The romanization of the korean language based upon its phonetic structure



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THE ROMANIZATION OF THE KOREAN LANGUAGE BASED UPON ITS PHONETIC STRUCTURE
G. M. McCune, University of California, E. O. Reischauer, Harvard University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction … … … 1

II. The Vowels … … 10

Simple vowels … … … … 10

Labialized vowels and diphthongs … 14

Yotized or palatized vowels … 16

Long and short forms of the vowels … 18

Irregularities in the pronunciation of the vowels … 20

“Disintegration” in individual vowels … … 21

Assimilation between vowels … … … 22

III. The Consonants … … … 24

Plosive consonants … … … 25

Unvoiced plosives … … … 27

Voiced plosives … … … 28

“Forced” plosives … … … 39

Aspirated plosives … … … 31

Non-plosive consonants … … 32

Nasal consonants … … … 33

Lateral and semi-roiled consonants … 34

Fricative consonants … … … 35

Rules for the Romanization of the consonant letters … 36

The medial glottal stop (sai siot) and irregular assimilation

between consonants … … … 43

The consonants in new spelling and their Romanization … 46

IV. Other considerations … … 49

Syllables and words in Romanization … 49

The Romanization of proper names and tit … 52

The simple use of this system of Romanization 53
Charts and Tables

Vowel Chart … … … 10

Vowel Diagram … … … 11

Consonant Chart… … … 24

Chart of Plosives… … … 26

Chart of Non-Plosives … … 32

Syllabic Table … … … 56

Chart of Euphonic Changes of the Consonants


[page 1]

I. INTRODUCTION
Although the Hepburn system for Romanizing Japanese is almost universally accepted, and the Wade-Giles system for Romanizing Chinese is used by most English-speaking people, no standard Romanization has been adopted for Korean. This lack has been a handicap to the scholarly study of Korea. For this reason Occidental residents in Korea and native philologists have supported us in our effort to supply this need. These scholars have given us invaluable assistance in carrying out the phonetic studies necessary for the construction of this system.1

The lack of a generally accepted system of Romanization has lead to great diversity and many inconsistencies in the Romanization employed by Occidental scholars writing about Korea. These variations have caused little difficulty to scholars in Korea, who are familiar with the names and terms Romanized, especially when Chinese characters and the native Korean script (ŏnmun 諺文) are given with the Romanization; but for the scholarly world at large, where a knowledge of either written or spoken Korean, or even of Chinese characters cannot be presupposed, the amazing differences in the Romanization of the same name or word by different scholars, and sometimes by the same man, can only lead to confusion and error.


1 It is impossible to mention all those who have aided us in the preparation of this Romanization. First we should acknowledge encouragement received from the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society and from Dr. Horace H. Underwood, President of Chosen Christian College and the author of An English-Korean Dictionary (Sŏul, 1925) and other works on Korea, who has given us advice on difficult problems. Mr. A. A. Pieters, who revised and edited the 1931 edition of Gale’s dictionary, likewise gave us much useful aid. We are especially indebted to the excellent Korean phoneticians, Professors Čhoi Hyŏn Pai (Ch’oe Hyŏnbae 崔鉉培 최현배), Jung Insub (Chŏng Insŏp 鄭寅燮 정인섭) and Gim Shon Gi (Kim Sŏn’gi 金善祺 김선기) all of Chosen Christian College (延福専門學校) for valuable assistance. We also wish to express our sincere thank9 to Professor Haguenauer of Paris, who has painstakingly examined and criticized early drafts of this paper and generously given us numberless suggestions. Also we are indebted to Professor Elisséeff of Harvard for suggestions and advice.
[page 2]

However necessary it may be, the actual task of devising a suitable system of Romanization is an extremely difficult one, for the Korean language has a very complex phonetic structure. In spite of this, the task is by no means impossible, as many have supposed, for a surprising degree of exactness can be attained by the use of the Latin alphabet.

