Thematic Unit Outline Target Age/Grade for the Unit: 11 th



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Thematic Unit Outline

  • Target Age/Grade for the Unit: 11th Grade U.S. History

  • Content of this Unit: Economic Expansion from 1865 to WWI

  • NCSS Standards Explored by the Unit: People, Places and Environments; Individuals, Groups and Institutions; Production, Distribution and Consumption; Science, Technology and Society; Global Connections; Civic Ideals and Practices; Culture and Cultural Diversity

  • NYS Core Curriculum SS Concepts Explored by this Unit:

Conflict, Belief Systems, Civic Values, Urbanization, Factors of Production, Justice, Diversity

  • SS Skills Developed during the Unit:

Higher level thinking skills to grapple with essential question

Locate sources of information for research

Evaluate and draw inferences from data

Write in an expository way with an introduction, body, and conclusion

Participation in group planning and discussion



  • Essential Question of the Unit: Did economic growth benefit most Americans?

_____________________________________________________________________________


Please address the following (2-3 pages):


  1. Why is the unit topic/theme important?

The theme of economic growth is important because the notion that growth benefits everyone in a society is too often accepted without question. An essential aspect of critical thinking is the ability to intelligently question the conventional wisdom of the day. One role of a social studies teacher is to demonstrate how an understanding of history can help us develop this ability to analyze own society. The period between the Civil War and the First World War is a good place to examine this question because it was a period of tremendous economic growth, the positive and negative consequences of which were quite dramatic. It was a period with many parallels to American society today: New technology that made the world a smaller place and opened up new opportunities for business, increasing levels of socioeconomic inequality, and a surge of immigration that raised the question of what were the criteria for being a “real” American. At the same time, there are many differences between the two periods, not the least of which is that turn of the last century had a greater number of public voices questioning the direction of American society. The unit’s culminating project is an attempt to capture that atmosphere of debate and to build students’ ability to also look at our current society from multiple points of view.

  1. Why are these skills and concepts appropriate for your students?

Of the many concepts covered in this unit, the most important is conflict, which is defined by the New York State Social Studies Resource Guide as “a clash of ideas, interests, or wills that result from incompatable [sic] opposing forces.” (I will let the fact that the state education board misspells the word incompatible pass without comment.) Most students think of conflict as a bad thing that should be avoided, which can lead them to marginalize alternative points of view rather then see them as central to history. I want my students to get comfortable with understanding different points of view while also understanding that history is often not determined by which side is “right” but by which side is more powerful. The theme of conflict is challenging to many high school students because it involves higher level cognitive skills such as analysis and evaluation. At the same time, the theme of conflict can be especially appropriate to students in urban public schools because they can relate some history to some of the conflicts that they directly experience.

The skill of higher level cognition is appropriate because many high school students do not use higher level skills – they want to look for the correct answer and move on. This is no way to understand the world we live in, which the goal of social studies. This skill is developed in this unit by reinforcing the debates and different points of view of this period: the experience of pioneers versus that of the Nez Pierce, Andrew Carnegie’s concept of fairness versus the fairness envisioned by his workers at Homestead Steel, the competing visions of African American progress of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois.

The other skills in this unit are related to research, writing, and group presentation. It is important for social studies teachers to also be writing teachers, research teachers, and collaborative work teachers. All of these are essential skills for college, many jobs, and active citizenship.

3) In what ways are you planning to accommodate all students throughout this unit?

The culminating project requires students to demonstrate a considerable amount of research and cognitive skills. The unit is designed to provide scaffolding for all students to be able to reach, or at least to approach this skill level. Three days in the four week unit are devoted to teaching students different aspects of writing a research paper. Early deadlines for initial research and first drafts will allow me to see which students require extra assistance.

Throughout the unit, different lessons are designed to engage students with different intelligences. The assembly line lesson, borrowed from Bring Learning Alive!1, taps into students’ kinetic intelligence. The radical songs lesson is designed for students with high musical intelligence. Throughout the unit I will employ students’ visual intelligence by using maps, photographs, and drawings in addition to written documents. In addition, there are a number of lessons, in addition to the culminating project, that involve group work that engages students’ intra-personal intelligence.

