1888 – Current Capitol building in Austin is completed Main Idea:
The Texas cattle industry enjoyed huge growth after the Civil War. This led to large cattle drives and the establishment of vast cattle ranches.
The 1st Cattle drive from Texas; Spain entered the American Revolution to fight with the colonies against England in 1779. Bernardo de Gálvez seized the British forts along the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. To feed his soldiers, he had 10,000 longhorns rounded up in Texas and drove to his troops. Galveston, Texas was named after him. Vocabulary: vaqueros – skilled Spanish cowboys
remuda - ‘fresh’ spare horses taken on cattle drives
Bejar – Spanish spelling of the Mexican word, Bexar,
Quarantine - to isolate or separate to prevent the spread of disease
ranch - a large farm for raising horses, beef cattle, or sheep Setting the Scene of a Cattle Drive:
The life of a cowboy on the cattle trail was hardly glamorous. It was hot, dusty, and often tiring work. According to rancher Frank Hastings, “The foreman and wagon boss had been through the aggravating experience of getting an outfit together. It had been no trouble to find riders, but to secure a cook, a ‘hoss wrangler’, and a hoodlum wagon, with the duties of supplying wood and water for camp and branding, helping the cook with his dishes, or other odd jobs. The ‘hoss wrangler’ was not hard to find, but whoever takes the job aches all the time to be promoted to a riding job, and is therefore dissatisfied (employee).” Spanish Origins / Cattle Boom
Creation of Texas Longhorn Cattle
Spanish bulls mixed with heavier cows brought to Texas by Anglos
Spanish priests and soldiers were the first cattle ranchers in Texas.
by the late 1880s the ranch had grown to 1 million acres - about as large as the state of Rhode Island
Charles Goodnight and John Adair’s - JA Ranch - also covered 1 million acres in west Texas with 100,000 cattle
Windmills were used by JA Ranch to pump under ground water for their cattle. They discovered that having ‘fresh’ water on a consistent basis, improved the breeding process of their cattle. They averaged 35,000 calves per year
D. to prevent the spread of disease 2. Spanish cowboys used lariats to…
A. brand their animals B. round up cattle from horseback
C. secure their supplies to the saddle D. make coffee over an open fire 3. Who first established the cattle industry in Texas ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What hardships did cowboys face on the trail ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did the big cattle drives end in the 1880s ?