The Japanese authority, Mr. Ogura, cites no less than twenty-seven systems employed in Romanizing Korean, and his list is by no means complete.1 Of these, however, only the system originated by the French missionaries, the German system of Eckardt, and that of Gale in the Korean-English Dictionary2 have received any very wide acceptance in the past; but not one of these is adequate or complete. The French system, as that of the French missionaries is called in Korea, has many good points; but in a country like Korea, where even more than in China or Japan, the Occidental population is almost entirely English-speaking and English is the “international language”, the French system of Romanization, based as it is on the French pronunciation of the Latin alphabet, is not acceptable for use by English-speaking people or by the scholarly world as a whole. Furthermore, this system does not take into consideration the vital problem of euphonic changes, and treats the onmun vowel digraphs most inadequately. Eckardt’s system is in some respects better than the French, but that, too, is inadequate on many points, and, as presented, is too confusing for use by one not thoroughly acquainted with the Korean language. Gale’s system has been adopted by the
1 Ogura Shimpei 小倉進平: Ommun no Romaji Hyokiho 諺文の ローマ 字表記法 (A System of Romanizing Ŏnrnun) in Oda Sensei Shoju Kinen Chosen Ronshu 小田先生頌籌記念朝鮮論集 Keijo, 1934, pp 85-141.

2 French : Dictionaire Coréen-Français, Yokohama, 1881. Much the same is to be found in M. C. Imbault-Huart, Manuel de la langue coréenne parlée a l’usage des Français. Paris, 1889.

German: P. A. Eckardt, Koreanische Konversations-Grammatik, Leipzig. 1923.

English: J. S. Gale, A Korean-English Dictionary, Sŏul, 1897. 3rd. rev. ed., 1931. Ed., A. A. Pieters.


[page 3] Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, but, unfortunately, is quite incomplete, and in a few places is even misleading.

In recent years certain scholars have proposed various systems for transcribing the Korean language with consi-derable phonetic exactness, but since these systems introduce various phonetic symbols not familiar to the average person,1 there is little possibility that they will ever by used for more than philological and phonetic research. Consequently, they do not meet the need for a system of Romanization for general use in scholarly work of a non-philological nature.

Some have argued in favor of the use of the Japanese or Chinese Romanizations for Korean proper names and words written in Chinese characters. As Japanese is now the official language of the land, the use of Japanese Romanizations for certain modern proper names is probably quite justifiable, but despite the fact that most of the scholarly works and reference books on Korean are now appearing in Japanese, few Occidental scholars will feel it wise to ignore the existence of the Korean language. Furthermore, in native Korean words, the use of a Japanese reading is patently impossible. Although the Korean reading of Chinese characters is on the whole quite close to the original Chinese, the use of the Chinese reading in place of the Korean is no more justifiable than is the use of the Japanese reading. Despite these facts, many of the works published outside of Korea in the past have used at least in part either the Japanese or the Chinese pronunciation in place of the Korean.

A few words should be said about the Korean language and its writing. Korean is a polysyllabic agglutinative


1. Examples are ⊃, Φ, a, and ε, which are used by Haguenauer in his excellent article, “Système de transcription de l’alphabet coréen,” Journal Asiatique, ccxxii, (1933), pp. 145-161. Such symbols are scientifically more exact than the letters of the Latin alphabet in representing certain sounds ; and we urge the use of a such scientific systems of transcription for phonetic and philological studies; but for practical reasons phonetic symbols can not be admitted into a system of Romanization for general use.
[page 4] language, bearing close resemblance in structure and grammar to the Altaic languages and to Japanese, but not to Chinese. The vocabulary is composed primarily of words of two types, native words and Sino-Korean words. The latter are either borrowed words from the Chinese, but pronounced in the Korean manner, or are new words coined in Korea from Chinese characters. Recently many words of Japanese and Western origin have been added.

