This research paper has been commissioned by the International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament, but reflects the views of the authors and should not be construed as necessarily reflecting the views of the Commission



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International Herald Tribune, 12 March 2008.

53 Squassoni, Nuclear renaissance: is it coming? Should it?, p 5

54 Matthew Fuhrmann. Taking a walk on the supply side: the determinants of civilian nuclear cooperation. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs 2008: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/uploads/Fuhrmann_Talking_A_Walk%20on_the_Supply_Side.pdf.

55 Cupitt. Survey on U.S. industry compliance and export controls: executive summary.

56 Goodby. Internationalizing the nuclear fuel cycle, p 10.

57 Ibid., p 10.

58 This problem was noted by Ralph Wirtz of Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum, Hund and Seward, Broadening industry governance to include nonproliferation, p 4.

59 See U.S. Department of Energy. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership: Industry involvement. 2008: http://www.gnep.energy.gov/afciparticipants/industryinvolvement.html.

60 World Nuclear Association. WNA Charter of Ethics. World Nuclear Association 2008: http://www.world-nuclear.org/uploadedFiles/org/about/pdf/WNA%20Charter%20of%20Ethics.pdf.

61 For more on business self-regulation, see Virginia Haufler, Beyond government: business self-regulation in international affairs. Study Group on the role of the Private Sector, 1998.

62 Brian Rappert, Towards a life sciences code: countering the threats from biological weapons. Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention Briefing Paper, 2005, p 17.

63 Codes of Conduct have become the alternative to a protocol to strengthen the BWC, where the protocol was defeated by industry opposition. Life sciences Codes of Conduct are thus directed at scientists and formulated by the scientific community and its stakeholders, not industry, nor is the regulation of industry behaviour the object of life sciences codes of conduct. See Ibid., pp 3-12.

64 World Nuclear Association. Sustaining global best practices in uranium mining and processing: principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment.

65 World Association of Nuclear Operators. What is WANO?: http://www.wano.org.uk/WANO_Documents/What_is_Wano.asp.

66 Matthew Bunn. Securing the bomb 2008. Project on Managing the Atom, Harvard University, and Nuclear Threat Initiative November 2008: http://www.nti.org/e_research/Securing_the_bomb08.pdf.

67 World Threat Initiative. World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) is launched in Vienna: NTI press release. 29 September 2008: http://www.nti.org/c_press/release_WINS_092908.pdf.; World Institute for Nuclear Security. http://www.wins.org.

68 For example, the WNA Charter of Ethics and AUA Stewardship Principles. IAEA Codes of Conduct, such as the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Code of Conduct on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste, are directed at IAEA member-states rather than companies.

69 Glenn R. Simpson and Jay Solomon, Fresh clues of Iranian nuclear intrigue. Wall Street Journal, 16 January 2009.

70 Rappert, Towards a life sciences code: countering the threats from biological weapons, p 21.

71 Possible conferences include the World Nuclear Association annual fuel cycle conference or the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting.

72 Hund and Seward, Broadening industry governance to include nonproliferation, pp 2-3.

73 Personal communication from Paul O’Sullivan, Director-General of Security, Australian Intelligence Security Organisation (ASIO), former Director of the Chemical and Biological Disarmament Section, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in the mid 1980s and Ambassador for Disarmament 1989-1992).

74 Government-industry conference on chemical weapons proliferation: Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade news release M40, 6 March 1989.

75 Nuclear Threat Initiative. WMD 411 Chronology -- 1989. 2008: http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/1989.html.

76 Personal communication from Tom Reynolds, former President of the Chemical Confederation of Australia and Chairman of the 1989 GICCW Industry Forum.

77 President H.W. Bush had declared that he wanted to be remembered as the president who had rid the world of chemical weapons.

78 Personal communication from ASNO.

79 Goodby. Internationalizing the nuclear fuel cycle.

80 World Nuclear Association. Sustaining global best practices in uranium mining and processing: principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment. WNA Charter of Ethics, Annex 1, p 9.

81 Squassoni, Ferguson and Hanson, Nuclear energy, nonproliferation and arms control in the next administration: is nuclear energy the answer?

82 World Nuclear Association. Sustaining global best practices in uranium mining and processing: principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment.

83 Nuclear Energy Agency, Nuclear energy outlook 2008, p 90.

84 Ibid., p 49, most reactor licences are issued for 40 years, though present licence extensions have increased reactor retirement ages to 60 years in the United States: Nuclear Energy Agency, Nuclear energy outlook 2008, p 44.

85 World Nuclear Association. The nuclear renaissance. . Interest in nuclear desalination is particularly strong in the Middle East and North Africa.

86 See Nuclear Energy Agency, Nuclear energy outlook 2008, p 100 and ch 4; World Nuclear Association. The nuclear renaissance.

87 Ferguson, Nuclear energy: balancing benefits and risks, p 16, see the following section on the constraints on the expansion of nuclear power.

88 This figure is, however, growing, and an expanded uptake of electricity-fuelled (instead of fossil fuelled) transportation in the future may alter the contribution that nuclear power is able to make: see Alan Hanson’s comments in Squassoni, Ferguson and Hanson, Nuclear energy, nonproliferation and arms control in the next administration: is nuclear energy the answer? .

89 World Nuclear Association. The nuclear renaissance.

90 Ibid.; Squassoni, Nuclear renaissance: is it coming? Should it?

91 Ferguson, Nuclear energy: balancing benefits and risks, p 6.

92 Squassoni, Nuclear renaissance: is it coming? Should it?, p 3.

93 On the UK energy market, see Deloitte, Running the risk: structuring investment for new nuclear build. Nuclear discussion series. London, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, 2005 and Deloitte, The power to deliver: is current market design supportive of nuclear power generation. Nuclear discussion series. London, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, 2005. The US Energy Policy Act 2005 has provided incentives and a streamlined licensing process in order to overcome the difficulties of reactor construction costs: see Ferguson, Nuclear energy: balancing benefits and risks, p 8.

94 Sharon Squassoni, Stephen Goldberg and Stephen Maloney, Financial crisis: impact on new nuclear reactors (Washington, D.C., 13 November 2008).

95 Squassoni, Nuclear renaissance: is it coming? Should it?, p 2.


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