Theme B: Conflicts and Cooperation in the Twentieth-Century World



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Contents

Introduction

Theme B: Conflicts and Cooperation in the Twentieth-Century World

Major conflicts and the quest for peace


A. The two world wars and the peace settlements

1. The First World War, 1914 - 1918 4

2. The Paris Peace Conference, 1919 15

3. The Second World War, 1939 – 1945 26

4 Post-World War II Settlements and their impact 40

5. Comparison of the impact of the two World Wars 44

6. Comparison of the Treaty of Versailles and 47

the Potsdam Agreement in their treatment of Germany



Introduction

This booklet "The two world wars and the peace settlements" is the first of the four booklets published by Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section. It supports teachers to implement Theme B of the History Curriculum and Assessment Guide (S 4-6) (2007). The sample tasks included in this booklet demonstrate different ways of conducting assessment for learning. It will help students consolidate their historical knowledge and concepts as well as enhance their historical skills.

The sample tasks in this booklet are designed by a number of veteran teacher members of the Hong Kong Association of History Educators. We suggest teachers to make adaptation to these exemplars in their own school contexts to cater for the diverse needs of their students. The content of this booklet has been uploaded to the following website of the Education Bureau for teachers' reference and adaptation: http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=7149&langno=1

We are grateful to publishers/organizations for permission to include in the booklet materials from their publications. Every effort has been made to trace copyright but in the event of any accidental infringement, copyright owners are invited to contact us so that we can come to a suitable arrangement.

If you have any comments and suggestions on this booklet, please send to :

Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE)

Curriculum Development Institute

Education Bureau

Room 1319, 13/F, Wu Chung House

213 Queen's Road East

Wanchai, Hong Kong

OR

Fax: 2573 5299 / 2575 4318



E-mail: ccdopshe@edb.gov.hk

Major conflicts

and the quest for peace

A. The two world wars and



the peace settlements

Major conflicts and the quest for peace
A. The two world wars and the peace settlements
A1 The First World War, 1914 - 1918

Enquiry question:

How did a local war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia contribute to a Great War in 1914?



No. of periods required:

8 (Each period lasts for 40 minutes)



1. Teaching background

a. There are 40 students in a class and the topic will be taught at S5.

b. Students should have developed some analytical power at lower forms and S4.

c. Academically, students are above average. They are attentive and hardworking.



2. Teaching instructions

a. 2 lessons (40 minutes per lesson) will be spent on a brief introduction of the relationships among the European powers at the beginning of the 20th century. (Appendix 1 and Worksheet 1)

b. Then students should be able to provide some background knowledge about the European powers, namely Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.

c. 2 lessons will be spent on international conflicts, namely the Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911, the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. The teacher should also point out the attempts made by the powers to keep peace, for instance, the Algeciras Conference in 1906 and the Second Hague Conference of 1907, and how the European powers gave way, though discontented, in the midst of the crises. (Appendix 2)

d. 4 lessons will be spent on how the assassination at Sarajevo turned a local war into a general war. A video clip will be played to engage students in emphatic understanding of the topic.(Appendix 3 and Worksheet 2)

3. Expected outcomes / difficulties

a. Students can have a vivid picture of the relationship among major European powers.

b. They can grasp the main ideas of what happened on the eve of the First World War. A chain of friendship among the powers finally triggered off the First World War.

c. A close supervision over students’ written assignment and data-based questions should be done in order to see whether the students are on task.

d. Students may find it difficult to grasp the underlying causes of the First World War, which they have learnt at S3.

Appendix 1
Developments in major European countries in the early 20th century
Britain

Britain had long maintained her naval supremacy. She paid much attention to her trade.


Britain adopted an isolation policy since she did not want to bother with what happened in other countries. Once her interests were infringed, she would give up the policy. She broke her isolation policy and signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1902. She also had closer relations with France when she signed the Entente Cordiale in 1904.
France

France wanted to take revenge on Germany because of her defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. She was isolated before the 1880s. However, after the lapse of the Reinsurance Treaty, she was able to establish friendly relations with Russia by signing the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894. She also wanted to establish a large colonial empire in North Africa.