Finally, I plan to reach out to students who “just don’t like social studies” by engaging them in lively discussions. There are a number of lessons in this unit that will engage students in debates: Should there be more than two political parties? Were the industrial philanthropists heroes or hypocrites? Is social Darwinism correct? For a variety of reasons, some students enter 11th grade already convinced that history is unimportant. While this unit may not completely change their minds, I do think that it will keep them interested.



People, Places and Environments

Urbanization

Westward Expansion

Indigenous Relocation



Individuals, Groups and Institutions

Laissez-Faire

Populism

Progressive Era Reforms

Suffrage Movement

Jim Crow laws

Socialism and Anarchism

Unions



Connections Map





Social Studies


Production, Distribution and Consumption/Science, Technology and Society

Economic expansion

Corporations

Monopolies

Assembly Line

Unions


Socialism
Unit Focus

Capitalist Expansion




Culture and Society

Industrial technology

Radical songs

Suffrage movement

Immigrant cultures

Social Darwinism


Economic Growth

from 1865 to 1917


History/Global Connections

The “Guilded Age”

Early Labor Movement

Progressive Era

Populism

Socialist Party






Essential Question:

1865 to 1917: Did Economic Growth Benefit Most Americans?





Focus Questions


Lessons/Activities


1) How did industrial capitalism change society?

1a How did Westward Expansion make America unique?


1b Why was industrialism a “revolution”?
1c What is working on an assembly line like?
1d What are unions and how did they start?
1e How did Native Americans lose their land?


2) What do American workers look like?

2a Was the immigrant experience 100 years ago different from today?


2b Did African-Ameicans have to win economic equality before they could win political equality?
2c How did working women help win the right to vote?





3) How much power should workers have in a democratic society?

3a What is social Darwinism?
3b Are philanthropists generous or clever?
3c Should there be a Populist Party today?
3d How did the Progressive movement influence our lives today?
3e Was radical dissent easier 100 years ago?


4) How do you research American history?

4a How to use the library catalog.
4b How to do use the internet for research.
4c Bibliography and Footnotes
4d How to create a group presentation out of individual research assignments.

Culminating Project: Students will use research to answer the essential question from the point of view of a particular American at the turn of the century in a three page paper and a group presentation.


Culminating Project: Did America’s economic growth between the Civil War and World War I benefit most citizens?

Your culminating project is to answer this question from the point of view of one of the following important Americans from this historical period:


Politicians Teddy Roosevelt, William H. Taft, Grover Cleveland, Boss Tweed

Industrialists Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller J.P. Morgan Frederick Taylor

Workers Samuel Gompers Clara Lemlich Albert Parsons Mother Jones

Reformers Booker T. Washington Jane Addams Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair

Radicals Eugene Debs Emma Goldman W.E.B. Dubois Tom Watson

Outsiders Elizabeth Cady Stanton Red Cloud Chief Joseph Ida B. Wells


Part I: Research Paper

Using research from the library and the internet, you will write a 3 page essay written from your figure’s first person perspective (i.e. “I, Teddy Roosevelt, believe that most Americans did benefit…”) In your research you may not find that your figure ever answered this exact question but use his/or life experiences, writings, and speeches to imagine his/her thoughts on the subject. You must cite at least 2 books, 2 periodicals, and 2 websites. To make sure you get an early start, we will spend one day next week in the library learning about using the library catalog and a day the following week in the computer lab learning about internet research. You will be required to turn in at least one page of initial research at the end of next week and then a first draft at the end of the following week. These will each count for 15% of your project grade. Your final paper will count for 50% of your project grade.


Part II: Group Presentation

As you can see, the historical figures have been grouped into six categories. The day after your papers are due, you will meet with other members of your group and discuss the following questions: How did each historical figure in your group answer the essential question? What are the similarities and difference in their answers? What are your own personal opinions about whether most Americans benefited from economic growth? After discussing these questions you will plan a group presentation in which every member of the group will speak. You will be graded on both your individual participation in the group and the overall group presentation. Your group presentation will count for 20% of your project grade.


Who are you going to choose?

At the end of class today, I’ll briefly describe each of the historical figures. You’ll write down your top three choices and turn them in to me. I’ll do my best to make sure everybody gets one of their choices (but I can’t make any guarantees) and give you your assignments tomorrow.


