The Textile Industry and the Industrial Revolution Source A



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The Textile Industry and the Industrial Revolution
Source A


The first industry to be ‘revolutionised’ was the textile industry. It grew up in the North of England – see if you can suggest a reason why when you have finished this exercise. In the domestic system merchants would take raw cotton to a spinner’s house (usually unmarried women – have you heard the word ‘spinster’?), collect it when it had been made into thread and take it to a weavers. Everything was done by hand, by individual craftsmen in their own home.


By 1800 this was very different!
Source B



Sixty years ago, cotton mills didn’t exist. At present there are no fewer than 65. Most have been built during the present century. These mills, which are wholly involved in spinning cotton, are all worked by steam. The closeness of Oldham to Manchester, the great market for cotton goods, and good canals, but above all the abundant supply of coal from neighbouring towns, have made this one of the largest areas of manufacture in the country.

A description of Oldham by Edward Baines, 1825



Study sources A and B. What changes have taken place in the textile industry by 1825?




Below are details of the inventions which revolutionized the textile industry between 1750 and 1800. Can you work out the order in which they were invented?
The first one has been done for you.
1.

In traditional weaving the weaver sits at the loom and weaves a yarn (thread) shuttle, over and under the background threads of the cloth. In 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle. Instead of a weaver having to feed his shuttle manually through the threads, the shuttle was connected to a shuttle box at either end of the loom. By pulling a single cord, the shuttle was pulled through the loom quickly and evenly. This made the process of weaving much quicker. [to work out what comes next, think about what you would want if, suddenly, you could weave faster]


Student Copy: Inventions Ordering Exercise

Richard Arkwright and John Kay invented the Spinning Frame, which involved three sets of paired rollers that turned at different speeds. These three separate threads were twisted together to make a thread that was far stronger, but coarser, than any thread produced before. However, the Spinning Frame was too big to be operated by hand.




The Spinning Mule was the invention of Samuel Crompton. The mule used water power to make thread stronger and finer than earlier machines. Can you guess why it was called a ‘Mule’? [clue – a mule is a cross between two animals, a horse and a donkey!].




Edward Cartwright invents a power loom which wove thread into cloth using steam power to drive the machine.




Steam engines had been around since Thomas Savery, in 1698, invented a steam pump to draw water out of the shafts of tin mines. 71 years later Matthew Boulton and James Watt modified early steam engines to produce an efficient and reliable engine. Steam engines could be used to power any machine instead of manual labour.




Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame. This was a huge machine that was powered by a water wheel. This used rollers to draw out the thread, creating strong, coarse thread just like the Spinning Frame, but could obviously produce a lot more thread!




James Hargreaves was a weaver living in the village of Stanhill in Lancashire. He invented a way to produce thread more quickly.

Traditionally, the spinner fed raw cotton into the wheel, turned the handle and the wheel stretched the raw cotton into thread and wrapped it around the spindle. Only one reel of thread could be produced at a time.

Hargreaves built what became known as the Spinning-Jenny (named after his daughter!)

The Spinning Jenny had 8 spindles which were all connected to a single wheel. One person could now spin 8 threads at once! Later models could spin 80 threads! This thread was of fine quality but broke easily.



Thinking Tasks:

  1. Explain the order of inventions.

  2. What invention forced the spinning industry to move out of people’s homes and into factories?

  3. What would have happened to the earning power of weavers over the period 1750-1900? (draw a graph to represent your findings)

  4. What changes would spinners and weavers have experienced in their working life over this period?

  5. From the following factors, which do you think was the most important factor in the industrialization of the textile industry? Explain your answer!

    1. Raw materials

    2. Inventors

    3. Banks

    4. An Empire

    5. Rising population

    6. Improvements in farming

Teacher copy

James Hargreaves was a weaver living in the village of Stanhill in Lancashire. He invented a way to produce thread more quickly.

Traditionally, the spinner fed raw cotton into the wheel, turned the handle and the wheel stretched the raw cotton into thread and wrapped it around the spindle. Only one reel of thread could be produced at a time.

Hargreaves built what became known as the Spinning-Jenny (named after his daughter!)

The Spinning Jenny had 8 spindles which were all connected to a single wheel. One person could now spin 8 threads at once! Later models could spin 80 threads! This thread was of fine quality but broke easily.




Richard Arkwright and John Kay invented the Spinning Frame, which involved three sets of paired rollers that turned at different speeds. These three separate threads were twisted together to make a thread that was far stronger, but coarser, than any thread produced before. However, the Spinning Frame was too big to be operated by hand. [therefore more power was needed hence….]

Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame. This was a huge machine that was powered by a water wheel. This used rollers to draw out the thread, creating strong, coarse thread just like the Spinning Frame, but could obviously produce a lot more thread!

The Spinning Mule was the invention of Samuel Crompton. The mule used water power to make thread stronger and finer than earlier machines. Can you guess why it was called a ‘Mule’? [clue – a mule is a cross between a horse and a donkey!].

Steam engines had been around since Thomas Savery, in 1698, invented a steam pump to draw water out of the shafts of tin mines. 71 years later Matthew Boulton and James Watt modified early steam engines to produce an efficient and reliable engine. Steam engines could be used to power any machine instead of manual labour.

Edward Cartwright invents a power loom which wove thread into cloth using steam power to drive the machine.


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