Germany

Germany pursued an aggressive foreign policy under Kaiser William II. (Worksheet 1) She always wanted to find "a place in the sun". This brought her into conflicts with other European countries. For instance, her colonial expansion over Morocco and her military build-up created conflicts with France and Britain respectively.


Germany wanted to unite all the Germans and she adopted Pan-Germanism. This made her ally with Austria-Hungary, which was of the same race.
Russia

Russia always looked for warm water ports and wanted to extend her influence into the Balkans. This led her into conflicts with Austria-Hungary. As a protector of the Slav race, Russia always supported Serbia. She was a supporter of Pan-Slavism.


Austria-Hungary

Because of her defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary wanted to extend her influence into the Balkans so as to regain her lost prestige. This brought her into conflicts with Russia and Serbia. She also adopted Pan-Germanism and established close link with Germany. She was also an ally of Germany. She signed the Dual Alliance with Germany in 1879 and the Triple Alliance with Germany and Italy in 1882.


Italy

Among the six major European powers, Italy was the weakest one. Italy wanted to acquire more colonies. After her loss of Tunisia to France, she joined the Dual Alliance immediately and signed the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882. However, her colonial conflicts with France were settled in 1902.



Worksheet 1
Study the Source and answer the questions.

The following was a French cartoon of Kaiser William II.



Source: http://schools-wikipedia.org/images/423/42365.jpg.htm (accessed on 23/07/2012)

1. What was the view of the cartoonist towards Kaiser William II? Explain your answer with reference to the Source. (2 marks)

The cartoonist had a negative view towards Kaiser William II. He thought that Kaiser William II was ambitious as he was eating the whole world.


2. Is it an accurate depiction of Kaiser William II's policies between 1900 and 1914? Explain your answer with reference to your own historical knowledge. (6 marks)

It is an accurate depiction of Kaiser William II’s policies between 1900 and 1914. According to my own knowledge, he passed the Naval Laws and began to build dreadnoughts. He still kept his friendly relations with Austria-Hungary in order not to be isolated. He also had colonial conflicts with France over Morocco. When Bosnian Crisis and Balkan Wars happened, she also sided with Austria-Hungary by giving her support to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 and making Albania independent. On the eve of the First World War, he also gave unconditional support to Austria-Hungary, which turned a local war into a general war.



Appendix 2
International crises on the eve of the First World War

In the early 20th century, rivalries among major European powers led to a series of crises in Africa and the Balkans. These pre-war crises brought the two rival armed camps to open confrontation and further speeded up the armament race. A war was generally expected by the European powers.


1. The First Moroccan Crisis, 1905
Background

Morocco is located in Northwest Africa and was rich in mineral resources and trading opportunities. She was an independent country ruled by the sultan. Both France and Germany wanted to get the place because of its economic and strategic values.


The crisis

Kaiser William II was alarmed by the Entente Cordiale in 1904 by which France was given a free hand in Morocco. To check French ambition, he visited Tangier, a Moroccan chief port, in 1905 in a gunboat and declared his support to the Moroccan independence against French control. This created international tension.


France wanted to add Morocco into her North African Empire but Germany insisted on the independence of the state. The Kaiser then proposed an international conference to settle the status of Morocco. Finally, an international conference of 12 states met at Algeciras in Spain in 1906 to settle the problem.
After the Conference, it was agreed that Morocco should remain independent, but became a French sphere of influence. A Franco-Spanish force was to keep order in Morocco. In other words, France was allowed to keep order in Morocco.
Significance

The Moroccan Crisis proved to be a humiliation to Germany. This was because Britain, Russia, Spain and Italy supported France whereas only Austria-Hungary supported Germany. It tightened the relations between France and Germany. Britain's support for France in the crisis strengthened the Entente Cordiale, which was later changed from a diplomatic agreement into a military one. The crisis also strengthened the ties between Britain and Russia as they both supported France against Germany and were threatened by the growing power of Germany. This paved the way for the formation of Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907 and later the Triple Entente in 1907.

On the other hand, Germany felt humiliated and isolated. She now regarded Austria-Hungary as her only reliable ally. This in turn bound her to support Austrian expansion in the Balkans.

