Thinking through History at Tallis



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D3 Russia in Revolution, 1881-1924: From Autocracy to Dictatorship.

KQ3 February to October 1917: The Provisional Government and the Bolshevik coup.

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Lenin




· In a Nutshell: February to October 1917. The Provisional government and the Bolshevik coup.

· Key Features and conceptual understanding: Content and concepts.


· Spinning conceptual understanding: How differently are these events and developments interpreted? Concentrating on patterns of tackling essay questions stressing different concepts.

· Cracking the Puzzle – Preparing for revision and assessment.




(I)In a Nutshell: February to October 1917?



The key features and concepts

Students should understand why a second revolution took place. They should understand the nature of the Provisional Government and the problems it faced. They should understand the importance of Lenin’s return in April and his influence thereafter. They should be aware of Trotsky’s role and the impact of events such as the renewed Russian offensive in the summer, the July days, Kornilov’s attempted coup and the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd and Moscow.





Activity 1 : Introductory hook to Key features and concepts



Activity 2 – On your marks…engaging conceptually with the key features through timeline.

The timeline makes many brief references to the events of the period Feb-Oct 1917. Use the timeline to colour code according to the extent of challenge to the Provisional Government and plot your living graph according to the extent of this challenge..

Green Lack of challenge/effective repression.

Yellow Emerging opposition but weak challenge or slight concessions made by Provisional Government.

Orange Open opposition and protest.

Red Military opposition to threaten the future of the Provisional Government.





Timeline Feb (March) -October (November) 1917

March 8: The Provisional Government issues a program of goals and democratic principles, including civil rights and self-government through town dumas. It's hugely optimistic and immediately compromised by the demands of war. The Tsar and his family are arrested.

• March 12: A Bolshevik called Joseph Stalin, one of many released political prisoners, arrives back in Petrograd where he supports both the PS and PG.

• March 14: The Petrograd Soviet issues an 'Appeal to all the peoples of the world' arguing against war and requesting only a defence of Russia.

• March 28: The Provisional Government releases a Decleration of War Aims, including a rejection of the territorial claims made by the Tsar in 1915.

• April 3: Lenin returns to Russia, where he soon dominates the Bolshevik party.

• April 4: Lenin gives a speech known as the April Thesis, which asks for power to all the soviets and promises peace, bread, land, worker control and an end to the war.

• April 18: The PG Foreign Minister Milyukov secretly confirms Russia's war aims to the Allies, including the retention of the 1915 territorial claims.

• April 23-4: Milyukov's confirmation leaks, leading to mass public demonstrations; soldiers and workers demand peace and several ministers, including Milyukov, resign. The Duma invites the PS to form a joint government. The PS agrees, creating a blurred, semi-socialist provisional government.

• May 4: Trotsky returns to Russia from exile.

• June 3-24: First All-Russian Congress of Soviets (1st Congress of the soviets of the workers' and soldiers' deputies) in Petrograd reveals deep splits and a rhetoric of class war. The moderate Menshevik and SR moderate parties dominate, while the Bolsheviks are sidelined.

• June 18-July 1: The Kerensky Offensive on the Eastern Front, plotted by the PG Defence Minister Fedor Kerensky, who believes a victory will restore morale. Initial successes are lost after German counter attacks; over 400,000 Russian casualties. There are new demonstrations against the war and soldiers increasingly turn to the pro-peace Bolsheviks.

• July 2: Trotsky (no longer a Menshevik) and his party merge with the Bolsheviks.

• July 3-4: The July Days, an armed insurrection/demonstration by soldiers and workers in Petrograd against both the PG and the PS for their failures; low ranking Bolsheviks assist and only chaos and indecision prevents a coup. The PG uses troops to break the protest and arrest high-ranking Bolsheviks; in reality, these only followed, not led, the revolt.

• July 7: PG agents arrest Trotsky and seize Bolshevik offices; Lenin escapes to Finland.

• July 8: The First Coalition of the Provisional Government collapses, partly due to Chernov's agrarian policies and the question of Ukrainian autonomy. Kerensky succeeds as Prime Minister, forming the Second Coalition of the PG and PS, which drifts away from democracy, the soviet and the original PG.

