The size of the federal government in the United States took a quantum leap with U. S. entry in World War I



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Introduction:

The size of the federal government in the United States took a quantum leap with U.S. entry in World War I. It is a textbook case of how a military crisis abroad can be parlayed into opportunities for significant institutional change in the relationship between government and individual. U.S. entry into the European war was not a foregone conclusion. The American public did not favor it, and in 1916 President Wilson campaigned on the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” But there were forces at home and abroad seeking to lure the United States. Certain economic interests, holders of British bonds for example, wished to help Great Britain and protect their financial stake in the empire. Moreover, Wilson found the prospect of steering an historic transfiguration of the world irresistible. Thus the ruling establishment had considerable incentives to interpret events as justifying American entry, and British officials, particularly Winston Churchill, strove to bring the United States into the war. When armed and navy-escorted American merchant ships were sunk in the Kaiser’s declared zone for unrestricted submarine warfare, established in retaliation for Britain’s starvation blockade against Germany, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.

What the Progressive Era was unable to achieve in transforming the United States from a market-oriented society into a government-dominated corporatist garrison, the war accomplished handily. Without exaggeration, the economic system in America during its participation in the war has been dubbed “war socialism.” While the economy did not remain under direct government control after the armistice was signed, war socialism left an indelible mark, psychologically and existentially.

War socialism actually began before the United States became a belligerent. When the war created a shipping shortage, the Wilson administration pushed Congress to create a federal shipping company, as well as a board to regulate private carriers and their rates. This set the tone for the domestic side of Wilson’s interventionist war policy. As Independent Institute senior fellow Robert Higgs writes in Crisis and Leviathan (p. 123):

By the time of the armistice the government had taken over the ocean shipping, railroad, telephone, and telegraph industries; commandeered hundreds of manufacturing plants; entered into massive economic enterprises on its own account in such varied departments as shipbuilding, wheat trading, and building construction; undertaken to lend huge sums to business directly or indirectly and to regulate the private issuance of securities; established official priorities for the use of transportation facilities, food, fuel, and many raw materials; fixed the prices of dozens of important commodities; intervened in hundreds of labor disputes; and conscripted millions of men for service in the armed forces.

The centerpiece of this economic domination control was the War Industries Board (WIB), headed by financier Bernard Baruch.

Wilson’s program included creation of a ministry of propaganda, the Committee on Public Information, known as the Creel Committee, which, among other things, recruited intellectuals in the effort to persuade the American people that the U.S. mission in Europe was an idealistic crusade against the German brutes. George Creel’s membership on the Censorship Board augmented his power over the nation’s newspapers. The Espionage and Seditions Acts targeted anti-war and anti-draft dissent in a manner unknown previously in the United States. Yes, America’s young men were once against subjected to conscription.

Most, but not all, of the wartime programs ended within a few years of the armistice. Government did not return to its pre-war size, and many new powers were merely put on the shelf for easy reach in the future. More important, the experience of war socialism further accustomed the American people to government control of their lives. In little more than a decade enduring structures of statism would be erected on this foundation.

Also, click here for Bibliography for Crisis and Leviathan.

General:

Beard, Charles A. A Foreign Policy for America. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1940.

. Giddy Minds and Foreign Quarrels. New York: Macmillan, 1939.

Cohen, Warren I. The American Revisionists: Lessons of Intervention in World War I . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age . New York: Doubleday, 1989.

Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East, 1914-1922 . New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1989.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Gamble, Richard M. “War for Righteousness: The Progressive Clergy and the Great War,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1995.

Gottfried, Paul. “Wilsonianism: The Legacy That Won’t Die,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, IX, 2 (Fall 1990), pp. 117-126.

Higgs, Robert. “Peace on Earth,” The Free Market, December 1994.

Karier, Clarence. “Making the World Safe for Democracy: An Historical Critique of John Dewey’s Pragmatic Liberal Philosophy in the Warfare State,” Educational Theory, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter 1977), pp. 12-47.

Lansing, Robert. War Memoirs . Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1935.

Levin, N. Gordon. Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America’s Response to War and Revolution . New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Mayer, Arno. Wilson vs. Lenin: Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 1917-1918 . New York: Meridian Books, 1964.