2. The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911
Background

In 1911, there was an internal disorder against the sultan in Morocco. The sultan then asked France for help. Thus, France sent troops to occupy Fez, the Moroccan capital, to restore order.


Germany regarded the French action as a violation of the decisions of the Algeciras Conference. As a sign of protest against the French action, Germany sent the gunboat "Panther" to Agadir, a Moroccan port. This led to the Second Moroccan Crisis.
Results

War seemed likely between France and Germany. France sought the support of Britain. The German show of naval force alarmed Britain because the latter feared that Agadir would become a German naval base. She supported France by preparing her fleet for action.


As Germany was not prepared to fight, she withdrew and agreed to make compromise. By the Moroccan Convention, Germany recognized French rights over Morocco, which became a French protectorate. In return, France ceded a part of the French Congo to Germany.
Significance

The Second Moroccan Crisis further worsened the relations between France and Germany. Suffering another diplomatic defeat, Germany further expanded her army and navy. On the other hand, Britain and France were driven closer together since they were alarmed by Germany's aggressive action. They agreed to a joint naval defence.


In addition to the intensification of relations between France and Germany, the crisis strengthened the Triple Entente. Moreover, the "gunboat policy" speeded up the armament race in Europe. This paved the way for further conflicts.
The unstable situation in the Balkans sparked off the First World War. The expansionist attitude of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia in contrast to the nationalist goals of the Balkan states created chaos in the Balkans in the early 20th century.


3. Bosnian Crisis, 1908
Background

Austria-Hungary was allowed to administer Bosnia-Herzegovina in the Congress of Berlin, 1878. Serbia wanted to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina because she was geographically landlocked in the Balkans. Also, she wanted to unite all the Slavs. This led to Austro-Serbian rivalries in the Balkans.


In 1908, a group of patriotic Turkish reformers who were known as Young Turks revolted against the Turkish Sultan successfully and set up a new government. The revolt made Austria-Hungary fear that the Young Turks might regain control over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary thus formally annexed the two provinces in 1908. This led to the Bosnian Crisis in 1908.
Results

However, the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina was opposed by Turkey, Russia and Serbia. Austrian annexation antagonized Serbia because she wanted to bring Bosnia and Herzegovina under her control and form a large Slav country. Serbia then asked Russia for help.


At the same time, Germany warned Russia if there were an Austro-Serbian war, Germany would give full support to Austria-Hungary. At this stage, Russia had not fully recovered from her defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Revolution. Moreover, she was not sure of British and French support in case of a war. Facing diplomatic isolation, both Serbia and Russia had to agree to Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Significance

The crisis elevated anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia. Thus, Serbia supported anti-Austrian secret societies against Austria-Hungary, for example, the Black Hand. The relations between Austria-Hungary and Serbia worsened. The activities of the secret societies finally led to the Sarajevo Incident in 1914. Besides, the Austro-German diplomatic victory further encouraged their aggression.



4. The First Balkan War, 1912
Background

Taking advantage of the decline of Turkey, Italy defeated Turkey and got Tripoli in 1912. The Turkish defeat encouraged the Balkan states to gain Balkan territories and this led to the Balkan Wars.


The Turkish misrule in Macedonia provided the excuse for the Balkan states to declare war on Turkey. In 1912, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro formed the Balkan League and attacked Turkey. Turkey was defeated.
The powers held the London Conference to decide the distribution of the Turkish lands. By the Treaty of London of 1913, Turkey lost all her European territory except Constantinople.
Serbia wanted Albania in order to get an access to the Adriatic Sea but it was opposed by Italy and Austria-Hungary. With the support of Germany, an independent Albania was formed and Macedonia was divided between Serbia and Greece. Nevertheless, the independence of Albania upset Serbia since she wanted to acquire Albania.
Friction over the Treaty of London

However, the victors among the Balkan League soon quarreled among themselves over the division of land. Bulgaria was dissatisfied with the territorial settlement because she could not get Macedonia.


Serbia was also dissatisfied with the formation of an independent Albania. Austria-Hungary firmly opposed Serbia’s ambition over Albania since it would greatly increase the latter’s power. She was firmly determined to prevent Serbia from gaining access to the sea and obtained support from Germany in making Albania an independent nation. This further increased Austro-Serbian conflict.