In writing the language a mixed script is usually employed. Chinese characters (hancha 漢字) are used for writing the Sino-Korean words, and ŏnmun, the native alphabet, is used for spelling purely Korean words and grammatical elements. In the past, men of learning avoided the use of onmun as far as possible because they considered it to be too vulgar for the educated ; and Korean literature until very recent times was written almost exclusively in a modified form of literary Chinese (hanmun 漢文). However, except for some minor differences, there are standard onmun spellings for all Chinese characters, and these are readily found in any character (hancha) dictionary of Korean.1 Thus, Sino-Korean words as well as native Korean words can be written in ŏnmun, just as both Sino-Japanese words and native Japanese words can be written in kana.

Like all alphabets, ŏnmun is not a perfect phonetic medium, but it represents the pronunciation of the Korean language with considerable exactness. Although invented and first employed in the fifteenth century, not until recently has it come into general use among the educated classes. The ŏnmun spellings of Sino-Korean words has been rather
1 Throughout this article the spelling found in Gale’s dictionary has been used for the ŏnmun illustrations except where otherwise noted. The Government-General of Korea has published a Korean-Japanese dictionary, Chosengo Jiten 朝鮮語辭典 1st ed., Keijo 1920. The latter in Korea is generally considered to be the standard general dictionary, but the onmun spelling in both this and Gale’s dictionary is usually the same. The best purely character dictionary is the Sin Chojŏn 新字典 (The New Dictionary) Soul, 1915 (5th ed. 1928) by the outstanding Korean scholar, Ch’oe Namsŏn 崔南善.
[page 5] definitely determined in the past, but the spelling of native Korean words has never been standardized, and the dictionaries, which have appeared, from time to time, have altered the spelling to conform to the changes in pronunciation resulting from the natural evolution of the spoken language. In some respects this lack of standardization is confusing, but the basically phonetic character of the ŏnmun spellings has reduced considerably the number of obsolete spellings and radical inconsistencies between the present standard orthography and the pronunciation of Korean words. Therefore, as in the case of the Japanese kana, ŏnmun provides the natural and easiest point of departure for any system of Romanization. Our system, like all other Korean Romanization systems, takes the ŏnmun as the basis for its approach to the problem.

A short description of the formation of words by the ŏnmun letters will help those unfamiliar with them to understand the problem and follow the examples given in this article. The language is polysyllabic, but the ŏnmun letters are written together as syllables, probably because of the influence of Chinese ideographs. The individual ŏnmun letter, however, has a phonetic value and independent form roughly equivalent to those of a letter of the Latin alphabet The word hanmun mentioned above may be used as an example. The first syllable 한 (han), is composed of three symbols, the initial consonant ㅎ (h), the vowel ㅏ (a) and the consonant ㄴ (n), The second syllable is also composed of three symbols, the consonant 口 (m), the vowel ㅜ (u) and the consonant ᄂ (n), which together form the syllable 문 (mun). The two syllables are pronounced together as the single word, hanmun.

The variation found in the ŏnmun spelling is one factor which has made the devising of a Romanization system especially difficult. Recently two Korean philological societies have been revising and standardizing the spelling, and now most publications in the Korean language are employing the [page 6] majority of the corrections urged by one or the other of these two societies.1 The existence of these different spellings, old and new, has increased the demand for a better organized system of Romanization than has hitherto existed. If confusion is to be avoided, a system must be devised which, by certain clear rules, reduces as far as possible all variant ŏnmun spellings to the same Romanization, as is done in the case of the much simpler problem in Japanese of reducing シヤウ (shi-ya-u), シヨウ (shi-yo-u), and セウ (se-u) all to simple sho. This ideal in Korean is not always actually possible of achievement, but in the vast majority of cases it can be attained, although hitherto the systems of Romanization for the most part have not faced the problem.2
1 These two societies have set up rival systems of ŏnmun spellings The older of the two societies, the Chosŏn Ŏhakhoe 朝鮮語學食 죠션어학회, calls itself in English the Korean Language Research Society, and its system of spelling has been named the Han’gŭl 한글 or Unified System. The Chosŏn Ŏhak Yŏn’guhoe 朝鮮語學研究会 죠션어학연구회 calls its system the Chŏngŭm 正音 졍음, the name by which ŏnmun was first designated. The differences between these two systems do not affect to any appreciable degree our Romanization. To illustrate the new spelling we have chosen examples from the Unified System, the general principles of which are to be found in a publication of the Korean Language Research Society called Han’gŭl mach’um-pŏp t’ongiran 한글마춤법통일안 (Rules for the Unification of Spelling to Conform to the Unified System), Sŏul, 1933, 6th ed., 1937. A list of native Korean words spelled according to this system, Chosŏnŏ p’yo-junmal moŭm 조선어표준말모움 (A Compilation of Korean Words with their Standard Spelling), 2nd ed. Sŏul, 1937, has also been published by the society. It contains an elaborate index and indicates the variant spellings and pronunciations of each word. At present the society is compiling a complete Korean dictionary including all native and Sino-Korean words and phrases.

