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China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire

In the 19th and early 20th centuries

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This packet will cover:

  • The Ottoman Empire

  • The Qing Dynasty

  • The Meiji Restoration


The rise of Europe is accompanied by the decline of two previous world powers and the rise of a new Asian power. What accounts for the fall of China and the once thriving Ottoman Empire? What accounts for the rise of Japan? All three powers encounter the aggressive power of the West, which would ultimately shape its subsequent history.
The Declining Ottoman Empire:

  • Center of Islamic World

  • Didn’t fall under direct European control

  • Failed to modernize like Europe

    • Technology gap

  • In the 1800s it contracted while European powers expanded (into Africa)

  • During the 18th century the Ottoman Empire experienced military reverses and challenges to its rule.

  • As Ottoman officials launched reforms to regenerate imperial vigor, Egypt and other North African provinces declared their independence, and European states seized territories in the northern and western parts of the Ottoman Empire.

  • Military Decline: by the late 17th century, the Ottoman Empire had reached the limits of its expansion. Ottoman armies suffered humiliating defeats on the battlefield, especially at the hands of Austrian and Russian foes.

    • Ottoman forces lagged behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, and training.

    • Equally serious was a breakdown in the discipline of the elite Janissary corps, which had served as the backbone of the imperial armed forces in the fifteenth century.

    • The Janissaries repeatedly masterminded palace coups during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and by the nineteenth century had become a powerful political force within the Ottoman state.

    • The Janissaries neglected their military training and turned a blind eye to advances in weapons technology. The Empire became vulnerable

    • The central government’s power declined.

    • Semi-independent governors and local notables had formed private armies of mercenaries and slaves to support the sultan in Istanbul in exchange for recognition of autonomy.

    • Increasingly these independent rulers also turned fiscal and administrative institutions to their own interests, collecting taxes for themselves and sending only nominal payments to the imperial treasury, depriving the state of revenue.



  • Territorial Loss:

    • The Ottomans managed to maintain control in present day Turkey, the heart of the empire, as well as Iraq.

    • Suffered serious loss in territories elsewhere.

    • Lost territory to Austria and Russia.

    • Greece became independent in 1830, and Serbia in 1867.

    • The lost Egypt in around 1820.


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  • Economic ills: The volume of trade through the Ottoman Empire greatly decreased.

    • In the 17th and 18th centuries, European merchants increasingly circumvented Ottoman intermediaries and traded in India and China.

    • Trade shifted over the Atlantic Ocean where the Ottomans were left out.

    • They fell into financial dependency on Europe.

      • European governments financed the construction of railroads, utilities, and mining. In 1882 the Ottoman state was unable to pay interest on loans and had no choice but to accept foreign administration of its debts.

      • Ottoman artisans and crafts workers could not match their foreign competitors who created inexpensive and high quality goods.

  • Capitulations (=humiliations): Agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided the European powers with extraterritoriality—the right to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws. (Being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law)

  • By the early twentieth century, the Ottoman Empire survived principally because European diplomats could not agree on how to dispose the empire without upsetting the European balance of power.


Attempting Reform:

  • Mahmud II: Mid 19th remodeled Ottoman institutions along western European lines. Focused on army. European drill-masters dressed Ottoman soldiers in European style uniforms. Created schools to promote science and technology. Constructed roads and built telegraph lines. He died in 1839 with a shrunken empire but a more manageable and powerful one than in the early 17th century

  • Tanzimat Reform: Tempo of reform increased rapidly during the Tanzimat era (1839-1876). Army, legal, and education reforms were central.

    • Tried to stem the tide of nationalist movements in the Empire

    • Religious tolerance

    • Factories producing cloth, paper and armaments

    • Modern mining operations

    • Telegraphs, steamboats, railroads, postal services

    • Western law codes and courts

    • New schools

    • “All began a long process of modernization and Westernization in the Ottoman Empire”

    • Enlightenment infused

Reaction to Reform

  • Young Ottomans:

    • Saw Ottoman state as secular whose people were loyal to the dynasty rather than Islam

    • Favored a constitutional regime like Great Britain

    • Urged Western reforms

  • Sultan Abd al-Hamid II – 1876-1909 purged reformers from Government

    • Autocratic

    • Suppressed liberal and nationalist sentiments

    • Re-enforced distinction between Muslim and non Muslim subjects

  • Young Turks:

