Thoroughly and accurately, in complete sentences with the appropriate grammar and



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UNIT 5 QUALIFIER: The Era of Revolutions- Scientific and Enlightenment, American, French and Industrial

SHORT ANSWER/ESSAY

Please answer each question thoroughly and accurately, in complete sentences with the appropriate grammar and on a separate piece of paper.

1. How do the ideas of Francis Bacon, Copernicus and Galileo continue to influence modern scientific methods and knowledge?

2. How did Galileo’s trial before the Inquisition in 1633 illustrate inevitable conflicts between the Church and science during the Renaissance?

3. Discuss three advances that occurred as a result of the Scientific Revolution.

4. How did Thomas Hobbes and John Locke view the purpose of government?
5.Explain why the Baron de Montesquieu was a significant figure in the Enlightenment.
6. Who was Adam Smith and what was his economic policy? Explain.
7. Why was Mary Wollstonecraft an important figure in the Enlightenment?
8. How did Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe?

9. Explain why Catherine the Great, Empress Maria-Theresa of Austria along with her son Joseph II, and Frederick the Great were seen as ENLIGHTENED Absolutists.


10. How did the philosophers of the 1600s view the role of government?

11. How did John Locke’s ideas influence the American revolutionaries?

12. Explain the Seven Years’ War and how it played out in the British colonies.

13. Describe the system of government outlined in the U.S. Constitution.


14. Describe the differences between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of the ratification of the US Constitution.
15. What did the Bill of Rights protect?
16. What Enlightenment concepts did the Declaration of Independence express?

17. How did the American Revolution impact the government of France?

18. How did Enlightenment ideas play a role in the French Revolution?

19. How did long term social and short term economic problems contribute to the French Revolution?

20. What was the significance of the storming of the Bastille?

21. Why was Marie-Antoinette unpopular with the French people?

22. What was the goal of the Reign of Terror? Was the goal achieved? Why or why not?

23. Describe the role of Maximilien Robespierre in the French Revolution.

24. What were the effects of the revision of French law undertaken under Napoleon’s leadership?

25. What made the Russian Campaign a disaster for Napoleon and what lesson do we learn as a result?

26. Why did leaders of the Congress of Vienna redraw the borders of many European nations?

27. What were the goals of Prince Klemens von Metternich at the Congress of Vienna?

28. How did the French people respond when Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France?

29. Name the three classes of French society before the Revolution and describe who made up each class.

30. Why did the National Convention attack the Catholic religion? How did they do so?

31. Why did the French people welcome Napoleon’s seizure of power?

32. Describe the personality of Napoleon Bonaparte.

33. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution.

34. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin and why?
35. Why were Britain’s strong navy and merchant fleet important to the country’s industrialization?

36. How did the switch to steam power influence the location of factory towns?

37. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the assembly line?

38. Summarize Karl Marx’s arguments against capitalism.

39. Before the mid-1800s, how did news and messages travel from place to place? What changed in 1844?

40. Why did railroads replace canal and river traffic?

41. Describe Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

42. Describe how Sigmund Freud might attempt to cure a patient of mental illness.

43. Describe the social changes which occurred in the cottage industry due to industrialization.

44. Why did people move to cities in large numbers during the late 1800s?

45. Explain two ways electricity impacted industry.

46. Summarize two of the medical breakthroughs of the Industrial Age.





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