2 Many of the variations in the ŏnmun spelling of Korean words are the result of dialectical differences. No system can reduce these differences to the same Romanization, for they represent different pronunciations, and therefore all one can do is to decide which dictionaries spell according to the standard pronunciation, and Romanize accordingly. However, the greatest differences in ŏnmun spelling have been brought about by phonetic evolution which has resulted in a plurality of spellings for the same sound in modern Korean. It has been one of our chief aims to devise rules by which these variant spellings can be Romanized alike, just as they are pronounced alike.

Below are some examples to show how different onmun spellings result in different Romanizations in some of the older systems. It will be noted that the Romanization of our system, given in the last column, is in all cases the same, as it should be in any really adequate system. The first illustration is a native Korean word, while all the others are Sino-Korean words.
[page 7]

The need for a new and adequately analyzed system of Romanization is, we believe, apparent, but before proceeding to the exposition of our system, explanation should be made of its aims and principles Let us emphasize the fact that the system is not an exact phonetic notation employing the symbols of the phonetician. Good systems of this nature have already been devised by Haguenauer and others. We have not intended that it be used in phonetic or in technical philological research. Rather, we have made it for general scholarly and non-scholarly use where phonetic symbols would be cumbersome and annoying and where strict phonetic exactness is not demanded. We have therefore attempted to effect a compromise between scientific accuracy and practical simplicity. Because of the inadequacies of the Latin alphabet and the complexities of the phonetic structure of Korean, it has not been possible to avoid all diacritical marks; but we have attempted to reduce these to the minimum. In short, we have tried to make the system throughout as simple as possible without being misleading.

Our aim in this article is merely to present the system of Romanization to the public. It has not been our purpose to make a detailed exposition of the phonetic structure of Korean. This has already been done by many fully qualified Korean, Japanese and European phoneticians, although often with differing conclusions. We have discussed the
Spelling Romanizations McCune-

System Ŏnmun Meaning French Gale Eckardt Reischauer

Gale 깃브다 to be kit-peu-ta kitpeuda kitpŭta kippuda

Gov.Gen.깃부다 happy kit-pou-ta kitpuda kitpŭta kippuda

Unif.Sys. 기쁘다 ki-ppeu-ta kibeuda kibtua kippuda

Gale 사긔 historical sa-keui sa-geui sakui sagi

Unif. Sys.사기 record sa ki sa-gi saki sagi

Gale 죠션 Tjyo-syen Cho-sŏn Tjosŏn Chosŏn

French 됴션 Korea Tyo-syen Tyo-sŏn Tjosŏn Chosŏn

Unif. Sys.조선 Tjo-sen Cho-sŏn Tjosŏn Chosŏn


Gov.-Gen. signifies the Government General dictionary, Unif. Sys., the Unified System, and French, the French Dictionary. It will be seen that the system of the French missionaries makes no attempt to meet the problem of variant spellings, whereas Gale’s and Eckardt’s systems do in some cases.
[page 8] purely phonetic aspects of the question to a certain extent, in order to explain our reasons for choosing certain Latin letters to represent certain Korean sounds; but we have restricted these phonetic explanations as far as possible, and in cases where there could be no reasonable doubt as to a satisfactory means of Romanization, we have omitted them entirely.

