Annex C: Multilateral fuel cycle initiatives
Global Nuclear Power Infrastructure – A Russian proposal to develop global infrastructure ensuring access to nuclear energy supplies. The International Uranium Enrichment Centre at Angarsk was established as part of the proposal, and international reprocessing and storage facilities are also envisaged. Fuel supply contracts would be guaranteed by the IAEA, and the stocks of fuel placed under IAEA control.
Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) – A US proposal to develop proliferation-resistant technologies and limit the number of enrichment and reprocessing facilities to those already in existence, in order to facilitate an economically viable and proliferation-safe expansion in nuclear energy. The partnership includes 21 countries and industry, national laboratories, universities and local business in the USA.
Six-Country Proposal – The Multilateral Mechanism for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel is a system of enriched uranium supply assurances, proposed by the six countries with commercial enrichment facilities (France, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, the United Kingdom and United States). Recipients of the assurances would be required to forego enrichment and reprocessing capabilities.
Fuel Suppliers’ Registry – Japan proposed the IAEA Standby Arrangements System for the Assurance of Nuclear Fuel Supply, a registry of uranium and enriched uranium suppliers disseminated by the IAEA to assist in the prevention of fuel supply disruptions. The system would complement the Six-Country Proposal.
US HEU Proposal – The United States offered to set aside excess HEU, which would be downblended and available as a strategic reserve for countries foregoing enrichment and reprocessing.
IAEA Fuel Bank Proposal – The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) proposed an international fuel reserve, owned and managed by the IAEA, the fuel to be used in the event of a disruption to the international market. The proposal has received financial support from the United States, European Union, United Arab Emirates and Norway, to match that already provided by NTI.
IAEA Multilateral Enrichment Facility – Germany proposed a multilateral enrichment facility administered by the IAEA but operating on a commercial basis and situated in an extraterritorial or neutral location.
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