• July 19: Brusilov is replaced as C-in-C of the Western Front by General Kornilov.

• August 25-30: The Kornilov affair. Believing Russia to be at the mercy of the Soviet, right wing hero Kornilov marches to Petrograd to restore 'strong' government and crush the socialists. He has the support of many but not, as he believes, Kerensky, who turns against the coup and denounces the General.

• August 29-30: The PS forms a committee to act against the 'counter-revolution'; Bolsheviks are given equal power. Over 40,000 workers and soldiers form 'Red Guards' and disarm the approaching army; this new militia remains active.

• September 1: Kerensky responds to events by declaring Russia a republic and creating a 5 man Directory as government; he controls the new body, but it's weak.

• September 1-30: The Kornilov Affair has renewed the radicalism of the people and broken many remaining bonds between soldiers and their officers, workers and the upper classes; strikes reach their high point, including a 3 day, 700,000 strong railway workers protest.

• September 4: Trotsky and other Bolshevik leaders released from prison.

• September 14-25: The Democratic Conference, a meeting of socialist and government parties invited by Kerensky and intended to end the growing crisis; the Bolsheviks walk out. Finishes with a vote for a third coalition government and a Council of the Republic (in which the Bolsheviks take part).

• September 25: With the other socialist parties largely seen as failures, the Bolsheviks - having gained a majority in the ruling committees of the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets - elect Trotsky chairman of the PS.

October 9-12: The Petrograd Soviet creates a Military Revolutionary Committee (MRC), developed from the counter-revolutionary committee of the Kornilov Affair. Devoted to defending Petrograd by arming workers and organising solders, the Bolsheviks are its leading creators and commanders.

• October 10: Having gained a majority in the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets, the Bolshevik Central Committee vote 10-2 in favour of Lenin's demand to seize power (he is present, in disguise). No timetable is set, but a 2nd All Russian Congress of Soviets is to be organised so it can also vote.

• October 15-18: Antonov-Duseenko travels to the Northern Front (WW1's Eastern Front) to find and organise support for Bolshevik revolution under the guise of the MRC. He is very successful.

• October 16: Bolshevik Central Committee discuss plans again; doubts are raised, but the MRC is identified as a potential tool of revolution.

• October 17-18: Articles by Bolshevik dissenters (notably Zinoviev and Kamanev) appear in non-Bolshevik newspapers, talking of the revolution and expressing dismay; Lenin reacts by publicly countering their arguments. Rumours of a Bolshevik uprising are now common; the PG does little to react.

• October 21: Petrograd's soldiers promise to support the MRC. Antonov-Ovseenko now controls the Red Guards, the Petrograd Garrison and the Baltic naval navy, easily enough to overpower PG forces. The MRC also controls the Northern Front soldiers, who refuse the PG's request for reinforcements.

• October 23: Bolshevik leaders debate launching a coup immediately, but delay until a Congress of Soviets has met and agreed. The Peter and Paul fortress garrison agrees to support the MRC; in response, the PG declares the MRC a criminal organisation and tries to arrest its leaders.

• October 24: The PG moves against Bolshevik printers and meetings in the morning, while the MRC continues to either occupy key buildings with their troops, or gain support from the existing garrisons. Lenin is frustrated that no one has officially seized power.

• October 25: Lenin goes to a Bolshevik HQ and drafts a declaration: power has passed to the MRC, but the arrest of the government has been delayed. Shortly after, Trotsky announces to the PS that the PG has been usurped and all ministers will soon be arrested; Lenin then outlines his plans for a new Soviet govt. The Second Congress of Soviets begins but, without a majority, the Bolsheviks need to negotiate; Menshevik and Right SR delegates walk out in disgust. That evening, the MRC occupy the Winter Palace and Kerensky flees.

• October 25-November 3: Soviet power spreads across Russia, with Bolshevik and other Socialist groups seizing control. In some regions this is easy and peaceful; in others, there is violence. Moscow's Bolsheviks attempt to copy the PS and create an MRC, but they are opposed by an active local Duma.

• October 26: Antonov-Ovseenko arrests the PG. The Congress of Soviets passes several of Lenin's decrees, including those on war, land reform and government: the Council/Soviet of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) is created. This ruling council is entirely Bolshevik and will rule until a Constituent Assembly is elected. General opinion is that the Bolshevik government won't last long.