5. The Second Balkan War, 1913
The Second Balkan War broke out because of the dissatisfaction generated from the friction among the victors over the shares of the land. Bulgaria was dissatisfied because she could not get Macedonia. This made her declare war on her former allies.
In the Second Balkan War, Turkey and Rumania joined the war against Bulgaria in the hope of gaining territories. Bulgaria was defeated quickly. The Treaty of Bucharest of 1913 ended the war. By the Treaty, Bulgaria had to cede south Dobruja to Rumania; Macedonia was divided among Greece, Montenegro and Serbia; Albania became autonomous; and Turkey regained Adrianople.

Appendix 3
How did the assassination at Sarajevo turn a local war

into a Great War?
Teacher can show the video clip: Murder in Sarajevo 1914 to students to facilitate their understanding of the outbreak of the First World War . This video clip lasts for 4 minutes 10 seconds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEa7Xseq4rc (accessed on 23/07/2012)
While playing the video clip, teacher can ask questions to ensure students' participation and empathic understanding of the scenario on the eve of the First World War. This further enhances their understanding of how a local war turned into a general war.
Students are also encouraged to visit the following websites and further investigate the issue.
http://www.worldwar1.com/biohff2.htm (accessed on 23/07/2012)

http://www.worldwar1.com/biohff.htm (accessed on 23/07/2012)

http://www.worldwar1.com/biosgprn.htm (accessed on 23/07/2012)

Worksheet 2
Study the Source and explain how a local war turned into a general war in 1914.

Source: The cartoon 'A chain of friendship', published in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 1914.

From the cartoon, Serbia claimed that she would take actions when Austria-Hungary touched her. It is true that Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. However, as a Slav state, Russia also supported Serbia in this local conflict. On the other hand, Germany, as Austria-Hungary's ally, supported her. The fifth person stands for France. France, as an ally of Russia, supported her as well. However, Britain joined the war not because of the alliance, but because of the German violation of Belgian neutrality. The above shows how a local war turned into a general war.

Major conflicts and the quest for peace
A. The two world wars and the peace settlements
A2 The Paris Peace Conference, 1919

Enquiry question:

In what ways did the Paris Peace Conference lead to the outbreak of the Second World War?



No. of periods required:

10 (Each period lasts for 40 minutes)



Teaching background

a. Students have learnt the outbreak of the First World War and a continuation of cause-and-effect relationship will be followed. A postwar conference was held after the end of the First World War.

b. Students are active in nature and take much initiative in their work. A role play, an oral presentation and a debate are desirable methods to bring a vivid picture to all students.

Teaching instructions

a. 4 lessons will be spent on role play and oral presentation. Students are asked to prepare the play by themselves and then an oral presentation will be followed.

b. 3 lessons will be spent on debate.

c. 3 lessons will be spent on analyzing the sources and providing feedback to students’ work.


Activity 1: Role play
Main characters in the Paris Peace Conference

1. Woodrow Wilson (President of the USA)

2. David Lloyd George (Prime Minister of Britain)

3. Georges Clemenceau (Premier of France)

4. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (Prime Minister of Italy)

5. Some delegates of victorious countries (in the conference room)

6. Some delegates of defeated countries, namely Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria (outside the conference room)

1. Teaching procedures

a. Students should be asked to surf the websites and do Worksheet 1 as pre-lesson preparation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson (accessed on 23/07/2012)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Lloyd_George (accessed on 23/07/2012)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Clemenceau (accessed on 23/07/2012)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vittorio_Orlando (accessed on 23/07/2012)

b. Before the lessons are conducted, students (the actors) have been given the above information to prepare their role play. It is better to ask some students to be volunteers. They should read the pre-assigned materials before hand and do their role plays during the lessons. Some background information should be provided. About 10 students are assigned the work.

c. The rest of the students should watch the scenes and write down the common aims of the representatives and individual aims of the main representatives in the Conference. Students can work individually at first and then group all their written work together. Then an oral presentation should be made by the groups. The role play will be conducted for about 20 minutes, and the discussion and oral presentation will be for 30 minutes. A roundup session by the teacher will be for 20 minutes.

d. A consolidation should be done in order to convey the ideas clearly to the students. This part should be done by the teacher. One more lesson should be used by the teacher to consolidate the content and show how the aims of the Big Four were realized in the end. The teacher is advised to make use of photos and pictures to reinforce the topic to the students. The teacher may use the above websites to help students visualize the outlook of the "Big Four".