Rubric for Grading Culminating Project
Initial Research: 15 points

5 points: Student has at least three sources with all the information for citation.

5 points: Student has notes for at least half of the information necessary to write paper.

5 points: Student notes demonstrate ability to locate relevant page numbers for future use.


First Draft: 15 points

5 points: Student turns in draft that is at least two pages.

5 points: Draft has at least five sources.

5 points: Draft has a clear introduction, evidence paragraphs, and conclusion.


Research Paper: 50 points

10 points: Student turns in research paper that is at least three pages on time.

10 points: Paper has at least six sources from books, periodicals, and online.

10 points: Sources are properly cited in footnotes and bibliography.

10 points: Paper accurately answers question from point of view of historical figure.

10 points: Paper uses sufficient factual evident from life and times of figure to provide evidence for answer to question.


Group Presentation: 20 points

10 points: Student demonstrates knowledge of historical period beyond the perspective of assigned figure.

5 points: Student participates cooperatively and actively in group preparation.

5 points: Overall group presentation.





Mapping Guide
Use this planning guide to sequence and review lessons you have outlined.



Week 1
Introduce unit, essential question, and culminating project.

1e

Economic growth in late 1800’s:



How did Westward Expansion make America unique?

1d

Indigenous experience:



How did Native Americans lose their land?

1b

Economic growth in late 1800’s:



Why was industrialism a “revolution”?

1c

From artisan shop to factory floor:



What is working on an assembly line like?

Week 2

1d


Birth of the labor movement: What are unions and how did they start?

Gompers vs. Debs


4a


Research Day:

Using the library Catalog


2a


Immigrant workers: Sweatshops then and now. Was the immigrant experience 100 years ago different from today?

2b


Jim Crow: Washington vs. Dubois.

Should African-Americans win economic equality before political equality?


3a


What is Social Darwinism: Are humans different from other animals?
(Initial Research Notes Due)


Week 3

3b

Social Darwinism and Philanthropy:



Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Ford

4b


Research Day:

Using the internet for research


3c


The rise and fall of the Populist Party: Should there be a Populist Party today?

3d


Progressive Era: How did it influence our lives today?

3e


IWW song lesson. Was radical dissent easier 100 years ago?

(1st Draft Due)



Week 4

2c


How did working women help win the right to vote?

4c


Bibliography and footnotes

4d


Creating a group presentation out of individual research assignments.

(Final Draft Due)


Group Presentations


Group Presentations



UNIT Resources

  • Teacher Background References

Books

Brown, Dee. (1970) Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Wisnton, Inc.

Ginger, Ray. (1949) The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene Victor Debs. New Brunswich: Rutgers University Press.

Moris, Charles, R. (2005) The tycoons : how Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J.P. Morgan invented the American supereconomy. New York: Times Books.

Orleck, Annelise. (1995) Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Spring, Joel. (2007) Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality. New York. McGraw-Hill.

Smith, Sharon. (2006) Subterranean Fire: A History of WorkingClass Radicalism in the United States. Chicago, Haymarket Books.

Zinn, Howard and Arnove, Anthony. (2004) Voices of a People’s History of the United States. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Websites

Internet Modern History Sourcebook http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html

New Perspectives on the West: http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/index.html

Lesson Plans

Assembly line lesson plan. Taken from Teachers Curriculum Institute. (2005) Bring Learning Alive! Palo Alto: Teachers Curriculum Institute.

Ladd, Cari. “Made in L.A.” lesson plan: http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2007/madeinla/for.html#assessment



The Nez Pierce and the Dawes Act http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/lesson_plans/lesson03.htm

Domestic Terror: Understanding Lynching During the Era of Jim Crow http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/education_lesson7.html

  • Student Literature

Non-Fiction

Buhle, Paul and Schulman, Nicole. (2005) Wobblies! A Graphic History of the Industrial Workers of the World. New York: Verso.

Stein, Leon. (1962) The Triangle Fire. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc.

Zinn, Howard. “The Colorado Coal Strike, 1913-14” in Zinn, Howard., Frank, Dana., and Kelly, Robin D.G. (2001) Three Strikes. Boston: Beacon Press.



Fiction

Alter, Horatio (1990) Ragged Dick, or Street Life in New York with the Boot Blacks. New York: Penguin Books.

Doctrow, E.L. (1970) Ragtime. New York: Random House.