McElroy, Wendy. “The Bathtub, Mencken, and War,” The Freeman, August 1999.

. “War’s Other Casualty,” The Freeman, July 1999.

Mencken, H. L. The Vintage Mencken . New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

O’Connor, Harvey. The Empire of Oil. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1962.

Paterson, Thomas G. “Isolationists Revisited,” The Nation, Vol. CCIX, No. 6 (September 1, 1969), pp. 166-169.

Peterson, H.C., and Gilbert C. Fite. Opponents of War 1917-18 .Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986. The persecution by the Wilson adminsitration, media, and vigilante groups against anti-war acitivists during World War I, including lynchings and mob violence.

Rothbard, Murray N. “World War I as Fulfillment: Power and the Intellectuals,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, IX, 1 (Winter 1989), pp. 81-125.

Tansill, Charles C. The Purchase of the Danish West Indies . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1932.

History:

Addington, Larry H. Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Barnes, Harry Elmer. “The World War of 1914-1918,” from the book edited by Willard Waller, War in the Twentieth Century . Gordon Press, 1940.

Beazley, Raymond. The Road to Ruin in Europe, 1890-1914. London: Dent, 1932.

Chambers, Frank P. The War Behind the War, 1914-1918: A History of the Political and Civilian Fronts . New York: Harcourt Brace, 1939.

Clarkson, Grosvenor B. Industrial America in the World War: The Strategy Behind the Line, 1917-1918 . New York: Jerome S. Ozer, 1974.

Cochran, M.H. Germany Not Guilty in 1914 . Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher, 1972.

Cohen, Warren I., ed. Intervention, 1917: Why America Fought. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1966.

Cuff, Robert D. “Bernard Baruch: Symbol and Myth in Industrial Mobilization,” Business History Review (Summer 1969).

— “A Dollar-a-Year Man in Government: George N. Peek and the War Industries Board,” Business History Review (Winter 1962).

. The War Industries Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Cuff, Robert D. and Melvin I. Urofsky. “The Steel Industry and Price-Fixing During World War I,” Business History Review (Autumn 1970).

Devlin, Patrick. Too Proud to Fight: Woodrow Wilson’s Neutrality . New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Hale, O.J. Germany and the Diplomatic Revolution. Philadelphia, Penn.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1931. This book challenges the claim that Germany alone was responsble for World War I.

Hart, B.H.L. The War in Outline. New York: Random House, 1936. Superb indictment of military incompetence during the first world war.

Himmelberg, Robert F. “The War Industries Board and the Antitrust Question in November 1918,” Journal of American History (June 1965).

Hoyt, Ewin. America’s Wars and Military Excursions. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987.

Kennan, George F. The Decision to Intervene: Soviet-American Relations, 1917-1920, Vol. II . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984.

. Russia Leaves the War: Soviet-American Relations, 1917-1920, Vol. I . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Kerr, K. Austin. American Railroad Politics, 1914-1920: Rates, Wages, and Efficiency. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1968.

Koistinen, Paul A. C. “The Industrial-Military Complex in Historical Perspective: World War I,” Business History Review (Winter 1967).

Lansing, Robert. War Memoirs of Robert Lansing, Secretary of State . Bobbs-Merrill; 1935. The non-neutrality of U.S. diplomacy from 1915 to 1917.

Lasswell, Harold D. Propaganda Techniques in the World War. New York: Peter Smith, 1938.

Martin, James J. “The Saga of Hog Island, 1917-1921: The Story of the First Great War Boondoggle,” from The Saga of Hog Island: And Other Essays in Inconvenient History . Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1977.

May, Ernest. The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917 . New York: Times Books, 1972.

Mock, J. R. and Larson, Cedric. Words that Won the War: The Story of the Committee on Public Information, 1917-1919 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press; 1939. Allied propaganda during World War I.

Moon, Parker. Imperialism and World Politics . New York: Macmillan, 1947.

Nash, Gerald D. “Franklin D. Roosevelt and Labor: The World War Origins of Early New Deal Policy,” Labor History (Winter 1960).

Peterson, H.C. Propaganda for War: The Campaign Against American Neutrality, 1914-1917 . Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939. World War propaganda techniques.

Peterson, H.C., and Gilbert C. Fite. Opponents of War 1917-18 .Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986. The persecution by the Wilson adminsitration, media, and vigilante groups against anti-war acitivists during World War I, including lynchings and mob violence.

