goal of Dawes Act: well intentioned effort to “Americanize“ Indians

        • b. Effect of Dawes Act: more opportunities for white plundering of Indian lands, further undermining of traditional Indian cultures

  • VII. Cowboys and cattle in the West

    • A. Joseph McCoy and Abilene

    • B. Impact of railroads on expansion of the cattle industry

    • C. Growing cattle industry spurs rapid growth of the region

    • D. The role of railroad refrigeration

    • E. Decline of long drives and end of the open range

      • 1. Joseph Glidden and barbed wire

      • 2. Expanding number of homesteads

      • 3. Rise of sheepherding

      • 4. Impacts of severe winters and long droughts

      • 5. Range wars over conflicting land and water rights

  • VIII. Farmers in the West

    • A. Homestead Act of 1862 encourages settlement

    • B. The problem of aridity

      • 1. Homestead Act of 1862 designed for smaller, wetter farms

      • 2. Rangers controlled water resources

      • 3. The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902

    • C. Technological advances affected farmers

      • 1. Railroads

      • 2. Iron “sodbuster“ plow

    • D. Pioneer women

      • 1. Numerical minority in the West

      • 2. Faced legal obstacles and social prejudice

      • 3. Fight for survival made them more independent than eastern counterparts

  • XIII. The end of the frontier

    • A. Census of 1890 claimed frontier no longer existed

    • B. Frederick Jackson Turner and “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,“ 1893




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