Hurston, Zora Neale. (1937) Their Eyes Were Watching God. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Sinclair, Upton. (1926) Oil! New York: Penguin Books.

Primary Source Documents

“Chief Joseph’s Surrender” from Voices of a People’s History of the United States

“The Omaha Platform of the People’s Part of America” from Voices of a People’s History of the United States

“Proclamation of the Striking Textile Workers of Lawrence” from Voices of a People’s History of the United States

“Red-Handed Murder: Negroes Wantonly Killed at Thibodaux, La.” from Voices of a People’s History of the United States

Carnegie, Andrew. (1889). The Gospel of Wealth. Excerpts found at

Dubois, W.E.B. (1903) The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover Books.

Tarbell, Ida. A History of the Standard Oil Company. Excerpts found at Andrew Carnegie: Gospel of Wealth (Modern History Sourcebook) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1889carnegie.html



Personal narratives of growing up in the Jim Crow south. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_narratives.html

Websites

Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works 1904 (Library of Congress factory photographs) http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/papr/west/westhome.html

Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony http://www.pbs.org/stantonanthony/

Photographs from the records of the National Women’s Party (Library of Congress) http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/suffrage/nwp/

The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/

The Rockefellers http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/

Technology Timeline http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/index.html

Movies

Matewan, John Sayles director. Feature film about a violent struggle of West Virginia miners in the 1920’s.

The Iron Road, Neil Goodwin of Peace River Films. PBS documentary about the creation of the first transcontinental railroad in 1969.

New York Underground, Elena Mannes Producer. PBS documentary about the creation of the New York City subway system

  • Possible Field Trips and Excursions

Musuems

Lower East Side Tenement Museum: School Tours

Ellis Island Immigration Museum

Museum of the Chinese in America: School Tours

Museum of the City of New York: Featuring Timescapes video about New York’s growth

National Museum of the American Indian: Featuring Challenge and Continuity school tour for grades 9-12.

New York Historical Society: Featuring inquiry-based student workshops on westward expansion, Seneca Village, and more general themes of understanding history through objects and paintings.

Walking Tours

New York City Walks and Talks: “Robber Barons, Reactionaries, Reformers, Radicals, and Rabble Rousers: Social Action in the East Village” walking tour



Unit 5 Regents-Style Test
Part I: Multiple Choice

Each question is worth 3 points. (60 points total)
1. The Indian Wars that occurred between 1860 and 1890 were mainly the result of
(1) disputes over the spread of slavery

(2) conflict with Mexico over Texas and California

(3) the search for gold in California

(4) the movement of settlers onto the Great

Plains
2. One factor that furthered industrialization in the United States between 1865 and 1900 was the
(1) development of the airplane

(2) expansion of the railroads

(3) mass production of automobiles

(4) widespread use of steamboats


3. When Susan B. Anthony refused to pay a fine for voting illegally in the election of 1872, she stated:

“Not a penny shall go to this unjust claim.” Her action was an example of


(1) anarchy

(2) civil disobedience

(3) judicial review

(4) vigilante justice


4. Between 1870 and 1920, the federal government placed few restrictions on immigration primarily because it wanted to
(1) sell land in the West

(2) recruit men for the military

(3) ensure that there would be workers for the factories

(4) avoid offending foreign governments


5. The term business monopoly can best be described as
(1) the most common form of business in the United States

(2) government control of the means of production

(3) an agreement between partners to manage a corporation

(4) a company that controls or dominates an industry


6. During the late 19th century, Samuel Gompers, Terence Powderly, and Eugene Debs were leaders in the movement to
(1) stop racial segregation of Native American Indians

(2) limit illegal immigration

(3) gain fair treatment of Native American Indians

(4) improve working conditions


7. The 19th-century philosophy of Social Darwinism maintained that
(1) the government should have control over the means of production and the marketplace

(2) all social class distinctions in American society should be eliminated

(3) economic success comes to those who are the hardest working and most competent

(4) wealth and income should be more equally distributed


8. During the late 1800s, leaders of big business gave the greatest support to the passage of
(1) antitrust laws

(2) higher tariff rates

(3) immigration restrictions

(4) railroad regulation


9. The Jim Crow legal system, which expanded in the South after Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), was based on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the
(1) due process clause of the 5th Amendment

