The Sixth Amendment provides



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Gideon v Wainwright Majority Opinion (Excerpt)

“The Sixth Amendment provides, "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right . . . to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence." We have construed this to mean that, in federal courts, counsel must be provided for defendants unable to employ counsel unless the right is competently and intelligently waived. Betts argued that this right is extended to indigent defendants in state courts by the Fourteenth Amendment. In response, the Court stated that, while the Sixth Amendment laid down no rule for the conduct of the States, the question recurs whether the constraint laid by the Amendment upon the national courts expresses a rule so fundamental and essential to a fair trial, and so, to due process of law, that it is made obligatory upon the States by the Fourteenth Amendment.”



Questions:
1) What do the words “competently and intelligently waived” in lines 7 and 8 mean?

2) What do the words “Fundamental and essential” in line 12 mean?



Source: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/372/335


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