Theme World Studies from 750 B. C. to 1600 A. D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age



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Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand History

Topic First Global Age

The transoceanic linking of all the major regions of the world led to economic, political, cultural, and religious transformations.



Pacing


Content Statement

8. Empires in Africa (Ghana, Mali, and Songhay) and Asia (Byzantine, Ottoman, Mughal, and China) grew as commercial and cultural centers along trade routes.

Learning Targets:

 I can describe how Empires in Africa (Ghana, Mali, and Songhay) and Asia (Byzantine, Ottoman, Mughal, and China) grew as commercial and cultural centers along trade routes.

.


Content Elaborations

Trade was central to the economic and cultural development of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. Their wealth was primarily from the gold they mined, which attracted traders from Europe and the Middle East. These traders brought goods (e.g., salt, tools, cloth), and introduced Islam to the West African empires. Timbuktu became a leading commercial and cultural setting. It attracted scholars from many places due to its long and rich history of learning in religion, mathematics, music, law, and literature.


Important commercial and cultural centers also developed in Asia. The Byzantine empire flourished when it held the seat of the eastern Roman Empire and continued as an important trade center along the Silk Road. At its height, the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of North Africa, the Middle East, and parts of eastern Europe.
The strong empire of the Mughals in northern India enabled art, architecture, and culture to flourish. The Khyber Pass served as an important trade route.
China’s great commercial and cultural centers grew as a result of its link to the western world through the Silk Road where culture and goods were exchanged.


Content Vocabulary

 commercial

 cultural centers

 empire



Academic Vocabulary

 describe

explain

 discuss

 cite cause and effect


Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand History

Topic First Global Age

The transoceanic linking of all the major regions of the world led to economic, political, cultural, and religious transformations.



Pacing


Content Statement

9. The advent of the trans-Saharan slave trade had profound effects on both West and Central Africa and the receiving societies.

Learning Targets:

 I can describe the trans-Saharan slave trade route and explain the profound effects on both West and Central Africa and the receiving societies.

.


Content Elaborations

Slavery existed in Africa long before the arrival of Europeans. Africans became slaves through debt or from being captured in warfare. For centuries, Africans were sold by their rulers to Arab traders who moved them across the Sahara to North Africa to sell in Mediterranean countries. Many Africans died during the transport across the desert.


Unlike the Atlantic slave trade that began in the 16th century, this form of slavery was not race-based. Slaves were more like indentured servants and there was more assimilation of slaves into the culture of North Africa due to the large number of integrated marriages. Slaves generally served as servants or soldiers in contrast to the harsh conditions for slaves in the Americas.
The trans-Saharan slave trade contributed to the development of powerful African states on the southern fringes of the Sahara and in the East African interior. Rulers who sold slaves grew wealthy.
This content serves as a foundational understanding of the slave trade as students will study the trans-Atlantic slave trade in grade eight. The trans-Saharan slave trade in Africa contributed to the European rationale for the trans-Atlantic slave trade.


Content Vocabulary

 trans-Saharan

 profound

 receiving societies

 slave trade

 West and Central Africa

 societies


Academic Vocabulary

 describe

 explain

 discuss

 cite cause and effect

 effects

analysis

compare and contrast



Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand History

Topic First Global Age

The transoceanic linking of all the major regions of the world led to economic, political, cultural, and religious transformations.



Pacing


Content Statement

10. European economic and cultural influence dramatically increased through explorations, conquests, and colonization.

Learning Targets:

 I can describe how the European economic and cultural influences dramatically increased through exploration, conquest, and colonization.





Content Elaborations

As the European powers gained new territories in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, they impacted their own economies as well as the areas they claimed. The European powers (e.g., England, France, Portugal, The Netherlands, Spain) gained new wealth from the resources they acquired through their explorations, conquests, and colonization.


The Europeans transformed the cultures of their new territories by establishing similar European governmental structures, converting the indigenous peoples to Christianity, and introducing their languages and technologies. They also weakened and supplanted established cultures.


Content Vocabulary

 cultural influences

 dramatic

 colonization

 economic influences

 conquest




Academic Vocabulary

 describe

 explain

 discuss

 cite cause and effect

analysis

 compare and contrast


Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand History

Topic First Global Age

The transoceanic linking of all the major regions of the world led to economic, political, cultural, and religious transformations.



Pacing


Content Statement

11. The Columbian Exchange (e.g., the exchange of fauna, flora, and pathogens) between previously unconnected parts of the world reshaped societies in ways still evident today.

Learning Targets:

 I can explain how the Columbian Exchange (e.g., the exchange of fauna, flora, and pathogens) between previously unconnected parts of the world reshaped societies and still has an effect today.





Content Elaborations

The Columbian Exchange had a global impact culturally and biologically. The arrival of Columbus in the Americas set in motion the exchange of fauna (animal life), flora (plant life), and pathogens (microorganisms that cause diseases) between Europe, the Americas, and the rest of the world.


Europeans introduced horses, pigs, sheep, and cattle to the Americas. Foodstuffs that were transported included bananas, beans, citrus fruits, coffee, grapes, olives, rice, and sugar cane. Europeans brought communicable diseases (e.g., measles, small pox) that ravaged the American Indian population.
American Indians introduced Europeans to turkeys as well as cacao beans, maize, potatoes, tomatoes, pineapples, pumpkins, peppers, and tobacco. Diseases also were carried back to Europe but with a less devastating impact than those brought to the Americas.
The cultures in both continents adapted to these exchanges. For example, the horse became central to American Indian life, while the potato became an integral part of the Irish diet.
The Columbian Exchange impacted societies in ways still evident today. Many countries in the Americas are major producers of foodstuffs and products from animals introduced by the Europeans. Likewise, Europeans are producers and consumers of foodstuffs introduced to them by the American Indians.


