Time Line: 1865 – John Wilkes Booth assassinates President Abraham Lincoln

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Texas History

Fort Burrows, B&B Ranch

13.2 - Cattle Kingdoms

READ pgs 312 - 317

Time Line:

1865 – John Wilkes Booth assassinates President Abraham Lincoln

1866 – Texas Trail drives begin

1870 – Texas is readmitted into the Union, United States

15th Amendment – Rights to African American Men

1874 – Red River Wars

1881 – the Open Range of Texas Closes

1883 – University of Texas at Austin 1st Student

1888 – Current Capitol building in Austin is completed
Main Idea:

The Texas cattle industry enjoyed huge growth after the Civil War. This led to large cattle drives and the establishment of vast cattle ranches.

The 1st Cattle drive from Texas; Spain entered the American Revolution to fight with the colonies against England in 1779. Bernardo de Gálvez seized the British forts along the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. To feed his soldiers, he had 10,000 longhorns rounded up in Texas and drove to his troops. Galveston, Texas was named after him.
vaquerosskilled Spanish cowboys

remuda - ‘fresh’ spare horses taken on cattle drives

Bejar – Spanish spelling of the Mexican word, Bexar,

pronounced bear - a presidio (fort) for the Alamo

mustang - wild horses from the Spanish 1500’s

Alamo – Spanish for cottonwood, as in the tree

lariat - is a long rope with a noose on one end

Drover - a person who moves livestock to market

Quarantine - to isolate or separate to prevent the spread of disease

ranch - a large farm for raising horses, beef cattle, or sheep
Setting the Scene of a Cattle Drive:

The life of a cowboy on the cattle trail was hardly glamorous. It was hot, dusty, and often tiring work. According to rancher Frank Hastings, “The foreman and wagon boss had been through the aggravating experience of getting an outfit together. It had been no trouble to find riders, but to secure a cook, a ‘hoss wrangler’, and a hoodlum wagon, with the duties of supplying wood and water for camp and branding, helping the cook with his dishes, or other odd jobs. The ‘hoss wrangler’ was not hard to find, but whoever takes the job aches all the time to be promoted to a riding job, and is therefore dissatisfied (employee).”
Spanish Origins / Cattle Boom

  • Creation of Texas Longhorn Cattle

    • Spanish bulls mixed with heavier cows brought to Texas by Anglos

  • Spanish priests and soldiers were the first cattle ranchers in Texas.

  • they had difficulty transporting cattle to market

  • Spanish vaqueros used lariats to round up cattle from horseback

  • early ranchers in Texas faced drought, disease, and theft.

  • the end of the Civil War marked the beginning of the cattle boom in Texas

  • Beef had become an American staple

    • both Armies had learned to eat Beef; And Liked it !!!!

      • as the country’s population grew, the demand for beef soared

      • this helped Texas quickly recover from the war

      • Longhorns in Texas sold between $3 and $4 each

      • in the East, longhorns sold between $30 and $40 each; Ten times more!!!

Cattle Trails

  • Cowboys would take cattle along the trails northward to towns with rail stations

  • Problems along the trails

    • Bandits stole cattle

    • Farmers complained that longhorns would trample their crops and spread disease called Texas Fever to their cows (longhorns were immune)

    • Barbed ( bobdawhyr) Wired Fences

Famous trails

      • Chisholm Trail: from Texas to Abilene, Kansas

      • Jesse Chisholm’s favorite trail.

      • in 1871, 600,000 cattle followed the trail

      • by 1884, five million Texas cattle had traveled the trail

      • the Great Western Trail: from Texas thru Indian Territory to Dodge City, Kansas on to Nebraska

      • began in 1874, west of Chisholm, went through Indian Territory

      • the Goodnight-Loving Trail: from West Texas through New Mexico to Colorado onto Wyoming

      • farthest west, developed to avoid contact with Plains Indians

Life on the Trails

  • the daily life of cowboys was less glamorous than what is shown in the movies

  • Cowboys would round up about 3,000 head of cattle

  • a manager or trail boss would organize the trip

  • there would be between 11-18 men on the drive including a cook and scout

  • Anglos, Mexicans, Indians, Women, African Americans all tried being Cowboys

  • to ensure fresh horses, Cowboys kept a remuda, 50 horses or so, would be taken for the cowboys to ride, so they always had fresh horses

Trail boss($100 a month), cooks($75 a month), wranglers($50 a month), Waddies, or trail hands, made $25-$40

  • teenage to mid-20s in age, small builds, ( large, heavy men caused problems for the horses ), 2 out of 3 were Anglos

  • the herd moved about 10 to 15 miles per day

  • hazards on the drive included rainstorms, stampedes, extreme heat, rattlesnakes, river crossings, and attacks by Indians and bandits

Problems on the Trails

  • Bandits stole cattle

  • Farmers complained that longhorns trampled their crops and spread disease to their cattle

  • some states passed quarantine laws to keep Texas cattle away from settled areas

Spread Across Texas

  • Sheep and goat ranching also expanded in Texas in the late 1800s

  • some Texans owned mustang ranches

Cowboy Legend and Reality

  • Cowboys generally did not fight with Native Americans

  • Drovers tried to avoid Indians

  • not all cowboys carried guns

Big Ranches - King Ranch – JA Ranch – XIT Ranch

  • King Ranch

    • Richard King started with 15,000 acres in 1852

    • by the late 1880s the ranch had grown to 1 million acres - about as large as the state of Rhode Island

  • JA ranch

    • Charles Goodnight and John Adair’s - JA Ranch - also covered 1 million acres in west Texas with 100,000 cattle

    • Windmills were used by JA Ranch to pump under ground water for their cattle. They discovered that having ‘fresh’ water on a consistent basis, improved the breeding process of their cattle. They averaged 35,000 calves per year

  • XIT Ranch

    • A group of Chicago investors owned the XIT Ranch

    • Land was used to pay for a new Capitol in Austin

    • 3 million acres

    • About the size of Connecticut

    • Surrounded by 6,000 miles of barbed wire

1. Why did some states pass quarantine laws to keep Texas cattle away from

settled areas ?

A. to keep the cattle from destroying private property

B. to keep children from being hurt by the cattle

C. to prevent crops from being trampled

D. to prevent the spread of disease
2. Spanish cowboys used lariats to…

A. brand their animals B. round up cattle from horseback

C. secure their supplies to the saddle D. make coffee over an open fire
3. Who first established the cattle industry in Texas ?

4. What hardships did cowboys face on the trail ?

5. Why did the big cattle drives end in the 1880s ?


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