Our Romanization is not merely a method of transcribing Onmun, letter by letter, into a different alphabet, for which purpose Ogura’s literal Romanization will serve.1 We have devised our Romanization with the purpose of providing a comprehensible guide to the standard modern pronunciation of Korean for those unfamiliar with the language, as well as for those who know it In this regard our approach differs from that of many Koreans and western scholars who feel that the Romanization can ignore the euphonic changes of Korean and let the reader, who presumably knows the language, supply them automatically. It has been our aim to represent each radically different Korean sound by one distinct symbol, despite variations in the onmun orthography.

Our Romanization has been devised only for the modern pronunciation of Korean, and does not take into account obsolete pronunciations; but, since there are dialectical differences, it has been necessary to determine which modern pronunciation should be considered as the standard dialect In keeping with the practice of most other lands ana in keeping with the precedent set by the Korean phoneticians and philogical societies which have been sponsoring the revised spelling systems, we have accepted the pronunciation of the educated middle class of the capital, Sŏul (Keijo), as the standard Korean pronunciation.

In Romanizing it is also necessary to determine what is one’s criterion for the phonetic value of the letters of the Latin alphabet. There is the possibility of disregarding any


1 Ogura, op. cit. See the charts, opposite pp. 10 and 24.
[page 9] criterion besides the phonetic structure of the language under consideration: but this approach, as with Nipponshiki Romoji, the new Japanese Romanization system, would un-questionably lead to Romanizations which would be very misleading to the average foreigner. We believe that there can be little doubt that it is best to follow the general practice of most Romanization systems of basing the Romanization of the vowels on their normal value in the Italian language. The problem of the consonants is more difficult, but we have felt that we might best follow the lead of the Hepburn and Wade-Giles systems in basing our Romanization of the consonants on their normal value in English. The formula “the vowels as in Italian and the consonants as in English” has proved itself to be a great success in the case of the Romanization of Japanese both for the scholar and for the casual user of the system; and, though in Korean the phonetic problems are much more complex than in Japanese, we believe that this formula can be successfully applied to Korean also. Furthermore, in following this formula we make our system conform for the most part to the Hepburn and Wade-Giles systems. This is particularly desirable, because most of those who are interested in Korean studies are familiar with the systems used for the Romanization of the Chinese and Japanese languages.
[page 10]

II. THE VOWELS
The ŏnmun vowel-letters1 are listed in the chart on the opposite inserted double page . It shows the phonetic tran--scriptions of Ogura and Jung,2 Haguenauer’s transcription, Ogura’s literal transcription, our Romanization, and the Romanizations of Eckardt, the French missionaries, Gale and Jung in the order named.

Each of these onmun vowel-letters does not represent only one vowel-sound, but several which are closely related. Such a group is called a vowel phoneme. It is impractical to provide Romanizations for each variation within a single phoneme, for this would require a series of purely phonetic symbols. Furthermore, only a phonetician with a thorough knowledge of the Korean language would be able to record these differences correctly. The most noticeable variation is to be found in the length of the vowel-sounds. This is to be discussed in a later section.

For the sake of clarity we have divided the Korean vowel-letters into three categories according to their standard pronunciation: simple vowels, labialized vowels and diphthongs, and yotized or palatized vowels.

SIMPLE VOWELS

There are eight vowel-letters in Korean which clearly represent simple vowels, but two others are often included in this group to make a total of ten.3 The following phonetic chart by the Korean phoneticians, Yi, Yi and Jung,4 will help

to indicate the approximate pronunciation of these ten vowel-


1 In order to avoid confusion, we have chosen to differentiate between a vowel-letter and a vowel-sound by these compound words. A digraph or trigraph is a Compound vowel-letter, and a diphthong is a compound vowel- sound.