Content Vocabulary

 Columbian Exchange

 fauna, flora, pathogens

 impact


 reshaped societies


Academic Vocabulary

 describe

 explain

 discuss

 cite relevance

 compare and contrast

analyze


Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand Geography

Topic Spatial Thinking

Spatial thinking examines the relationships among people, places, and environments by mapping and graphing geographic data. Geographic data are compiled, organized, stored, and made visible using traditional and geospatial technologies. Students need to be able to access, read, interpret, and create maps and other geographic representations as tools of analysis.



Pacing


Content Statement

12. Maps and other geographic representations can be used to trace the development of human settlement from past to present.

Learning Targets:

 I can demonstrate how maps and other geographic representations can be used to trace the development of human settlement from past to present.





Content Elaborations

Maps and other geographic representations such as aerial photographs, satellite-produced imagery, and geographic information systems (GIS) can be used to trace the development of human settlement from the past to the present.


These tools can be used to show the spatial relationships within and among regions and how these relationships have affected human settlement over time. For example, maps can be used to show trade routes and transportation networks between regions as well as changing political boundaries.
Maps and other geographic representations can be used to illustrate how population density varies in relation to resources and type of land.

Content Vocabulary

 geographic representation

 development of human settlement


Academic Vocabulary

 explain

 trace

 demonstrate



 analyze

 synthesize




Formative Assessments

Summative Assessments

Resources

Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand Geography

Topic Human Systems

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface. The growth, distribution, and movements of people are driving forces behind human and physical events. Geographers study patterns in cultures and the changes that result from human processes, migrations, and the diffusion of new cultural traits.



Pacing


Content Statement

13. Geographic factors promote or impede the movement of people, products, and ideas.

Learning Targets:

 I can describe how geographic factors promote or impede the movement of people, products, and ideas.




Content Elaborations

Geographic factors (e.g., climate, bodies of water, mountains, deserts, proximity to natural resources) can contribute to or impede the movement of people, products, and ideas. This includes the ability to engage in trade and war, to explore and colonize new lands, to find new places for settlement, and to spread religion and frameworks for governing.



Content Vocabulary

 geographic factors

 promote

 impede



Academic Vocabulary

 explain

 describe

 analyze

 compare and contrast


Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand Geography

Topic Human Systems

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface. The growth, distribution, and movements of people are driving forces behind human and physical events. Geographers study patterns in cultures and the changes that result from human processes, migrations, and the diffusion of new cultural traits.



Pacing


Content Statement

14. Trade routes connecting Africa, Europe, and Asia fostered the spread of technology and major world religions.

Learning Targets:

 I can explain how trade routes connecting Africa, Europe, and Asia fostered the spread of technology and major world religions.





Content Elaborations

Trade routes connecting Africa, Asia, and Europe not only provided the exchange of technology but also helped spread religious ideas.


The spread of technology took place when caravans from the East brought products such as glass, paper, the magnetic compass, and gunpowder along the Silk Road. Caravans from the West brought gold, precious metals and stones, ivory, and textiles. Islam expanded as Muslim traders travelled along the Silk Road to Asia and along trade routes connected to African kingdoms. They exchanged goods such as ornamental weapons and utensils.
Christianity spread into Europe from the Middle East along the trade routes established by the Roman Empire, mainly through the network of roads built by the Romans. It also penetrated China through the Silk Road, the major trade route connecting Europe and Asia.
Buddhism spread throughout the eastern half of Asia through trade routes that evolved over time including the Silk Road.


Content Vocabulary

 fostered

 technology

 world religions




Academic Vocabulary

 explain

 describe


Formative Assessments



Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies



Grade Seven Social Studies

Theme World Studies from 750 B.C. to 1600 A.D.: Ancient Greece to the First Global Age

Strand Geography

Topic Human Systems

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface. The growth, distribution, and movements of people are driving forces behind human and physical events. Geographers study patterns in cultures and the changes that result from human processes, migrations, and the diffusion of new cultural traits.



Pacing


Content Statement

15. Improvements in transportation, communication, and technology have facilitated cultural diffusion among peoples around the world.

Learning Targets:

 I can provide examples of improvements in transportation, communication, and technology and explain how they have facilitated cultural diffusion among peoples around the world.





Content Elaborations

Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of the traits, ideas, and products of a culture. Diffusion has increased over time with improvements in transportation, communication, and technology.


Improvements in transportation and technology facilitated cultural diffusion. For example, the roads built by the Romans allowed for the spread of Christianity. The invention of the astrolabe and magnetic compass plus improvements in shipbuilding allowed Spain to explore new lands.
Improvements in communication and technology facilitated cultural diffusion. For example, the inventions of paper and the printing press both led to mass productions of maps, pamphlets, and books. The printing of the Bible hastened the Protestant Reformation.


Content Vocabulary

 facilitate

 cultural diffusion


Academic Vocabulary

 cite


 explain


Formative Assessments


Summative Assessments

Resources


Enrichment Strategies

Integrations


Intervention Strategies

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