(2) states’ rights provision of the 10th Amendment

(3) equal protection clause in the 14th Amendment

(4) voting rights provision in the 15th Amendment


10. Reformers of the Progressive Era sought to reduce corruption in government by adopting a constitutional amendment that provided for
(1) a maximum of two terms for presidents

(2) term limits on members of Congress

(3) voting rights for African Americans

(4) direct election of United States senators


11. Which law was passed as a result of muckraking literature?
(1) Interstate Commerce Act

(2) Sherman Antitrust Act

(3) Meat Inspection Act

(4) Federal Reserve Act


12. In How the Other Half Lives, Jacob Riis described the living conditions of
(1) workers in urban slums

(2) African Americans in the segregated South

(3) the rich in their mansions

(4) Native American Indians on reservations


13. “Labor Leaders Executed for Causing Haymarket Riot”

“State Militia Called In To End Homestead Strike”

“1,000 Jailed as Silver Miners Protest Wage Cuts”

Which statement about labor unions in the late 1800s is illustrated by these headlines?


(1) Strikes by labor unions usually gained public support.

(2) The government frequently opposed labor union activities.

(3) Labor union demands were usually met.

(4) Arbitration was commonly used to end labor unrest.


14. “Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people.” (1892)
Which group showed the greatest support for this idea?
(1) western farmers

(2) factory owners

(3) union leaders

(4) railroad owners


15. The Populist and the Progressive movements were similar in their approaches to reform in that both
(1) supported the return of powers to the state governments

(2) promoted the use of violent strikes and protests against big business organizations

(3) opposed the strict laissez-faire attitudes of the federal government

(4) lobbied for immediate social and economic equality for African Americans

Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social

studies.


Source: A Political Cartoon History of the United States, Scott Foresman (adapted) J.P. Morgan For Sale


16. Which 19th-century business practice does this cartoon illustrate?
(1) forming cooperatives

(2) establishing trade zones

(3) creating monopolies

(4) expanding global markets


17. The cartoonist would most likely support federal government attempts to
(1) pass antitrust legislation

(2) limit regulation of business

(3) establish high tariffs

(4) stop industrial pollution


Base your answer to question 18. on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.



18. The cartoon illustrates President Theodore Roosevelt’s attempt to


(1) ignore antitrust laws

(2) conserve natural resources

(3) limit the power of monopolies

(4) eliminate foreign ownership of United States corporations


19. Industrialists of the late 1800s used pools and trusts to
(1) promote fair business practices in the marketplace

(2) increase profits by minimizing competition

(3) work cooperatively with labor unions

(4) exclude immigrant workers from factory jobs


20. In the second half of the 19th century, agriculture in the United States was transformed most by the
(1) increase in prices paid for farm products

(2) decline in the population growth rate of the United States

(3) decline in demand for agricultural products

(4) increase in the use of farm machinery




Part II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION (40 points)

Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion.
Theme: Territorial Expansion (1800–1900)


Various events or developments have influenced the territorial expansion

of the United States. In 1800, the United States was a new nation of

approximately 895,000 square miles of territory. By 1900, the nation had

grown to about 3,000,000 square miles of territory.




Task:


Identify two events or developments that had a significant impact on

United States territorial expansion between 1800 and 1900 and for each

event or development identified:

• Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the event or development

• Evaluate the importance of the event or development on the growth of

the United States


You may use any example from your study of United States history. Some suggestions you

might wish to consider include Homestead Act (1862), completion of the first transcontinental railroad (1869), industrialization, scientific and technological developments (other than the transcontinental railroad), and Native American Indian policies (1800–1900).

You are not limited to these suggestions.
Guidelines:
In your essay, be sure to:

• Address all aspects of the Task

• Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details

• Use a logical and clear plan of organization

• Introduce the theme by establishing a framework that is beyond a simple restatement of the

Task and conclude with a summation of the theme


Lesson Plan Outline




Grade Level: 11th Grade U.S. History
Essential Question of Unit: 1865-1917: Did economic growth benefit most Americans?

The Culminating Project for this unit will be: Students will use research to answer the essential question from the point of view of a particular American at the turn of the century in a three page paper and a group presentation.



