There seem to be at least three schools of thought on what "renewable" energy is



Download 1.52 Mb.
Page9/38
Date conversion24.02.2016
Size1.52 Mb.
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   38

IF CONSUMERS THINK RENEWABLE ENERGY SECTOR OPPOSED CONSUMER CHOICE, IT WILL BE FATALLY DAMAGED
ALAN MILLER and ADAM SERCHUK Renewable Energy Policy Project, JUNE 1996, TITLE: Renewable Energy In Competitive Electricity Markets, http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

For decades, the renewable energy community has invested its scant resources in acquiring influence over policy-making processes. But to succeed in an era of customer choice, renewable energy would require a radically different infrastructure. Market success would depend on the ability of advocates to reach consumers, rather than their elected or appointed proxies. For example, renewable energy advocates might have to familiarize the public with climate science. If Americans come to believe that they have received "choice" despite the efforts of environmentalists, renewable energy may never recover.


IF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SECTOR OPPOSES CONSUMER CHOICE, IT WILL DESTROY ALL IT HAS GOING FOR IT
ALAN MILLER and ADAM SERCHUK Renewable Energy Policy Project, JUNE 1996, TITLE: Renewable Energy In Competitive Electricity Markets, http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Unfortunately, we suspect that implacable resistance to retail choice could severely damage the renewable energy community, while failing to slow the trend toward less regulated markets. Many Americans view renewable energy positively, attributing its diminutive market share to opposition from small-minded skeptics or entrenched special interests. Frequently, even those who oppose renewable energy projects pay the concept lip-service as a savior due to arrive sometime in the future. The renewable energy community would suffer grievously should the public come to regard it as another pressure group with a stake in business as usual.

DISCLOSURE & CERTIFICATION

DISCLOSURE IS AN EFFECTIVE MECHANISM


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD REQUIRE DISCLOSURE IN UTILITY RESTRUCTURING, BUT IMPLEMENT IT AT THE STATE LEVEL
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Several national restructuring bills are currently being considered. If Congress adopts federal legislation, disclosure should be included. The format and presentation could be left to each state to determine but electricity suppliers marketing across multiple states may prefer a uniform label. Without a uniform approach, however, its effectiveness as a consumer education tool would be seriously weakened.


OTHER EXAMPLES OF DISCLOSURE SHOW IT SILL BE EFFECTIVE FOR ELECTRICITY
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

The desirability and feasibility of such disclosure is clearly established in nutrition labeling, uniform food pricing, truth-in-lending, and many other federal consumer protection programs;


UTILITY COMMISSIONERS SUPPORT DISCLOSURE IN ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. At its annual meeting in November 1996, NARUC adopted a "Resolution in Support of Customer 'Right-to-Know' and Product Labeling Standards for the Retail Marketing of Electricity"


PROVIDING INFORMATION ABOUT ENERGY SOURCES WILL BE EASY TO DO, AND STANDARD BUSINESS PROCEDURE
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

While the task will not be trivial, claims that obtaining and providing information is technically impossible or economically onerous do not hold water. Perhaps the most important point is that these provisions are not esoteric environmental gimmicks, but normal-in fact, essential-elements of an active consumer market.


DISCLOSURE OF FUEL SOURCE IS STANDARD BUSINESS PRACTICE -- LABEL AND INGREDIENTS
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Disclosure of fuel source is no different than such right-to-know regimes as labeling the content of packaged food. Certification of power sold as "green" addresses the same truth-in-advertising concerns as the Federal Trade Commission's definitions of "low-fat," "organic," and the like. The FTC has already issued guidelines concerning claims of superior environmental performance.


DISCLOSURE CAN EASILY BE DESIGNED SO THAT IT DOES NOT OVERWHELM CONSUMERS WITH INFORMATION
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Disclosure should be simple and uniform so that consumers are not overwhelmed with information. Consumers will require significant education about different energy resources and environmental impacts in order to understand the information being provided. State utility regulators should make uniform disclosure of energy sources or environmental impacts a requirement of retail power suppliers who wish to compete in that state. Focus group market research is now planned to determine what information is of greatest interest to consumers and how best to present it.

DISCLOSURE & CERTIFICATION

CERTIFICATION WILL BE AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY


CERTIFICATION CAN PROMOTE EXISTING AND NEW RENEWABLE ENERGY FACILITIES
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

There are several ways to use certification to encourage the development of new renewable capacity, while recognizing that existing renewables are still important to achieving environmental and resource diversity benefits.

