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The plague that strikes the Greek army represents the intervention of the gods in human affairs because the Greeks had kidnapped the daughter of a priest.
Both Achilles and Agamemnon behave pridefully and stubbornly in their interactions with each other.
The main lesson of Book I of The Iliad concerns the power of kings.
The dispute between Achilles and Agamemnon is a conflict between Achilles’ ability and Agamemnon’s authority.
As an epic hero, Achilles’ primary motive for engaging in the war is Kleos, which means that he must demonstrate this bravery and valor.
Agamemnon’s primary motive for claiming Briseis is to preserve his own reputation because he has already had to return Chryseis.
Achilles might have willingly surrendered his prize, Chryseis, to Agamemnon if Achilles were a less capable warrior than Agamemnon and if he had not been so responsible for conquering the Trojan shore.
At the end of Book I, Achilles is portrayed as bitter and vengeful.
When Hector returns home to Troy and realizes that he faces war with Greece, Homer presents the conflict between duty and family.
The conflict that Hector faces reveals that his character traits include bravery and tenderness, especially when he interacts with his son and wife.
Hector’s realization that he must fight in a war against the Greeks presents a central theme that the humans cannot escape their destiny.
Hector is motivated to return in the fight against the Trojans because he needs to avenge the death of Patroclus.
Both Achilles and Hector face the warning that they will die in battle with sadness and acceptance.
The similes Homer uses to describe the differences between Hector and Achilles suggest that they act as predator and prey.
When Hector asks Achilles to return his corpse to the Trojans, he is appealing to Achilles’ sense of ethics.
Athena’s loyalty to Achilles aids the hero in his fight against Hector and is highly important when considering the death of Hector.
The battle between Achilles and Hector and Achilles' treatment of Hector's corpse reveals the central idea of the severity of Achilles' revenge over Patroclus' death.
Achilles refuses to return Hector's body to The Trojans because he is motivated by his desire to deprive Hector of the honor of a proper burial.
Zeus decrees that Achilles should return Hector's body back to the Trojans because Hector had never failed to perform his duty of offering sacrifices to the gods.
Even though Achilles and Priam are enemies, when Priam visits Achilles to ask for his son's body back, Achilles offers his food and a seat in order fulfill his obligations as a host.
Priam convinces Achilles to return Hector's body by stirring his sympathy most effectively by comparing himself to Peleus.