Lesson Focus/Aim/SWBAT: Students will be able to define a sweatshop and provide explanations for their continued existence.
Social Studies concepts this lesson supports: This lesson explores the following NYS Core Curriculum concepts:

  1. Conflict between employers and workers

  2. Factors of production

  3. Immigrant communities and the diversity of the American experience.


Social Studies standards and skills this lesson supports: This lesson supports the following standards from the National Council of Social Studies:

    • Culture and Cultural Diversity

    • Power, Authority, and Governance

    • Production, Distribution, and Consumption

    • Science, Technology, and Society

    • Civic Ideals and Practices

This lesson supports the following skills from New York State:



    • Evaluate and draw inferences from data

    • Participation in group planning and discussion


Time Needed: One 45 minute period.
Materials Needed for lesson:

    • Equipment for showing online video clips (http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2007/ madeinla/for.html#assessment) or for showing DVDs/VHS tapes to class.

    • DVD or VHS copy of Made in L.A. (if the school doesn’t have projector for online video.)

    • 6 copies of each handout for group work activity.

    • Chalk and eraser for blackboard.


Warm-up (5 minutes) Students will write down three words they think of when they hear the word “sweatshop.” Teacher will call solicit student responses and introduce today’s lesson aim and activity.
Mini-lesson (10 minutes) Teacher will show 5 short clips from the documentary Made in L.A. about the use of sweatshops by the Forever 21 clothing retailer. Together, these clips are eight minutes and 30 seconds long. (The links to each clip can be found at the website mentioned below.)
Group Work (20 minutes) Students will be divided into four groups in a jigsaw exercise to cover different aspects of sweatshops. Each group will be given copies of one of the following four handouts: Tenement Sweatshops, The Uprising of the 20,000, The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, The Fight Against Forever 21. Each handout will have primary and/or secondary source documents as well as pictures and/or cartoons followed by three questions. Students will work in groups to answer the questions using the material in the handouts. Each student will write down his/her answers, which the teacher will collect at the end of class.
Share (10 minutes) Students will go back to their regular seats. The teacher will select a student from each group to summarize that group’s handout and answer to the questions. The teacher will then invite other members of the group to add any relevant points. The teacher will write the homework questions on the blackboard and encourage students to keep these questions in mind as they take notes on each group’s presentation.
Assessments: The teacher will assess students’ learning in the following ways:

    • Walking around the room during group work to assess participation.

    • Calling on middle-performing students in each group to assess overall group comprehension.

    • Collecting students’ answers to the group questions to assess participation.

    • Homework assignment to assess higher level thinking.


Homework Students will be asked to write short paragraph answers to the following three questions:

    • What is a sweatshop and why do sweatshops continue to exist?

    • What are similarities and differences between sweatshops 100 years ago and today?

    • What are similarities and differences between the movements against sweatshops 100 years ago and today?


Connection to Culminating Project:

This lesson contributes the following content to the project:



    • The conditions workers faced and the formation of early unions.

    • The diversity of American workers.

    • The different viewpoints of employers and employees.

This lesson contributes the following skills to the project:



    • The use of primary documents.

    • Working in groups.

    • Using higher level thinking in a writing assignment.

For the purposes of this class, please also include the following information:
1. Describe the student population.
The student population is an 11th grade inclusion class in a high school in Western Queens. The class has students from many different countries with varying levels of English proficiency. The reading/writing level ranges from 11th grade down to 2nd grade. There are an equal number of boys and girls in the class; overall the boys are more willing to speak than the girls, although there are some assertive girls and a group of recent immigrant boys who want to sit silently in the back of the class.

This lesson is appropriate for this class because it makes a direct comparison between the experience of immigrants one hundred years ago and today. It’s important to show that U.S. has always been a country of immigrants, but that these immigrants have always had to fight to be recognizes as Americans. By beginning with a movie, the lesson can engage students who have an easier time listening to English than reading it. When students do the group work, the pictures and cartoons in the handouts will similarly help those reading below grade level. The group work is also designed to make it easier for the quieter students, especially the girls, to share their ideas.