    • Led a military coup in 1908 against the Sultan

    • Pushed for radical secularization of schools. Courts, law codes

    • Permitted political parties

    • Religious tolerance

    • Opened modern schools for women—allowed to wear western clothes

    • Permitted women to get divorced, restricted polygamy

    • THEY WOULD LAY FOUNDATION FOR POST WWI country of Turkey

    • During World War I, the Young Turks leadership was responsible for the Armenian Genocide, which consisted of deportation and death marches into the Syrian Desert along with massacres of 1.5 million ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire


What was the status of the Ottoman Empire on the eve of WWI? These events help to piece it together. (Answer after completing the chart on next page).


EVENT

EXPLANATION OF EVENT

IMPACT ON OTTOMAN EMPIRE/SIGNIFICANCE

Territorial Loses








Internal Problems







Economic problems







Nationalism Crisis *







Tanzimat Reforms







Identity Crisis *







Sultan Abd al- Hamid II







Young Turks







* Textbook chapter 19
China: The Tumultuous 19th Century for the Qing Dynasty

  • Problems in China:

  • 1. Internal Problems

    • Famine, land shortage, rural poverty (inc. population) led to peasant rebellions

    • 18th century—population doubled

    • From 150 million to 300 million

    • Land was scarce, food was scarce. People were starving

    • To prevent depletion of silver within the state—high taxes were waged

    • This was especially difficult on peasants who could not afford to feed themselves.

    • Natural Disasters

    • 1847: Hunan droughts

    • 1849: Flooding of the Yangtze River – decrease in crop production in a population that depended on agriculture.

  • 2. Leadership of Hong Xiuquan:

    • Failed civil service exam

    • Hallucinated that he was the younger brother of Jesus

    • Was against Qing Rulers

    • Preached: A communal society, exams open to everybody, land belongs to everybody

    • He gained followers of poor people- they called themselves the “Taiping”

    • Growing disdain for Qing within China due to internal problems.

    • He was the voice against the Qing

Taiping Rebellion:

  • Xiuquan thought he was chosen to conquer China, destroy the demon Manchu rulers, and establish the Taiping Tianguo — the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Harmony.

  • Gathering followers first from the poor and outcast, he and his recruits gradually built up an army and political organization that swept across China.

  • British helped put the rebellion down with the Qing

  • Movement was so strong and so popular that it took the central government millions of dollars and fifteen years to defeat them.macintosh hd:private:var:folders:zj:k5lh33ys2b9977llmjj7fqkc0000gp:t:temporaryitems:images.jpeg

  • Not until 1864 was the rebellion brutally put down. It is estimated that the entire rebellion cost more than twenty million lives (twice that of World War I).

  • Same time as U.S. Civil War


Self-Strengthening:

  • Chinese efforts in 1860s-70s to rejuvenate the dynasty and failing society

  • New exam system to focus on Confucianism

  • Sought “good men” who could cope with rebuilding China after Taiping rebellion

  • Some sought modernization and new weaponry

  • Failure – conservative landlord class resisted westernization

  • Modernization resisted by fears of conservative leaders that urban, industrial, or commercial development would erode the power and privileges of the landlord class.

  • Failures demonstrated by the Boxer Rebellion


Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in great abundance. There was therefore no need to import the manufacturers of outside barbarians”

- 1793 Emperor Qianlong



  1. Read the quote above. How might this pose a problem for European powers?





The First Opium Wars: 1839-42

  • Opium— grown and processed in India, used by the British to sell to the Chinese

  • By 1830s, British, American, and other Western merchants had fund an enormous, growing, and very profitable market for the highly addictive drug—China.

  • It would balance out trade (think of all that Britain/West got from China)

  • China—major import for opium

  • It was illegal but officials turned a blind eye.

  • Millions of addicts

    • Men, women, court officials students preparing for exams, soldiers going into combat, laborers



The New Barbarian”

Look at the cartoon to the right. What does it depict? Why is the term “barbarian” important?



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  • Chinese government didn't like what the opium trade did to its people

  • Government goes on the offensive over Opium.