Posonby, Arthur. Falsehood in Wartime: Propaganda Lies of the First World War . New York: Dutton, 1928.

Quigley, Carroll. The Anglo-American Establishment . New York: Books in Focus, 1981.

Radosh, Ronald. American Labor and United States Foreign Policy . New York, Random House, 1969.

. The Development of the Corporate Ideology of Organized Labor, 1914-1933. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1967.

Raico, Ralph. “Review of the bookPromised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World since 1776 by Walter A. McDougall, The Independent Review, Vol. III, No. 2 (Fall 1998), pp. 273-278.

Read, James M. Atrocity Propaganda, 1914-1919 . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1941. Excellent book on “black propaganda” during World War I.

Reiners, Ludwig. The Lights Went Out in Europe. New York: Pantheon Books, 1956. The background and history of World War I.

Renouvin, Pierre. The Immediate Origins of the War . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1928. Scholarly work on World War I critiques the Treaty of Versailles condemnation of Germany and her Allies as solely responsible.

Taylor, A. J. P. A History of the First World War. New York: Berkley Publishing, 1966.

Unterberger, Betty Miller. America’s Siberian Expedition, 1918-1920 . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1969.

Urofsky, Melvin I. Big Steel and the Wilson Administration: A Study in Business-Government Relations. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969.

Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.

Williams, William Appleman. From Colony to Empire: Essays in the History of American Foreign Relations . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972.

Wright, Patrick. Tank: The Progress of a Monstrous War Machine . New York: Faber, 2002.

International Effects:

Bailey, Thomas A. Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace . New York: Franklin Watts, 1978.

Berstein, Barton J., ed. Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History. New York: Vintage Books, 1969.

Borchard, Ewin M. and William Potter Lage. Neutrality for the United States . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1937.

Bresciani-Turroni, Costantino. The Economics of Inflation: A Study of Currency Depreciation in Post-War Germany . New York: Augustus Kelley, 1976.

Cole, G.D.H. A Guide Through World Chaos. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1932.

Feldman, Gerald D. The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 1914-1924 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1993

Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East, 1914-1922 . New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1989.

Gelfand, L.E. The Inquiry: American Prepartions for Peace, 1917-1919. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Excellent account of U.S. preparations for the disastrous Treaty of Versailles after World War I.

Keynes, John M. Economic Consequences of the Peace . New York: Harcourt Brace, 1920. [Online Book ]

. A Revision of the Treaty . New York: Harcourt Brace, 1922. The above two books are authoritative indictments of the economic fallacies of the Treaty of Versailles.

Knock, Thomas J. To End All Wars . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Langsam, W. C. The World Since 1914 . New York: Macmillan, 1933. Critical assessment of the results from war interventionism.

Lebergott, Stanley. “The Returns to U.S. Imperialism, 1890-1929,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. XL, No. 2 (June 1980), pp. 229-252.

Lutz, Hermann. Franco-German Unity. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1957. The Treaty of Versailles and the trends between the two world wars causing second world war.

Macmillan, Margaret Olwen. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World . New York: Random House, 2002.

Mayer, Arno J. Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles, 1918-1919. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1967.

Mee, Charles J. The End of Order: Versailles, 1919 . New York: E. P. Dutton, 1983.

Mitchell, Jonathan. Goose Steps to Peace. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1931. The failure of the victors and the League of Nations to revise the treaties and ensure peace.

Montgelas, Maximilian. British Foreign Policy Under Sir Edward Grey. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1928. Major indictment of Grey’s policies after World War I.

Moulton, Harold G. The Reparation Plan: An Interpretation of the Reports of the Expert Committees Appointed by the Reparation Commission, November 30, 1923 . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1924. The disastrous Versailles Treaty’s reparations measures.

Muralt, Leonard von. From Versailles to Potsdam. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1948. The trends that made World War II a direct consequence of the Versailles Treaty.

Nock, Albert Jay. The Myth of a Guilty Nation . New York: B. W. Huebsch, Inc., 1922

O’Connor, Harvey. The Empire of Oil. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1956.

Parrini, Carl P. Heir to Empire: United States Economic Diplomacy, 1916-1923 . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1969.