- Use existing resources as an interim measure

- Commit to build new plants

- Establish a minimum standard for new renewables:
CERTIFICATION SHOULD EMPHASIZE NEW FACILITIES
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Favor new resources: Preference in certification should be given to new resources and supplier commitments to develop new capacity, while recognizing that new renewable capacity is in short supply. This will support continued progress in the commercialization and competitiveness of environmentally-preferred generation technologies. Existing green resources likely will be part of a portfolio receiving certification but should not constitute the entire portfolio.


MANY RESPECTED GROUPS EXIST TO CERTIFY GREEN POWER
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Who Certifies Green Power? Several organizations, such as Green Seal, Scientific Certification Systems and Eco-Rating International, are in the business of environmental certification. Green Seal has been active in certifying various consumer household products using life-cycle environmental analysis. The organization sets standards for certification, and manufacturers pay to have their products evaluated. If the product is certified, it may use the Green Seal logo.


INDUSTRY SELF-CERTIFICATION CAN BE VERY SUCCESSFUL
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

(1) Develop guidelines for industry self-certification: Stakeholders would meet to develop certification guidelines. With some oversight, green power suppliers would have to certify that they meet all (or perhaps a minimum number) of these guidelines to claim approval. Advocates or competitive suppliers would have to be watchful of advertising and use the threat of public exposure to achieve compliance for questionable claims. This is the loosest approach, but it offers a way to build experience. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star label for office equipment is one successful self-certifying program for energy-efficient performance. EPA will investigate any Energy Star-labeled product whose performance has been questioned.


SIMPLE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM WILL BE WELCOMED AS A WAY TO BUILD CREDIBILITY
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Certification is a value judgement that can be used to provide credibility in marketing and help consumers easily identify preferred power supplies. In developing a certification program, there is a fundamental trade-off between easy-to-use but potentially simplistic on the one hand, and precise and comprehensive but impractical to implement on the other. The following recommendations on implementing certification favor keeping it simple.


STANDARD LABELS FOR ELECTRICITY PURCHASES WOULD BE DEVELOPED
Edward Holt, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1997; TITLE: Disclosure And Certification: Truth And Labeling For Electric Power: Competition, Green Marketing and Green Power; http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

Who would be responsible for the labeling and how would it be done? The electricity suppliers themselves should be responsible for labeling their own products according to a standard format, with penalties for deceptive information or fraud. The information should be provided by each supplier to each of its customers for the brand of electricity being sold and to potential customers as part of advertising or a prospectus. The information should be issued periodically, perhaps quarterly, and updated at least annually.


SOLVENCY-GENERAL

THE TIME IS NOW TO CHOOSE THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PATH


WHILE TIME FRAMES MAY BE LONG, THE CHOICE OF WHETHER TO PURSUE RENEWABLE ENERGY MUST BE MADE NOW!
Joseph J. Romm, Christine A. Ervin, Public Health Reports, September 19, 1996; Pg. 390; TITLE: How energy policies affect public health; includes related information // VT98-acs

The choice of whether we move toward pollution prevention stick with business as usual is being made today. Globally we are investing well over a trillion dollars a decade in new energy technology and infrastructure - and we will live with the consequences of these choices for decades to come. We have two paths. One is sustainable, profitable, and environmentally sound. The other is short term, costly, and potentially devastating from an environmental and human health perspective.


IF WE ACT NOW TO INCREASE RENEWABLE ENERGY, THE FUTURE WILL BE BRIGHT -- IF WE DO NOT, IT WILL BE VERY GRIM
Christine Ervin Assistant Secretary Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy, Federal News Service, MARCH 19, 1997, TITLE: Prepared Statement Before The House Committee On Science Subcommittee On Energy And Environment // VT98-acs

The time to move forward in our commitment to develop a balanced energy portfolio, utilizing the most advanced and efficient energy technologies and renewable energy sources, is now. If we do so, we will be able to enhance our energy security, improve our balance of trade, retain our world-class technology advantage, and secure the energy future for future generations. If we refuse to accept this challenge, we may one day be facing diminished economic opportunities,increasing health and environmental problems, underemployment, an even greater balance of trade deficit, and an uncertain energy supply.


THE SOONER WE BEGIN A MAJOR SWITCH TO RENEWABLE ENERGY, THE SOONER WE WILL GAIN THE ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 4

The sooner we make a high. priority of creating a renewable energy economy the sooner we can begin enjoying all its economic advantages In trade, energy security, employment, and domestic investment.


BECAUSE THERE IS NO ENERGY CRISIS, NOW IS THE TIME TO CHANGE POLICES
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. XIII

We need energy policies that are both proactive and farsighted. Precisely because we are not currently in an energy crisis, now is the time to reexamine energy issues and set a new course.