2. Expected outcome / difficulties

a. As students are involved in the activities, they should be able to grasp the general aims and individual aims of the peacemakers in the Paris Peace Conference. Students, especially the actors, should be more active in the role play and this enables students to have deeper understanding of the Paris Peace Conference. It is expected that even low academic level students are able to point out the feelings of the representatives in different scenario.

b. Teacher may find it difficult whether the students are on task, especially those actors. Thus, it is advised that teacher may have some sort of rehearsal with those actors before the actual lessons. This enables the smooth running of the lessons.

Worksheet 1
The Paris Peace Conference

1. Common aims of the peacemakers in the Paris Peace Conference

They wanted to maintain peace.
2. Individual aims of the peacemakers in the Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson of the USA

Woodrow Wilson wanted to maintain peace by establishing the League of Nations, promoting national self-determination and encouraging disarmament. He wanted to have a fair treatment on Germany.


David Lloyd George of Britain

David Lloyd George wanted to weaken Germany, but not permanently, as Britain still needed Germany as her trading partner. He also wanted Germany to lose her colonies. On the whole, he wanted to have a moderate punishment on Germany.


Georges Clemenceau of France

Georges Clemenceau wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine and demand a huge reparation from Germany. He wanted to take revenge on Germany as France's defeat by Germany in the Franco-Prussian War had been a great humiliation to her.


Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando wanted to get Fiume and Dalmatia as a reward for Italy's contribution in the First World War.


3. What were the feelings of those representatives who could participate in the Paris Peace Conference?

The Big Three, namely the USA, Britain and France, were satisfied with the settlement as they were the ones to dictate the treaty terms. However, other representatives might not be contented with the results as their interests would not be represented.


4. What were the feelings of those defeated countries who were not allowed to join the Paris Peace Conference?

Those defeated countries were discontented with the Paris Peace Conference because they were not allowed to participate in the conference and this means that their views could not be expressed and the treaties were dictated by the Big Three. Thus, they were forced to accept the treaty terms.


5. What were the problems created after the Paris Peace Conference?

As the treaties were dictated by the Big Three, resentments from the defeated countries arose. For instance, Germany was the one who blamed the war-guilt clause. Though Italy was a victorious country, she could not get what she wanted. This made her discontented, too.


Activity 2: Debate

1. Teaching aims

a. To develop students' logical thinking and presentation skills

b. To develop students' collaborative and communication skills

c. To enhance students' abilities in making counter-arguments



2. Teaching procedures

a. After going over the treaties signed between the victorious countries and defeated countries, students should be able to grasp the ideas over different treatments towards the Central Powers. Debate will then be held so that students can develop their analytical power and present their view logically.

b. The debate will be conducted within two lessons.

c. Students are divided into 2 sides. One is "For" while the other is "Against". First, teacher can give 5 minutes to each student to think about his/her arguments alone. Then students should form a group of 4 and make their arguments within 10 minutes.

d. One group for each side will be called to present the views of their groups. Each group will be given 8 minutes to present their ideas. The rest of the groups from each side can supplement the points within 5 minutes.

e. After the two groups' presentations, they should make counter-arguments for not more than 5 minutes. The rest of the groups can supplement the points after the counter-arguments.

f. The teacher then rounds up the debate and makes feedback to students. Students are also encouraged to provide some sort of feedback to classmates.

g. It is then followed by a writing task for all students. This consolidates their understanding of the topic and develops their skills in presenting their points logically. Unlike the previous task (debate), students are free to express their views in this task. The essay topic is as follows:

"Do you agree that the Treaty of Versailles was a fair treaty to Germany? Support your view with evidence."

h. Data-based questions should also be given to students either as classwork or homework

(Worksheets 2 and 3).

3. Expected outcomes / difficulties

a. Students are expected to see the arguments from both sides and make their own judgments on this controversial issue.

b. Students are expected to respect other people's views on controversial issue.

c. It is difficult to do the debate if students have not been taught about the later development of Germany.