2. Describe how the lesson fits together.
The objective of this lesson is to use the issue of sweatshops to illustrate the parallels between America 100 years ago and America today. Each stage of the lesson builds on students’ knowledge of the present to deepen their understanding of the past until the students are in a position to think critically about the similarities and differences between the two. The lesson begins with a warm up that uses students’ own knowledge about sweatshops. The movie then adds more information and analysis to this knowledge in a context that many students can relate to. In the group work, students jjgsaw different aspects of sweatshop history to generalize what is universal about sweatshops across time and location.

This lesson supports the state standards by examining the experiences of different groups in the United States, the strengths and weakness of aspects of the U.S. economic system, and the theme of civic participation and protest. The lesson also builds the skills of drawing inferences from data and working in groups. Unlike most lessons in this unit, the sweatshop lesson does not examine both sides of the essential question. Instead, this lesson explores in more detail the experiences of workers who are not benefiting from economic growth.



3. Describe the theory or theories that influenced this lesson.
This lesson plan is based one designed by Cari Ladd to be used with the documentary Made in L.A.2 I have used Ladd’s clips from the movie and some of her sources and questions for the group work. To suit the lesson to my tastes and purposes, I eliminated some of the group work about modern sweatshops, reduced the number of times students break up into different groups, and created my own handouts instead of requiring each group to be in a computer lab using different web sites.

There are a number of theories that influenced this lesson. The first theory is Lev Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding.3 The lesson is designed to provide guidance to students from the warm up question which is based on prior knowledge to the homework assignment which asks them to use analytical skills to compare different historical periods. The scaffolding is provided in the intermediate steps: a movie followed by handouts with questions that require lower level comprehension and analysis. Students are also given scaffolding by being placed in heterogeneous groups.4 These groups allow lower-achieving students to learn from their peers while giving higher-achieving students the challenge of teaching the material to others. As Alan Singer points out, the other benefit of heterogeneous groups is that they teach students about “shared interests, concerns, and humanity.”5

The other major educational theory that influenced this lesson is Howard Gardiner’s theory of multiple intelligences.6 The movie, photos, and cartoons teach the material through students’ visual-spatial intelligence just as the primary and secondary source documents teach it through linguistic intelligence. In addition, the group work allows students to learn through intra-personal intelligence.

Finally, the homework assignment was inspired by the Teachers’ Curriculum Institute’s theme of “writing for understanding.” Because the culminating project requires students to use higher level thinking skills, the homework for this lesson is designed to give students practice using writing to clarity their ideas about complicated questions. In turn, the warm up, movie, group work, and sharing are intended to provide students with the scaffolding to be able to able to complete the homework assignment.


SS Methods II SEDC 725 sec 001



Dimension

Exemplary

(4 points)



Proficient

(3 points)



Developing

(2 points)



Not Acceptable

(1 point)



1.Unit includes all required components, presented neatly and professionally

All components are present and clearly labeled, exceptionally well organized and attractive

All components are present, clearly labeled and well organized

Missing components, somewhat organized

Missing several components, poorly executed and/or disorganized

2. Unit integrates knowledge represented by NCSS standards

Unit represents exceptional range & coherence of knowledge across standards

Unit represents good range & coherence of knowledge across standards

Unit represents some range & coherence of knowledge across standards

Unit represents little range & coherence of knowledge across stds

3. Unit demonstrates effective organization and integration of lessons.

Exceptional and creative integration of lessons across unit

Clear and well organized integration of lessons across the unit

Some organization of lessons but not well integrated

Little or no organization and integration of lessons

4. Lessons encourage students to make connections across concepts and disciplinary knowledge.

Exceptional and creative set of lessons which encourage students to make connections across concepts and disciplinary knowledge.

Overall set of lessons encourage student abilities to make connections across concepts and disciplinary knowledge.

One or two lessons ask students to make connections across concepts and disciplinary knowledge.