• October 27: The Decree of the Press is issued, censoring Russian publications and press; many socialists are dismayed.

• October 29: Kerensky and General Krasnov advance on Petrograd with the few loyal forces they can muster but are beaten by larger Bolshevik forces at Pulkoso heights. Vikzhel, the Executive Committee of the massive railway workers' union, pushes for an all-party soviet government and forces the Bolsheviks to negotiate.

• November 2: The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia is issued.

• November 3: Bolsheviks finally take control of Moscow and the Kremlin.

• November 10: All ranks and titles abolished.

• November 12-19: The elections to the Constituent Assembly in which over 44 million votes are cast across Russia. The Bolsheviks gain 23.9% of the vote, with much larger support amongst soldiers, urban workers. Moscow and Petrograd. SRs get 40%.

• November 19: Official peace negotiations begin on the Eastern Front.

• December: Soviet power spreads further throughout Russia, but in the fringe countries independence movements grow in equal numbers.

• December 2: The Supreme Council of the National Economy created to organise the entire Russian economy; answers to the Sovnarkom.

• December 7: The Cheka, the All Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Struggle Against Counter-Revolution and Sabotage, is created. Within a year it has the right to arrest and execute people without question.

• December 9: The Bolsheviks and Left SRs agree to a coalition government in the Sovnarkom; several SRs take up important positions.

(II) Key features and conceptual understanding: Depth studies illustrating the nature of and the the challenges to the Provisional Government February to October 1917.
What do we need to focus on?

There are many developments which, as case studies, help to reveal changes in events in Russia February to October 1917.



Students should understand

  • the nature of the Provisional Government and the problems it faced.

  • the importance of Lenin’s return in April and his influence thereafter.

  • Trotsky’s role.

  • the impact of events such as the renewed Russian offensive in the summer, the July days, Kornilov’s attempted coup.

  • the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd and Moscow.


Memory Retrieval strategies

PG Provisional Government

L Lenin

T Trotsky



SE Summer Events

BR Bolshevik Revolution








Activity PG – Analysis of stability of the Provisional Government and the extent to which it overcame Russia’s problems Feb-May 1917!

Using Michael Lynch “Reaction and Revolutions: Russia 1894-1924” 3rd edition p90-92, 95-97 summarise the key features concerning the nature of the Provisional Government and the problems it faced.




Provisional Government

Analysis of stability and extent problems tackled.

Dual Authority p90





Role of the Petrograd Soviet p90-91





Importance of Soviet Order number 1 p91



Early achievements

P92




The Provisional Government and the War p95-96





The Land Question p100



Government crises p96





Emergence of Kerensky p96









Activity L – Rise of the Bolsheviks and the significance of Lenin’s return in April and his influence thereafter!

Using Michael Lynch “Reaction and Revolutions: Russia 1894-1924” 3rd edition p92-95, summarise the key features concerning Lenin’s return and his influence.


Rise of the Bolsheviks

Analysis of significance of Lenin

The impact of Stalin and Kamenev p92-93



Lenin’s return in April p93





Bolshevik position on the Land Question p100



Lenin’s impact p94




April Thesis p94-95










Activity T – Analysis of the significance of Trotsky’s role!


Using Michael Lynch “Reaction and Revolutions: Russia 1894-1924” 3rd edition p105, summarise the key features concerning Trotsky’s role.


Trotsky’s role

Analysis of significance of Trotsky’s role

Trotsky’s role

P105




Additional notes









Activity SE – Analysis of stability of the Provisional Government and the extent to which it overcame Russia’s problems June-July 1917 (the impact of events such as the renewed Russian offensive of the summer, the July days, Kornilov’s attempted coup.!)


Using Michael Lynch “Reaction and Revolutions: Russia 1894-1924” 3rd edition p97-102, summarise the key features concerning the renewed Russian offensive of the summer, the July days and Kornilov’s attempted coup.

Provisional Government




Analysis of stability and extent problems tackled.