"The Treaty of Versailles was a fair treaty imposed on Germany."


FOR

AGAINST

Germany had to bear the responsibilities for causing the outbreak of the First World War.
Germany was the first country to start the alliance system.
Germany built the dreadnoughts which heightened the international tension, especially worsening the relations with Britain.
(Other sensible arguments can be made.)

Germany should not be the only one to bear the responsibility because all those who joined the First World War should also bear the responsibility.
The alliance started by Germany was only defensive in nature.
Germany was not allowed to participate in the Paris Peace Conference and thus she could not voice her opinions.
(Other sensible arguments can be made.)



Assessment criteria
High: Students should be able to support their view by providing concrete and convincing arguments with historical facts. They should also demonstrate their abilities in making counter-arguments.
Medium: Students should be able to support their view by providing concrete and convincing arguments with historical facts. However, their counter-arguments may not be clearly made.
Low: Students are not able to support their view with concrete and convincing arguments. They also fail to provide clear counter-arguments

Worksheet 2
Study the Source and answer the following questions.

The following cartoon shows the scene in 1919.




Source: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan18.html (accessed on 23/07/2012)

1. Name the country represented by the hypnotist on the left. (1 mark)

The hypnotist represents Germany.


2. What did the hypnotist try to do on the man sitting in the chair? Was the hypnotist successful in the end? Explain your answer with reference to the Source and using your own historical knowledge. (5 marks)

The hypnotist tried to hypnotize the man with closed eyes (labeled "Allies") sitting in the chair and said that "Now can't you see yourself equally guilty?". He wanted to make the man who was sitting in a chair accept his responsibility for causing the outbreak of the First World War. However, the man replies, "Nope!", which means that he denied the responsibility for the war. The defeated nations were not allowed to attend the Pairs Peace Conference. In the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to accept the war-guilt clause.


3. Does the cartoon reflect the view of the Allies in the Paris Peace Conference? Explain your answer with reference to the historical facts. (5 marks)

The cartoon reflects the view of the Allies in the Paris Peace Conference. As shown in the cartoon, the Allies did not think that they should be held responsible for causing the world war. The peace treaties were dictated by the Big Three. Even though some representatives thought that there should be a fair treatment on Germany, they finally gave in because of the pressure of their own countries. France insisted on the harsh punishment on Germany because she had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Peace Conference served as a chance for her to take revenge on Germany. Finally, Germany was forced to accept a harsh treaty, especially the war-guilt clause.



Worksheet 3
Study the Source and answer the following questions.

The following is a cartoon about the formation of the League of Nations.



Source: http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW2Pics/81481.GIF

1. Name the person on the left. Cite ONE clue to support your answer. (1+1 marks)

The person on the left was Woodrow Wilson. The man with "WW" on his shirt shows the initials of Woodrow Wilson.


2. What was the man on the right trying to do? Explain your answer with reference to the Source. (3 marks)

The man on the right representing the Senate was trying to use an axe to chop the tree which represents the League Covenants.


3. Is it an accurate depiction of the situation when the League of Nations was formed? Explain your answer with reference to the Source and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)

Yes, it is. Woodrow Wilson proposed the setting up of the League of Nations in his Fourteen Points and the incorporation of the charter of the proposed League of Nations into the Treaty of Versailles, but the Senate turned down his proposal. Finally, the US did not join the League of Nations.


Major conflicts and the quest for peace
A. The two world wars and the peace settlements
A3 Causes of the Second World War

Enquiry question:

"The Second World War was primarily caused by the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War." Do you agree?



No. of periods required:

12 (Each period lasts for 40 minutes)



Teaching Procedures

1. Teacher can teach the causes of the Second World War in relation to the effects brought by the First World War. Teacher should let students think of the causes of WWII in relation to the First World War and students can then develop their view on which factor was the most important one in leading to the outbreak of the Second World War. It is advised to engage students into activities by using cartoons and sources in order to bring a vivid picture to the cause-and-effect relationship between the two world wars.


