Three Wonders of the Ancient World The Lighthouse of Alexandria



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Three Wonders of the Ancient World

The Lighthouse of Alexandria
The ancient Greeks traveled around the Mediterranean Sea. They made a list of 7 wonders that everybody should see. One of these wonders was the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was built on the island of Pharos to mark the port of the city Alexandria. Construction began in 285 BC.
When it was finished, the lighthouse was over 100 meters tall. In fact, expect for the Great Pyramids at Giza, it was the tallest manmade structure of the ancient world.
It was also one of the best-made structures of the ancient world: It survived winter storms, war, and even earthquakes for over 17 centuries. Empires came and went but the lighthouse still stood guiding seafarers in the Mediterranean.
In the end, the many earthquakes began to take their toll. By the 10th century cracks were showing in the base of the lighthouse. In the 14th century, the lighthouse was destroyed by some powerful earthquakes. Finally, in 1480 AD, a sultan built a fort on the place where the lighthouse once stood. Some of the blocks from the Lighthouse were used to make the fort.




The Colossus at Rhodes
The ancient Greeks traveled around the Mediterranean Sea. They made a list of 7 wonders that everybody should see. One of these wonders was the Colossus on the island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean.
The Colossus at Rhodes was a giant statue of the sun god Helios. The statue was 33 meters high. Construction began in 292 BC. It was built to celebrate a victory over an invading army.
The statue was made from bronze, iron, stone and marble. Much of the bronze and iron needed for the statue came from the weapons and equipment of the invading soldiers, who left their weapons when they retreated.
The statue didn’t survive for long however. In 226 BC, an earthquake destroyed much of Rhodes and broke the statue at the knees.
The people of Rhodes were going to rebuild the statue, but the Oracle said that if they rebuilt the statue, the city would have great misfortune. The statue was never rebuilt and lay on the ground for 800 years until Arab invaders sold the metal from the statue in 654 AD.

The Lighthouse of Alexandria
(1) What wonder of the world does the article talk about?
(2) Where was the Lighthouse built?
(3) When did construction begin?
(4) How tall was the lighthouse?
(5) When it was built, was it the tallest manmade structure in the world?
(6) What did the Lighthouse survive?
(7) How long did the Lighthouse survive?
(8) What came and went?
(9) In the end, what destroyed the Lighthouse?
(10) When did cracks start appearing at the base?
(11) When was it finally destroyed?
(12) What happened in 1480 AD?
(13) What were the blocks from the lighthouse used for?





The Colossus at Rhodes
(1) What wonder of the world does the article talk about?
(2) Where is the Colossus?
(3) What was the Colossus?
(4) How high was the Colossus?
(5) When did construction begin?
(6) Why was it built?
(7) What was it made from?
(8) Where did much of the bronze and iron come from?
(9) When was the statue destroyed?
(10) How was it destroyed?
(11) Where did the statue break?
(12) Why wasn’t the statue rebuilt?
(13) How long did the statue lay on the ground?
(14) What happened to the statue in 654?



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The Pyramids at Giza
The ancient Greeks traveled around the Mediterranean Sea. They made a list of 7 wonders that everybody should see. One of these wonders was the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt.
The Great Pyramid at Giza was built as the tomb of the pharaoh Khufu. Construction was finished around 2560 BC. It was built using 2.3 million stone blocks.
When it was completed, the pyramid was about 140 meters high. It was the highest manmade structure in the world and remained the highest manmade structure for 3800 years.
There is some debate over who built the pyramid. An ancient Greek named Herodotus wrote that the pyramids were built by 100,000 slaves using great machines. However, when Herodotus wrote about the pyramids, the pyramids were already 2700 years old. Modern archeologists think that only 20-30,000 people were needed and that they were probably not slaves, but were just people who lived in the area.
Of all the Wonders of the Ancient World, only the pyramid of Giza is still standing.





The Pyramids of Giza
(1) What wonder of the world does the article mention?
(2) Why was the pyramid built?
(3) Who was it built for?
(4) When was construction finished?
(5) How many blocks were used to make the pyramid?
(6) How tall was it?
(7) For how long did it remain the highest manmade structure in the world?
(8) What debate is there about the pyramids?
(9) Who did Herodotus say built the pyramids?
(10) Why is Herodotus not a reliable source?
(11) Who do modern archeologists think built the pyramids?
(12) How many Wonders of the Ancient World are still standing?



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References:



http://www.greece.org/alexandria/pharos/

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/pyramids.html


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