Lessons are mostly fact based or lower order thinking

5. Lessons are varied and utilize full range of thinking and questioning taxonomies.

Highly creative and varied set of lessons using the full range of thinking/questioning taxonomies

Good variation among lessons and represent the full range of thinking/questioning taxonomies

Some variations among lessons and focus on some range of thinking/questioning taxonomies

Lessons are repetitive and focus on small range of thinking/questioning taxonomies

6. Lessons integrate technologies, media, and resources.

Highly creative+ and varied integration of technologies, media and resources

Good and varied integration of technologies, media and resources

Ordinary integration of technologies, media and resources

Little or poor integration of technologies, media and resources

7. Lessons are developmentally appropriate and allow for differentiated instruction.

Lessons are developmentally appropriate and creative use of differentiated instruction across the unit

Lessons are developmentally appropriate and include ideas for differentiated instruction

Lessons are developmentally appropriate but little or no use of differentiated instruction

Lessons are not developmentally appropriate and little or no use of differentiated instruction

8. Lessons include all supporting materials – readings, handouts, resource information.

All materials are included; highly original or creative sent of materials included

All supporting materials are included; materials are well chosen and interesting


Some or all supporting materials included; traditional set of materials

Few supporting materials are included

9. Assessments are authentic and performance-based.

Varied, appropriate and creative use of authentic and performance based assessments

Varied and appropriate use of authentic and performance based assessments

Some use of authentic or performance based assessments

Little use of authentic or performance based assessments

10. Standards

All standards are clearly labeled and addressed with content that demonstrates candidates mastery of content

All standards are clearly labeled and addressed with content that demonstrates candidates familiarity with content

Some standards are not clearly labeled

Standards are not clearly labeled

11. Content People, Places and Environments (NCSS 1.3)

Information about People, Places and Environments is accurate, and includes relevant and distinctive background or contextual information, which exhibits candidate’s strong mastery of the theme

Information about People, Places and Environments is accurate and includes relevant background or contextual information, which that candidate’s familiarity with the theme

Information about People, Places and Environments is mostly accurate and includes some related background or contextual info

Information about People, Places and Environments is not accurate and does not include related background or contextual info

12. Content Individuals, Groups and Institutions (NCSS 1.5)

Information about Individuals, Groups and Institutions is accurate, and includes relevant and distinctive background or contextual information, which exhibits candidate’s strong mastery of the theme

Information about Individuals, Groups and Institutions is accurate and includes relevant background or contextual information, which that candidate’s familiarity with the theme

Information about Individuals, Groups and Institutions is mostly accurate and includes some related background or contextual info

Information about Individuals, Groups and Institutions is not accurate and does not include related background or contextual info

13. Content Production, Distribution, and Consumption (NCSS 1.7)

Information about Production, Distribution, and Consumption is accurate, and includes relevant and distinctive background or contextual information, which exhibits candidate’s strong mastery of the theme

Information about Production, Distribution, and Consumption is accurate and includes relevant background or contextual information, which that candidate’s familiarity with the theme

Information about Production, Distribution, and Consumption is mostly accurate and includes some related background or contextual info

Information about Production, Distribution, and Consumption is not accurate and does not include related background or contextual info

14. Content Science, Technology and Society (NCSS 1.8)

Information about Science, Technology and Society is accurate, and includes relevant and distinctive background or contextual information, which exhibits candidate’s strong mastery of the theme

Information about Science, Technology and Society is accurate and includes relevant background or contextual information, which that candidate’s familiarity with the theme

Information about Science, Technology and Society is mostly accurate and includes some related background or contextual info

Information about Science, Technology and Society is not accurate and does not include related background or contextual info

15. Content Global Connections (NCSS 1.9)

Information about Global Connections is accurate, and includes relevant and distinctive background or contextual information, which exhibits candidate’s strong mastery of the theme

Information about Global Connections is accurate and includes relevant background or contextual information, which that candidate’s familiarity with the theme

Information about Global Connections is mostly accurate and includes some related background or contextual info

Information about Global Connections is not accurate and does not include related background or contextual info

Sum of Total Points




52.5







Total Average

If average is above 3.7 (A+, A)

If average is between 3.0-3.7 (B, B+, A-

3.5 = B +



If average is 2.0-2.9 (B-, C+, C)

If average is below 2.0 (below C)



1 Teachers Curriculum Institute. (2005) Bring Learning Alive! Palo Alto: Teachers Curriculum Institute.

2 “Made in L.A.” Lesson Plan. Found at http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2007/madeinla/for.html#assessment

3 Santrock, John W. (2004) Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill, 52-54

4 Teachers’ Curriculum Institute (2005) Bring Learning Alive! Palo Alto: Teachers’ Curriculum Institute, 69-70.

5 Singer, Alan. (2003) Social Studies for Secondary Schools. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. 234.

6 Bring Learning Alive! 10-14.





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