2. 10 lessons will be spent on teaching the causes of the Second World War.

a. Resentment towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War (Worksheet1)

b. Rise of totalitarian states in Europe (Worksheets 2 and 3)

c. Attempts at collective security

d. Great Depression

e. Appeasement policy

f. Violation of the terms (Worksheet 4)
3. 2 lessons will be spent on group discussion. The discussion will last for 20 minutes. Then each group should give a 5-minute presentation on this. If possible, it can then be followed by a writing task assigned to all students. The question is: "The Second World War was primarily caused by the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War." Do you agree?

1. Resentment towards the peace treaties after the First World War
Worksheet 1
The following is a poster about the German feelings towards the punishment of Germany after the First World War.

Source: http://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/490168/clemenceau-vampire-cartoon/

1. As a defeated country, what were the German resentments towards the Paris Peace Conference? Answer the question using the source and your own historical knowledge.

Clemenceau was depicted as a vampire sucking the blood of the German lady who was on the bed. Germany resented the war-guilt clause and a huge reparation imposed on her. She was not allowed to participate in the Paris Peace Conference and thus she was forced to sign the treaty. The territorial losses made her lose her own population. The loss of colonies and the huge reparation made it hard for Germany to recover after the war.


2. With reference to question 1, do you think only the defeated countries were resentful at the decision made by the Pairs Peace Conference? Explain your answer with example.

Italy, one of the victorious countries, also had resentment at the decisions made by the Pairs Peace Conference. Italy was dissatisfied because she could not get Fiume and Dalmatia. What she got could not compensate what she had lost. Even though she was one of the Big Four, she had little influence in the Paris Peace Conference. The economic damage to Italy was great and this made her government unpopular in the minds of the Italians.



2. Rise of totalitarian states in Europe
Features of a totalitarian state

• One-man rule

One-party dictatorship

• Use of terror

Planned economy

• Control over education

Control over mass media

• Control over religion

• Expansionist foreign policies
Can we regard Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany as totalitarian states?

(Please refer to Worksheets 2 and 3)


Worksheet 2
Can we regard Fascist Italy as a totalitarian state? Justify your answer.


Features of a totalitarian stat e

If yes, put a “”.

If no, put an “X”

Evidence

(1) One-man rule



Mussolini was the Il Duce of the country.

(2) One-party dictatorship




Only Fascist party was allowed. Other parties were outlawed.

(3) Use of terror




Secret police was used to search for signs of opposition.

(4) Planned economy



Mussolini set up 22 corporations and Italy was a corporate state.

(5) Control over education




Schools were used to indoctrinate Fascist ideas.

(6) Control over mass media



Mass media was used to glorify the leader and the Fascist Party.

(7) Control over religion


X

There was no control over religion. Rather there was a compromise with the Catholic Church. Mussolini signed Lateran Treaty with the Pope in 1929.

(8) Expansionist foreign policies



In 1923, Italy occupied Corfu.

In 1924, Italy got Fiume.

In 1935-36, Italy invaded Abyssinia.

In 1936, Italy, together with Germany, intervened in the Spanish Civil War.

In 1936, Italy and Germany formed the Berlin-Rome Axis.

In 1939, Italy annexed Albania.

In 1939, she signed the Pact of Steel.



Worksheet 3
Can we regard Nazi Germany as a totalitarian state? Justify your answer.


Features of a totalitarian stat e

If yes, put a “”.

If no, put an “X”

Evidence

(1) One-man rule



The passing of the Enabling Act in 1933 was to ensure the power in the hands of Hitler. Hitler was Fuhrer of Germany.

(2) One-party dictatorship



Only Nazi Party was allowed in Germany and other parties were illegal.

(3) Use of terror



The Fire on the Reichstag building was used to get rid of the Communists. Gestapo was used to search for signs of opposition.

(4) Planned economy



Germany adopted two Four-Year Plans.

(5) Control over education



Schools were used to indoctrinate Nazi ideas.

(6) Control over mass media



Mass media was used to glorify the leader and the Nazi Party.

(7) Control over religion



Religion was put under strict control. Priests were persecuted.

(8) Expansionist foreign policies



In 1933, Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.

In 1935, Germany introduced conscription, and built up army and navy.

In 1936, Germany and Italy intervened in the Spanish Civil War.

