Throughout the years of the republic most Texans still wanted Texas to join the United States

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Chapter 12 Section 4

-Throughout the years of the republic most Texans still wanted Texas to join the United States

  • In 1836 they voted overwhelmingly for annexation

  • Sam Houston worked for this outcome in his first term as president

  • However the push for annexation stopped with Lamar who did not favor becoming part of the United Sates

-By Houston’s second term the “Texas Question” had become an important in United Sates politics

  • Those against annexation

    • Believed it would benefit southern slave holders

    • Also argued that it would mean war with Mexico

  • Annexation was more popular than it had been in 1836

-In April 1844 representatives from the United States and Texas signed a treaty that would make Texas a territory of the United States

  • It provided that Texas would give its public lands to the United Sates

  • In return the United States agreed to pay all debts of the Republic of Texas

-Some Texans were disappointed with the treaty. They had hoped for immediate statehood, but the treaty only made Texas a territory

  • Some fought the treaty arguing that Texas should keep its very valuable public lands

  • The majority of Texans favored the treaty of annexation

-Texans confidently expected the United States to accept the treaty

  • They were surprised when the United States Senate rejected it by a vote of 36 to 16

  • Many senators voted opposed the treaty because Texas would ultimately enter the United States as a slave state

    • This would give the south an advantage in the United States senate

  • Others voted it against it because they did not want to anger Mexico

  • Some voted against it because 1844 was an election year and they wanted to avoid controversy

  • But the Texas question soon became the center of controversy throughout the United States

-Annexation became an issue during the United States presidential election of 1844

  • The Democratic Party candidate was James Polk

  • The Whig Party candidate was Henry Clay of Kentucky

    • Against immediate annexation

    • He feared the country would split over the issue of slavery

-Annexation gained momentum from growing support for expansion

  • Settlers wanted to live in fertile lands

  • Merchants wanted ports on the Pacific coast where American ships could stop their way to trade with Asia

  • Most Americans believed the United States was destined to expand coast to coast, this belief was called Manifest Destiny

-Congressional leaders who wanted annexation proposed that Texas be annexed by a joint resolution

  • Joint Resolution- a statement passed by both houses of congress that have the force of law and would require only a simple majority of votes in each house

  • Approving a treaty would required a 2/3 majority in Senate

-February 28, 1845 Congress passed a joint resolution for annexation

  • It contained terms more favorable to Texas than those of the Treaty of 1844

    • Texas could enter the Union as soon as its people approved annexation

    • Adopted a state constitution

    • Texas could keep its public lands but could sell some of these lands to pay its debts

    • Also stated that Texas could be divided into as many as five states with approval of Texas and the United States

  • President Tyler signed the resolution on March 1 and submitted the offer to the Texas government

  • The joint resolution provided for immediate statehood, bypassing the time Texas would be a territory

-Anson Jones who was elected president of Texas in 1844, called a special session of the Texas Congress in to consider the terms of annexation

  • Quickly accepted

  • People would have to endorse annexation and draft a new state constitution

  • The convention, meeting in Austin on July 4, 1845 overwhelmingly backed annexation

  • The convention then wrote a new constitution

-On October 13, 1845 Texas approved annexation by a vote of 4,254 to 257 and ratified the constitution by 4,174 to 312

-The Congress of the United States consented to the Texas Constitution of 1845

  • On December 29, 1845 President Polk signed the resolution that made Texas a state

-Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence until 1845 when the United States and Texas finally agreed on annexation

  • Great Britain and France both preferred that Texas remain and independent nation rather than become part of the United States

  • For this reason, British and French diplomats tried to convince Mexico that is should recognize Texas independence

  • In May of 1845 Mexico agreed to acknowledge independent Texas on one condition

    • Texas must reject annexation by the United States

-Though accepting the offer would ensure that Texas and Mexico would enjoy improved relations, Texas was not interested

  • The Texas Congress quickly rejected the Mexican proposal and voted to accept annexation by the United States

-On February 19, 1846 at a ceremony in front of the Texas capitol, Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic turned over the government to J. Pinckney Henderson

  • Henderson was the first governor of the state

  • President Jones closed his farewell address by declaring that “the final act in this great drama in now performed: the Republic of Texas is no more”

  • The Lone Star flag was lowered and the Stars and Stripes was raised

  • Texas officially became the 28th state in the United States of America

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