Summer Offensive

The governments troubles increase. p97





July Days

July days. p97








Rising fails. p97-98






Consequences of the rising. p99





Kornilov Affair

The Kornilov affair. P99






Kerensky’s response p102






Bolshevik gains p102












Activity BRa – Analysis of stability of the Provisional Government and the extent to which it overcame Russia’s problems August-October 1917. The Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd and Moscow!


Using Michael Lynch “Reaction and Revolutions: Russia 1894-1924” 3rd edition p, summarise the key features concerning the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd and Moscow.





End of the Provisional Government and the Bolshevik seizure of power




Analysis of stability and extent problems tackled.

Bolshevik preparations

The political shift in Petrograd p103








Lenin’s strategy p103-104






Lenin’s return to Petrograd p104





Provisional Governments response

Kerensky makes the first move p104








Collapse of the Provisional government p105-106






The Bolshevik’s take power p106-108




Activity BRb – Analysis of the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd and Moscow!



Analysis of immediate circumstances for Bolshevik Success






Provisional Government weakness p108-109



The weakness of the non Bolshevik Parties p109-110



Bolshevik ruthlessness p110-111



Role of mutual understanding p111



Key debate p111-112





(III) Identifying thematic developments -



(III) Spinning Conceptual understanding: How differently are these events and developments interpreted?



Activity 9 Mind mapping of the key features and conceptual understanding



i) Analyse key features essay pattern

How extensive was opposition to...?

How far is it accurate to describe.....as....?

ii) Analyse causation essay pattern

Why did...?

How far was...in increasing opposition/support...?

How far was...the main case of...?

How far do you agree that...because of...?



iii) Analyse consequence/effects essay pattern

How far was...a success?

How far is it accurate to say achieved/achieved little for....?

iv) Analyse change/continuity essay pattern

How far did...improve...?

How far did....change in the years...?

v) Analyse significance essay pattern

How important was...in contributing to the development of...?

How important was....in the outcome of...?

How important was....in the beginning of...?



Cracking the Puzzle- Preparing for Revision and Assessment

Activity 10 : Complete Trigger Memory Activity 1945-1955 using your background notes. An explanation on how to complete this is in your guidance booklet.

Activity 11 : There are many excellent Russian revolution websites which can be used to revisit the material covered so far. You should download some of these resources to supplement your main areas of note taking in this period. These include -
www. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Revolution
www. johndclare.net/Russ5.htm
www. historyguide.org/europe/lecture7.html
www. spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSnovemberR.htm
www. britannica.com/eb/article-9002239/Bolshevik-Revolution

www. creeca.wisc.edu/petrovich/418A.html







Activity 12: Consolidating your knowledge of devolpments by 1955 through playing games

Your teacher will load one of three multiple choice games for your class to play. Enjoy demonstrating your knowledge to answer the quiz questions on either Penalties, Fling or MC generator.



Activity 13 : Revisit the examination criteria and advice on tackling the examination questions given in the guidance booklet. Apply these techniques to the specimen examination. You may be asked to work individually, in pairs or in groups.

Past questions from this syllabus D3 – Russia in Revolution, 1881–1924: From Autocracy to Dictatorship
Specimen

5. How far was the Bolshevik consolidation of power due to their popular policies in the period 1917-1924?

6. How far do you agree that the Bolsheviks won the Civil War of 1918–21 because they

controlled more people and had access to more weapons?


Jan 09

How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of Tsarist rule in the years 1881–1905?


How far was the Provisional Government responsible for its own downfall?
Jun 09

How far do you agree that the economy of Tsarist Russia was transformed in the years to 1914?


Jan 10

To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 190614?


Jun 10

How far do you agree that the use of repression was the main reason for the weakness of opposition to Tsarism in the years 18811914?


To what extent does the impact of the First World War explain the outbreak of two revolutions in Russia in 1917?
Jan 11

Why did Tsarism survive the revolution of 1905 but not that of March 1917?


Jun 11

To what extent was the Tsarist system of government modified in the years 1881–1914?


How accurate is it to say that Lenin’s leadership was the most important reason for

the Bolsheviks’ success in the revolution of November 1917?


Jan 12

How accurate is it to say that the growth of reformist groups in the years from 1881 was the main cause of the 1905 Revolution?