  • British didn't want to see this lucrative trade disappear,

  • Beginning of the Opium War to force the trade

  • British win due to superior navy

The Treaty of Nanjing 1842: Ends the conflict

  • British call the shots

  • Impose massive restrictions on the Chinese

  • Hong Kong under British control

  • Here’s the kicker:

    • REQUIRED CHINA TO OPEN FIVE PORTS TO TRADE, FIXED THE TARIFF ON IMPORTED GOODS AT A LOW 5 PERCENT, AND GRANTED FOREIGNERS THE RIGHT TO LIVE IN CHINA UNDER THEIR OWN LAWS.

    • THIS IS ALL A REPERCUSSION OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    • SERIOUSLY ERODES CHINESE INDEPENDENCE


The Second Opium War: 1856-1860

  • MORE RESTRICTIONS ON THE CHINESE

  • Opened more treaty ports to foreign traders

  • Allowed foreigners to travel and buy land in China

  • Opened the country to Christian missionaries, permitted Western powers to patrol some of China's interior waterways.

  • China lost control of Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwanmacintosh hd:private:var:folders:zj:k5lh33ys2b9977llmjj7fqkc0000gp:t:temporaryitems:dbq_6c.gif


Spheres of Influence

  • Eventually, several European nations forced China to sign a series of unequal treaties

  • Extraterritoriality guaranteed that European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts. Eventually western nations weary of governing foreign lands, established spheres of influence within China, which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.

  • Eventually the USA demanded equal trading status with China.

    • Rather than carve out a sphere of influence, the USA announced the Open Door Policy of 1899. This stated that nations should have equal trading rights regardless of spheres of influence. While this may have prevented the further expansion of spheres of influences, it did little to restore Chinese sovereignty.

  • After the further insult of the Open Door Policy, Chinese nationalist staged the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Viewed as a threat to the profits they enjoyed in the imperialist spheres of influence, foreign nations formed an international coalition that ended the uprising. With this victory, additional concessions were granted to foreign nations within China.

  • The trouble that amounted for the Qing Dynasty saw the collapse of the final dynasty and the end of a 5,000-year tradition in 1911.




EVENT

EXPLANATION OF EVENT

IMPACT ON CHINA/SIGNIFICANCE

Peasant Uprisings


Opposition to Manchurian roots of Qing




Opposition to the Qing Dynasty







Taiping Uprising







Opium Wars







Spheres of Influence







Lack of Industrialization







Boxer Rebellion









JAPAN

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Japan confronted the aggressive power of the West during the nineteenth century



  • Commodore Perry’s black ships- Tokyo Bay 1853

  • Demanded reclusive nation to open up to more “normal” relations with the world

  • Japan undertook a radical transformation of its society

  • A “revolution from above” according to some historians

  • Turned into a powerful, modern, united, industrialized nation.

  • Opposite of Ottomans and Chinese

  • Japan joined the club of imperialists by creating its own East Asian empire – at the expense of China

  • Modernity was not a uniquely European phenomenon.

  • “Japanese miracle”


Tokugawa Background:

  • 250 years before Perry’s arrival, Japan had been governed by a shogun- military ruler from the Tokugawa family who acted in the name of a revered but powerless emperor- lived in Kyoto 300 miles away from the seat of power in Edo – Tokyo

  • Considered “250 years of peace”

  • Purpose: to prevent civil war with the 260 rival feudal lords (daimyo) – with their samurai warriors of Japanese tradition

  • Shogunate gave Japan internal peace from 1600 to 1850.

  • “Pacified but not really unified”

  • Samurai at the top of the hierarchy

  • Samurai developed into a salaried bureaucracy

  • Economic growth because of peace- commercialization and urban development

  • 10% of the people lived in cities

  • Influence of Confucianism generated a remarkably literate population


Meiji Restoration: The Collapse of the Ancient Regime

Revere the Emperor and Repel the barbarians”



  • FOREIGN INTERVENTION CHANGED JAPAN

  • Japan had severely limited contact with West—especially Christianity. The Shogunate had expelled foreign influences.

  • U.S. forced the issue

  • Commodore Perry 1853

  • Aware of what happened in China in resisting European demands, Japan agreed to a series of unequal treaties with various Western powers.

  • THE HUMILIATING CAPITULATION TO THE DEMANDS OF THE FOREIGN DEVILS FURTHER ERODED SUPPORT FOR THE SHOGUNATE, TRIGGERED A BRIEF CIVIL WAR AND BY 1868 LED TO POLITCAL TAKEOVER BY A GROUP OF YOUNG SAMURAI FROM SOUTHERN JAPAN.