Powell, Col. E. Alexander. Thunder Over Europe. New York: Macmillan, 1931.

. The Long Roll on the Rhine. New York: Macmillan, 1934. This and the provious book examine the destructiveness of the Versailles Treaty in preventing any real peace in Central Europe and Germany.

Richardson, Dorsey. Will They Pay? Lippincott, 1933.Excellent book on the the Allies reneging on their war debts to the United States after World War I.

Robinson, Henry M. Fantastic Interim: A Hindsight History of American Manners, Morals, and Mistakes Between Versailles and Pearl Harbor . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1943. The interwar years in the United States.

Rosenberg, Emily S. Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890-1945 . New York: Hill & Wang, 1982.

Stoddard, T.L. Europe and Your Money. New York: Macmillan, 1932. How the U.S.’s European allies in World War I reneged on their loan repayments.

Wegerer, Alfred von. Refutation of the Versailles War Guilt Thesis. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1930. The fallacy of the Versailles verdict to the effect that Germany and her Allies were solely responsible for the first world war.

Wheeler-Bennett, J.W. The Wreck of Reparations. New York: William Morrow, 1933. The World War I reparations debacle and its impact on world trends.

Origins:

Barnes, Harry Elmer. The Genesis of the World War and Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1929.

. In Quest of Truth and Justice: De-Bunking the War Guilt Myth . Colorado Springs, Colo.: Ralph Myles, 1972.

Bass, Herbert J. America’s Entry Into World War I: Submarines, Sentiment, or Security? Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1964.

Cochran, M. H. “The Real Cause of War,” The American Mercury, 1931.

Cocks, F. Seymour. The Secret Treaties of Understanding: Text of the Available Documents . London: Union of Democratic Control, 1918. Documentation of the secret agreements between the Allies in the early stages of the First World War.

Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age . New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.

Engelbrecht, H.C., and F. C. Hanighen. Merchants of Death: A Study of the International Armament Industry . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1934.

Fabre-Luce, Alfred. The Limitations of Victory. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1926. Perhaps the best French books on 1914, rejecting the thesis of primary German responsibility for World War I.

Fay, Sidney. The Origins of the World War, 2 Vol . New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Ferguson, Niall. The Pity of War: Explaining World War I . New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Grattan, C. Hartley. Why We Fought . Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs Merrill, 1969.

Helmreich, E.C. The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938. The diplomatic acitivities and intrigues behind the Austrian/Russian conflict and the origins of the war in 1914.

Hornberger, Theodore. “World War I and the Crisis of American Liberty,” American Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 1964), pp. 104-112.

Joll, James. The Origins of the First World War . New York: Longman, 1992.

Karp, Walter. The Politics of War . New York: HarperCollins, June 1980.

Koistinen, Paul A. C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 . Lawrence. KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Lee, Dwight E., ed. The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Was Responsible? Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1963. Scholars discuss the revisionist analysis of World War I, affirming that no one nation could be saddled with responsibility.

Leuchtenburg, Wiliam E. “Progressivism and Imperialism: The Progressive Movement and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1916,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. XXXIX.

Levin, N. Gordon. Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America’s Response to War and Revolution . New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Mayer, Arno J. The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War . New York: Pantheon, 1981.

. Wilson vs. Lenin: Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 1917-1918. New York: Meridian Books, 1964.

Michon, Georges. The Franco-Russian Alliance, 1891-1917. New York: Macmillan, 1929. Study of the alliance which caused the first world war.

Millis, Walter. The Martial Spirit . Chicago: Ivan R Dee, 1989.

. The Road to War, America 1914-1917 . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935. Influential book critiquing Wilsonian foreign policy and World War I.

Morley, John Viscount. “Memorandum on Resignation,” August 1914. John Viscount Morley resigns from Herbert Asquith’s British cabinet, refusing to participate in the drive for war on Germany led by Sir Edward Grey in August 1914. Britain’s putative solicitude for Belgium’s welfare as motive for war is shown to be a lie.

Quigley, Carroll. The Anglo-American Establishment . New York: Books in Focus, 1981.

Remak, Joachim. The Origins of World War I, 1871-1914 . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967.

Ross, Stewart Halsey. Propaganda for War: How the United States Was Conditioned to Fight the Great War of 1914-1918 . McFarland & Company; 1996.