Why was the Provisional Government so short-lived?
Jun 12

How far was Nicolas II responsible for the fall of the Romanov’s in 1917?


Jun 13

To what extent were Russian industry and agriculture transformed in the years 1881–1914?


How far do you agree that Russia’s continued involvement in the First World War was the main reason for the fall of the Provisional Government?

Jun 14

To what extent did the economy and government of Russia change 1881-1914?


How far do you agree that Trotsky leadership was the most important reason for Bolshevik success in Russia October 1917-1924?

Unit 1 Markscheme




Level

Mark

Level Descriptor

1

1-6

Candidates will produce mostly simple statements. These will be supported by limited factual material which has some accuracy and relevance, although not directed at the focus of the question. The material will be mostly generalised. There will be few, if any, links between the simple statements.

Low Level 1: 1-2 marks

The qualities of Level 1 are displayed; material is less convincing in its range and depth.

Mid Level 1: 3-4 marks As per descriptor

High Level 1: 5-6 marks

The qualities of Level 1 are securely displayed; material is convincing in range and depth consistent with Level 1.

The writing may have limited coherence and will be generally

comprehensible, but passages will lack both clarity and organisation. The skills needed to produce effective writing will not normally be present. Frequent syntactical and/or spelling errors are likely to be present.



2

7-12

Candidates will produce a series of simple statements supported by some accurate and relevant factual material. The analytical focus will be mostly implicit and there are likely to be only limited links between the simple statements. Material is unlikely to be developed very far.

Low Level 2: 7-8 marks

The qualities of Level 2 are displayed; material is less convincing in its range and depth.

Mid Level 2: 9-10 marks As per descriptor

High Level 2: 11-12 marks

The qualities of Level 2 are securely displayed; material is convincing in range and depth consistent with Level 2.

The writing will have some coherence and will be generally

comprehensible, but passages will lack both clarity and organisation. Some of the skills needed to produce effective writing will be present. Frequent syntactical and/or spelling errors are likely to be present.



3

13-18

Candidates' answers will attempt analysis and will show some understanding of the focus of the question. They will, however, include material which is either descriptive, and thus only implicitly relevant to the question's focus, or which strays from that focus. Factual material will be accurate but it may lack depth and/or reference to the given factor.

Low Level 3: 13-14 marks

The qualities of Level 3 are displayed; material is less convincing in its range and depth.

Mid Level 3: 15-16 marks As per descriptor

High Level 3: 17-18 marks

The qualities of Level 3 are securely displayed; material is convincing in range and depth consistent with Level 3.

The writing will be coherent in places but there are likely to be passages which lack clarity and/or proper organisation. Only some of the skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are likely to be present. Syntactical and/or spelling errors are likely to be present.


4

19-24

Candidates offer an analytical response which relates well to the focus of the question and which shows some understanding of the key issues contained in it. The analysis will be supported by accurate factual material which will be mostly relevant to the question asked. The selection of material may lack balance in places.

Low Level 4: 19-20 marks

The qualities of Level 4 are displayed; material is less convincing in its range and depth.

Mid Level 4: 21-22 marks As per descriptor

High Level 4: 23-24 marks

The qualities of Level 4 are securely displayed; material is convincing in range and depth consistent with Level 4.

The answer will show some degree of direction and control but these attributes may not be sustained throughout the answer. The candidate will

demonstrate the skills needed to produce convincing extended writing but there may be passages which lack clarity or coherence. The answer is likely to include some syntactical and/or spelling errors.



5

25-30

Candidates offer an analytical response which directly addresses the focus of the question and which demonstrates explicit understanding of the key issues contained in it. It will be broadly balanced in its treatment of these key issues. The analysis will be supported by accurate, relevant and appropriately selected which demonstrates some range and depth.

Low Level 5: 25-26 marks

The qualities of Level 5 are displayed; material is less convincing in its range and depth.

Mid Level 5: 27-28 marks As per descriptor

High Level 5: 29-30 marks

The qualities of Level 5 are securely displayed; material is convincing in range and depth consistent with Level 5.

The exposition will be controlled and the deployment logical. Some

syntactical and/or spelling errors may be found but the writing will be coherent overall. The skills required to produce convincing extended writing will be in place.




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