In 1936, German troops remilitarized the Rhineland.

In 1936, Germany signed Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan.

In 1937, Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis was formed.

In 1938, Germany annexed Austria.

In 1938, Germany got the Sudetenland.

In 1939, Germany annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia.

In 1939, Germany signed Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union.

In 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and the Second World War broke out.



3. Attempts at collective security
a. League of Nations

Structure



The weaknesses of the League of Nations

Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/hypertextopia/public/uploads/4254/league_of_nations.jpg

(accessed on 23/07/2012)

Woodrow Wilson suggested the formation of the League of Nations to keep world peace in his "Fourteen Points". The League was formed finally but the United States failed to ratify. Thus the United States, who had produced the idea for the League, was not a member.


Membership was not universal, meaning that certain countries could be kept out. For instance, Germany, as a defeated country, could not join the League of Nations. Russia, as a communist country, could not join either. Authority, however, was expected to be mandatory. This meant that a country could be issued orders or requests despite not being a member of the League.
Another problem of the League was the need for consensus. Nothing was accomplished unless the members unanimously agreed. Therefore, not much actually got done.

b. Signing of international agreements
The Dawes Plan (1924)



Locarno Treaties (1925)

Non-Aggression Pact


France

Belgium

Germany

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

c. The calling of disarmament Conferences

Washington Conference, 1921-22

London Naval Conference, 1930

Geneva Conference, 1932-34



4. The Great Depression

Source: http://images.businessweek.com/ss/07/04/0426_dow/image/2_great_depression.jpg

(accessed on 23/07/2012)



5. Appeasement policy

Source: a British cartoon by David Low in February 1938

The above is a British cartoon of 1938 which shows Germany crushing Austria. Next in line is Czechoslovakia. At the back, Britain says to France, who is next-to-last: "Why should we take a stand about someone pushing someone else when it’s all so far away?" This shows the appeasement policy adopted by both Britain and France.


6. Violation of treaty terms

Aggressive actions of Hitler in the 1930s (Worksheet 4)


Worksheet 4
Please complete the following table.


Foreign policies of Germany in the 1930s

Please put a "" if the action violated the Treaty of Versailles.

(1) In 1933 Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.




(2) In 1935, Hitler introduced conscription and built up the air-force and navy. 



(3) In 1936, the German troops moved into Rhineland.



(4) In 1936, Germany signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan.




(5) In 1937, Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis was signed among Germany, Italy and Japan.




(6) In 1938, Germany annexed Austria and the latter became an eastern province of Germany. Hitler then declared Anschluss.



(7) In 1938, Germany was given the Sudetenland.



(8) In 1939, Germany annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia.



(9) In 1939, Germany signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union.




(10) In 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The Second World War broke out.



Class activity: Discussion
"The Second World War was primarily caused by the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War." Do you agree with the above statement? Justify your answer. (15 marks)


Criteria

Grade

Marks

- Coherent presentation with reasonable analysis of the importance of the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War relative to other factors in causing the Second World War, supported by solid examples.

A

14-15

- Shows good understanding of the question's theme, clearly examine the importance of the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War relative to other factors in causing the Second World War. Examples cover a considerable part of the inter-war period.

B

12-13

- Shows good understanding of the theme of the question, and make concrete attempts to examine the importance of the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War relative to other factors in causing the Second World War, but the discussion is obviously lopsided to the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War. Examples cover a considerable part of the inter-war period.

C

10-11

- Shows general understanding of the question, and the discussion attempts to deal with both the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War and other factors, but marred by rough arguments and/or vagueness in discussing the relative importance.

D

8-9

- Shows awareness of the question, narrates on the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War and other factors and attempts to reach a conclusion about 'extent', though marred by rough arguments and overgeneralization.

- Contains obvious factual errors.



E

6-7

- A narration of the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War in causing the Second World War, without mentioning any other factors; or

- Attempts to discuss 'extent', though primarily on 'other factors' and largely ignores the discontent towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War.



E/F

5

- A narration of factors other than the resentments towards the peace treaties signed after the First World War in causing the Second World War; or

- A narration of the developments of the Second World War, without discussing the factors causing the war.



F

3-4
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