  • KNOWN AD THE MEIJI RESTORATION—RESTORED THE POWER TO THE EMPEROR

    • GOALS:

      • To save Japan from foreign domination

      • Not by resistance but by a thorough transformation of Japanese society drawing upon all the modern West had to offer

      • knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial world”

Meiji Government:

  • An end of Japanese feudal society macintosh hd:private:var:folders:zj:k5lh33ys2b9977llmjj7fqkc0000gp:t:temporaryitems:imgres.jpeg

  • Meiji was an absolute government

  • A new constitution was established

  • Meiji government was a monarchy that did not want a democracy but feared discontent.

  • Constitution: gave emperor supreme power, established a Diet—a 2 house national assembly one house; which was elected. Constitution created by the emperor not the people like in the U.S.

        • Emperor Meiji

  • Modernization reforms in the 19th century:

    • Far more revolutionary than the most radical of the Ottoman efforts, let alone the modest self-strengthening policies of the Chinese

    • By 1871 regime abolished the daimyo

      • Samurai lost their ancient role as the country’s warrior class and right to carry a sword

      • Old Confucian social order was dismantled –now they were all commoners and equal

      • Westernization- education, clothing, dances, writing

    • Difference with the West

      • Confucian based education

      • Universal education –loyalty to emperor

      • No feminism or Christianity made its way into Japan

      • STATE guided industrialization (like Russia)

      • No other country outside of Europe and the U.S. had been able to launce its own IR in the nineteenth century.

      • YOUNG women were working textile factories

      • Lot of strikes and efforts to organize unions


Japan and the World

  • Anglo Japanese Treaty of 1902—acknowledged Japan as an equal player

  • Carved out Asia

  • Successful wars against China and Russia (1904-5)

  • Korea annexed by Japan in 1910

  • The government invited foreign experts to Japan to help modernize transportation and communications

  • Railroads and telegraphs and phones linked Japan by 1900.

  • Built factories for steel and textile production

  • Slowly, the gap between Japan and the West was closing


Japan and China:

  • Japan became an economic powerhouse

  • China was in disarray due to internal and external problems. Fell into hands of regional warlords

  • Following WWI, Japan gained former German occupied Chinese land


Japanese Imperialism:

  • Led to the first Sino-Japanese War (Sino means Chinese). 1894-95

    • Japan won

  • The Treaty of Shimonoseki forced China to recognize the complete independence of Korea.

  • Sino-Japanese War officially begins in 1937 when Japan invades Nanjing after intermittent fighting since 1931


Russo Japanese War:

“First Great War of the 20th Century”



  • Place in question was Manchuria.

  • Japanese victory in the war with Russia (1904-1905) gave Japan power over Korea and Manchuria

  • HUMILIATING FOR THE RUSSIANS

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    Final Thoughts:

    • What made Japans restoration so successful was the right leadership and attitude towards the changes. The implementation of the restoration was carried out nationwide, as they successfully adopted Western ideas while keeping traditional views.

    • China on the other hand was led by a corrupt governing body with a distinct lack of funds and half-hearted implementation of the new ideas. The corruption and lack of enthusiasm for change was China’s biggest downfall.



EVENT

EXPLANATION OF EVENT

IMPACT ON JAPAN/SIGNIFICANCE

Deteriorating Power of the Shogunate








Commodore Perry







Meji Restoration







Elimination of the Daimyo







Modernization Program







Industrialization Program







Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902







War with China 1894-95

Russo-Japanese War 1904-05







Concluding Questions

Textbook Chapter 19:


  1. How did European expansion in the nineteenth century differ from that of the early modern era?

OTTOMAN EMPIRE:



  1. How did the rise of European powers impact the fall of the Ottoman Empire as a world power?




  1. What was the greatest contributing factor to the Ottoman Empire’s fall?



  1. What makes the Ottoman Empire the “sick man of Europe”?



  1. What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within the Ottoman Empire?

CHINA:



  1. How did the rise of European powers impact the fall of China as a world power?



  1. What was the greatest contributing factor to China’s fall from imperial glory from the 19th and into the 20th century?



  1. What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within China?

JAPAN:



  1. What enabled Japan to join the club of the imperialist countries, in contrast to the Chinese and the Ottoman Empire?



  1. What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within Japan?



  1. “The response of each society to European imperialism grew out of its larger historical development and its internal problems.” What evidence might support this statement?


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