Rothbard, Murray N. “World War I as Fulfillment: Power and the Intellectuals,” Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IX, No. 1 (Winter 1989), pp. 81-125.

Simpson, Colin. The Lusitania . New York: Ballantine, 1976.

Stieve, Friedrich. Isvolsky and the World War, Based on the Documents Recently Published by the German Foreign Office . New York: Alfred Knopf, 1926. Examines whether Isvolsky and the French war group, led by President Poincaré, brought on the first world war. Based on Russian documents.

Simpson, Colin. The Lusitania . Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.

Swain, J.W. Beginning the Twentieth Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 1933. Features the diplomatic causes of the first world war.

Tansill, Charles C. America Goes to War . Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1938. Excellent book on U.S. entry into World War I.

Thomson, G.M. The Twelve Days. London: Putnam, 1964. The causes and outbreak of World War I, revealing Winston Churchill as the main warmonger in 1914.

Turner, L.F.C. Origins of the First World War. New York: W.W. Norton, 1970.

Wedel, O.H. Austro-German Diplomatic Relations, 1908-1914. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1932. The Austro-German situation and understandings between the Bosnian crisis and the coming of the first world war.

War and Government Growth:

Bourne, Randolph. War and the Intellectuals: Collected Essays, 1915-1918 , ed. Carl Resek. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

Clark, J[ohn] M[aurice]. “The Basis of War-Time Collectivism.” American Economic Review 7 (Dec 1917).

. The Costs of the World War to the American People . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1931.

Cuff, Robert D. The War Industries Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Ekirch, Jr., Arthur A. The Civilian and the Military: A History of the American Antimilitarist Tradition . New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Higgs, Robert. Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government . New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

. “Crisis and Quasi-Corporatist Policy-Making: The U.S. Case in Historical Perspective,” The World & I, November 1988.

. “Crisis, Bigger Government, and Ideological Change: Two Hypotheses on the Ratchet Phenomenon,” Explorations in Economic History, Vol;. 22 (1985).

. “How War Amplified Federal Power in the Twentieth Century,” The Freeman, July 1999.

. “In the Name of Emergency,” Reason, July 1987.

. “War and Leviathan in Twentieth-Century America: Conscription as the Keystone,” from The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories , edited by John V. Denson. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1999.

Higgs, Robert and Charlotte Twight. “National Emergency and the Erosion of Private Property Rights,” Cato Journal, Winter 1987.

. “National Emergency and Private Property Rights: Historical Relations and Present Conditions,” Journal of Private Enterprise, Fall 1996.

Hornberger, Theodore. “World War I and the Crisis of American Liberty,” American Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 1964), pp. 104-112.

Kaplan, Sidney. “Social Engineers as Saviors: Effects of World War I on Some American Liberals,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. XVII, No. 3 (June 1956).

Karier, Clarence. “Making the World Safe for Democracy: An Historical Critique of John Dewey’s Pragmatic Liberal Philosophy in the Warfare State,” Educational Theory, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter 1977), pp. 12-47.

Litman, Simon. Prices and Price Control in Great Britain and the United States during the World War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1920.

McElroy, Wendy. “World War I and the Suppression of Dissent,” Fairfax, Virginia: Future of Freedom Foundation, 2002.

Paxson, Frederic L. “The American War Government, 1917-1918.” American Historical Review 26 (Oct. 1920).

Peterson, H. C., and Gilbert C. Fite. Opponents of War, 1917-1918 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957.

Pettigrew, Richard F. Imperial Washington: The Story of American Public Life from 1870-1920 . Chicago: Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1922.

Radosh, Ronald and Murray N. Rothbard, ed. A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State . New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972.

Raico, Ralph. “American Foreign Policy: The Turning Point, 1898–1919,” Future of Freedom Foundation, February 1995.

. “FDR: The Man, the Leader, the Legacy,” Future of Freedom Foundation, 2001.

Rothbard, Murray N. “War Collectivism in World War I.” In A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State , ed. Ronald Radosh and Murray N. Rothbard. New York: Dutton, 1972.

Schaffer, Ronald. America in the Great War: The Rise of the War Welfare State . New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Schlissel, Lillien, ed. The World of Randolph Bourne. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1965.

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