IF FOSSIL FUEL PROPONENTS ARE WRONG, THE PLANET IS DOOMED. IF RENEWABLE ENERGY PROPONENTS ARE WRONG THE BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY WILL ONLY BE SLIGHTLY SMALLER THAN PREDICTED
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 17

Consider the alternatives: If the proponents of more coal, oil, and natural gas use are wrong, the dire consequences those fuels may cause cannot readily be reversed. However, if proponents of efficiency and renewables are wrong, the world -- by erring on the side of prudence -- will nonetheless enjoy a cleaner and more efficient energy economy than we have today. Moreover, the longer we feed the world's fossil-fuel addiction, the harder it will be to overcome. Why indulge in irreversible global climate experiments? Far better to switch as soon as practicable to carbon dioxide-free renewables than to learn too late that we have irrevocably altered weather patterns and destabilized our only climate.


MAKING NEW POWER PLANTS BASED ON RENEWABLE ENERGY WILL TURN THE CORNER ON THE USA ENERGY FUTURE, BUT OTHERWISE THERE IS LITTLE HOPE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY EXPANSION
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 321

Over the next 15 years, the United States is expected to build the equivalent of 180 new large power plants ( 180 gigawatts) at a cost of $150 billion. Were this big new energy demand to be met by renewables, it would help bring down prices for these renewables, greatly enhancing their competitive positions. But unless we act decisively, renewables are expected to make little additional contributions to our energy supply in the next 15 years. The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration estimates that under a "business-as-usual" scenario, without intensified support for renewables, the share of our electricity produced by renewables will grow by only 2 percent from 1990 to 2010 (rising from 11 percent to 13 percent, respectively).


SOLVENCY-GENERAL

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ARE COST COMPETITIVE TODAY


COSTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ARE DROPPING AND ARE COMPETITIVE WITH CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES NOW
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 318

Virtually all renewable technologies are dropping rapidly in cost and improving in efficiency and reliability. Most are already less costly than nuclear power, and several are within 2 cents a kilowatt-hour of new coal plants (even when the costs of coal pollution are neglected along with the multi billion dollar subsidies nuclear and Fossil fuels have received.


BY NEGLECTING RENEWABLE ENERGY WE WASTE TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS EVERY DECADE
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 12

As I do the sums, the hundreds of billions of dollars in costs we incur annually through energy waste and damage caused by fossil fuels mount up to trillions of dollars a decade.


SWITCH TO RENEWABLE ENERGY IS COST COMPETITIVE TODAY
LESTER THUROW, Prof. Economics MIT, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. IX

In Charging Ahead, John J. Berger documents those threats, calls for a fundamental reorientation of national energy policy, and presents powerful economic arguments for renewable energy and energy efficiency. The energy efficiency investments he describes are cost-effective today, and can save the economy hundreds of billions of dollars. Many investments in renewables are already paying off in the form of clean, reliable, commercial generating technologies.


IF THE REAL COSTS OF ENERGY WERE DEMANDED, RENEWABLE ENERGY WOULD FLOURISH!
Irving M. Mintzer, Center for Global Change; Alan S. Miller & Adam Serchuk, Renewable Energy Policy Project. 1996; TITLE: The Environmental Imperative: A Driving Force In The Development And Deployment Of Renewable Energy Technologies, http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/repp/ //VT98-acs

In contrast to conventional energy options, renewable energy technologies exploit a far more vast resource and pose far fewer environmental risks. However, technological progress for renewables still lags behind, although it has been steady and rapid. In order to deploy renewable technologies on a large scale, the time has come for decisive action. The rationale for such action is clear: global energy systems developed their current appetite for fossil fuels only through an economic sleight of hand which permits energy consumers to ignore the staggering environmental costs of their choices. Future energy systems, whether they rely on markets or governmental mandates, must manifest greater economic honesty. Once they do so, we believe that the world will turn increasingly to renewable energy.


WHEN YOU COUNT UP ALL THE COSTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY IS THE CHEAPEST
Pamela W. Person, vice chairman of the Coalition for Sensible Energy, BANGOR DAILY NEWS (BANGOR, MAINE), April 18, 1997, TITLE: The power to demand more renewable energy What Maine citizens really want // VT98-acs

Some are saying that, without the nuclear plants, the "only recourse" are the large polluting coal plants. We say NO!

Renewables and energy conservation and efficiency are the only recourses when the total costs for energy production, use and disposal are truly counted -- such as health costs, climate change, visibility, acid precipitation, nitrogen saturation, and potential effects on crop, fisheries and forest yield.
RENEWABLE ENERGY IS NOW COMPETITIVE WITH CONVENTIONAL FUELS IF THE CONDITIONS ARE RIGHT
H.E. CHRISTOS PAPOUTSIS, European Union, RAPID, September 16, 1996. TITLE: "COMMUNITY POLICY ON RENEWABLE SOURCES OFENERGY AND THE WORLD SOLAR SUMMIT PROCESS" // VT98-acs

Technological developments in recent years, as well as growing markets, have succeeded in making renewable energy sources cost effective, under the right conditions. And, with use of appropriate technology, they can now be considered as abundant, clean, safe, predictable and reliable sources of energy.


COSTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ARE FALLING RAPIDLY
Mary Ellen Miles, Special To Real Estate Weekly, The Virginian-Pilot (Norfolk, VA), January 25, 1997, Pg. 04, TITLE: COVER STORY: THEY AREN'T GIVING UP ON THE SUN // VT98-acs

In 1960, solar electricity (a panel) was $ 2,000 per watt. In 1970, it was about $ 200 per watt. By 1980, it was down to $ 20, but that was still cost prohibitive. ''Now it's about $ 5-$ 6 and, on average, wind power is less than $ 2 per watt. So, it is becoming more cost competitive with other sources of energy.

SOLVENCY-GENERAL

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ARE TECHNOLOGICALLY WELL DEVELOPED


RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES WHICH WILL BE IMPORTANT IN THE 21ST CENTURY ARE ALREADY COMMERCIALIZED TODAY
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD): THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 4

From a historical perspective, the world today is already on the verge of a monumental energy transformation. A significant number of the wind and solar technologies that will be crucial to the twenty-first century's power supplies are already operating commercially.


RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EXIST, BUT ARE NOT BEING EXPLOITED
H.E. CHRISTOS PAPOUTSIS, European Union, RAPID, September 16, 1996. TITLE: "COMMUNITY POLICY ON RENEWABLE SOURCES OFENERGY AND THE WORLD SOLAR SUMMIT PROCESS" // VT98-acs

Renewable sources of energy constitute an economically valuable and environmentally friendly indigenous energy resource. Despite the fact that we have developed the technologies necessary to harness renewable energies, they are far from being fully exploited.


THE MAJOR BARRIER FACING RENEWABLE ENERGY IS MARKET PENETRATION, NOT TECHNOLOGY
H.E. CHRISTOS PAPOUTSIS, European Union, RAPID, September 16, 1996. TITLE: "COMMUNITY POLICY ON RENEWABLE SOURCES OFENERGY AND THE WORLD SOLAR SUMMIT PROCESS" // VT98-acs

The real obstacle, I believe, is not how to solve problems technically, but how to achieve market penetration. We have to inform and convince potential buyers and users of the advantages and reliability of renewable energy sources and technologies.


RENEWABLE ENERGY IS AN IMPORTANT FEATURE OF THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE, NOT THE DISTANT FUTURE
Christos Papoutsis, EU Commissioner, RAPID, March 21, 1997, TITLE: Speech by Commissioner Christos Papoutsis "Towards a Community action plan for renewable energy sources" // VT98-acs

To my mind, there is no doubt that renewable energy, to a large extent, is the future. And I am not speaking of a distant future.


SCHLEEDE'S CRITIQUE OF DEPT. OF ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH IS FLAWED
Lira Behrens, Inside Energy/with Federal Lands, December 9, 1996; Pg. 7, TITLE: DOE DENIES IT INFLATED BENEFITS OF EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY R&D // VT98-acs

DOE's rebuttal said Schleede's [Glenn Schleede, of Energy Market & Policy Analysis Inc.] statements were unsubstantiated and ''reflect a personal bias that is not supported by the facts.'' The department cited a 1996 General Accounting Office study that found five technologies in the DOE energy efficiency portfolio alone have resulted in more than $ 11 billion in consumer savings. ''This is substantially in excess of the entire energy efficiency r&d budget since the inception of DOE,'' the department said.

SOLVENCY-GENERAL

POLICIES TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES CAN BE EASILY IMPLEMENTED


ALL OF THE EXISTING BARRIERS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY EXPANSION CAN BE OVERCOME
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 8

While formidable, the barriers to the more rapid spread of renewables are not insurmountable. All could be overcome by enlightened national energy policies that counter special interests, make necessary institutional changes, stimulate the market for renewables and efficiency technology, provide adequate R&D support, and share the risk of small- and medium-sized innovative companies.


WHAT THE STEAM ENGINE WAS TO THE 19th CENTURY, WHAT ELECTRICITY WAS TO THE 20TH CENTURY, RENEWABLE ENERGY WILL BE TO THE 21ST CENTURY
JOHN BERGER, National Research Council, 1997; CHARGING AHEAD: THE BUSINESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR AMERICA // VT98-acs p. 314

What the Newcomen steam engine was to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and electricity to the twentieth, the synergistic impact of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and electrified transport will be to the twenty-first century. The emanations of the coming renewable energy era are already discernible, just like the first shafts of light at daybreak.

1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   38


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page