2 Jung Insub, The International Phonetic Transcription of Korean Speech sounds. Sŏul, 1935.

3 The two doubtful cases, ㅟ and ᅬ we have classed among the labialized vowels. See pp. 14-15鲁

4 Jung Insub, op. cit.



[page 11]

letters, although it must be remembered that there is still considerable dispute between phoneticians over the exact values of many of the vowels and consonants of Korean

Unfortunately, there are only five vowel-letters in the Latin alphabet, a, e, i, o and u. For Romanization purposes these letters have, as a rule, been used to represent the five vowel-sounds which are closest to the five Italian vowel- sounds thus represented. An analysis of the above chart shows that there are five Korean vowel-letters which repre-sent these five vowel-sounds, and therefore there can be no doubt that these five should be Romanized by the corres-ponding Latin letters. They are, ㅏ (ㆍ)1 a, ㅗ o, ㅜ u, ㅣ i and the digraph ㅔ e.

Previous systems of Romanization have differed widely
1 Lower a `, as it is called to distinguish it from upper a ㅏ is now eliminated in most publications, being replaced usually by upper a. Unless one is sure of a better rendering, it is best to treat it as a simple ㅏ (a) when one finds it in old texts and dictionaries. See p. 21.
[page 12] in representing the vowel-letters ㅓ , ㅡ, and ᅢ (`ㅣ).1 Phonetic symbols would naturally be the best means of representing their pronunciations, but in a system of Romanization these, of course, cannot be employed. One has, therefore, the choice of Romanizing them either as digraphs (combinations of two Latin letters) or single letters supplemented by diacritical marks

The vowel-sound represented by ㅓ is phonetically transcribed as ∂ or ∂: by Jung, and as ⊃ by Ogura and Haguenauer. Jung thus gives it the approximate value of the initial vowel in above (әbav) or the long vowel of bird (bә:d) in southern English pronunciation. According to Ogura it is the vowel-sound of want (wɔnt). Generally speaking it may be said to belong to the o ‘family’, although it is not characterized by lip-rounding.

We have chosen the Romanization o for this vowel-letter. The Latin letter o was selected because it represents the Italian vowel-sound phonetically closest to the Korean vowel- sound represented by ㅓ and because the latter is, generally speaking, most readily identified as a short o. The diacritical mark ˘ was selected as probably the most intelligible and least misleading diacritic for this vowel-sound. Some examples of the Romanization of ㅓ are : yŏngŏ 영 어 (English language), ŏmŏni 어머니 (mother), and Koryŏ 고려 (Korean kingdom).

The second of these three vowels, written — in ŏnmun, has no phonetic counterpart in any well-known language ; but some phoneticians compare it to the Russian II. It may be described phonetically as a close central vowel sounded with lips spread. There is no wholly satisfactory phonetic symbol to represent it Ogura has devised the symbol u, and Jung uses w, a modification of a standard phonetic symbol.

We have chosen the Romanization ŭ for the vowel-letter ㅡ. We have discarded the commonly used digraph eu because
1 The symbol `ㅣ can be considered, for Romanization, to be merely an old alternative form of ㅐ. It is not used in modern spelling.
[page 13] it calls to mind the French eu which is lip-rounded in-stead of lip-spread. From the phonetician’s viewpoint, the symbol i would probably be most accurate, but because the pronunciation of ㅡ is closely related to u and is often con-fused with ㅜ (u) by Occidentals, we have chosen the letter u instead. The same diacritical mark as that used with ㅓ (ŏ) is employed in order to minimize the varieties of diacritics and because it serves as well as any other mark to identify this vowel sound. Examples of the Romanization of ㅡ are : ŭmsik 음식 (food) and kŭrŭt 그릇 (dish).

There is one irregularity in the pronunciation and Ro-manization of the lip-spread vowel ŭ ㅡ. When preceded in the same syllable by the labials, m ㅁ, p or b ㅂ, pp ㅽ and p’ ᄑ, it loses its lip-spread characteristics and becomes a simple u.1

The third of the three vowel-letters under consideration is the digraph ㅐ, the standard pronunciation of which is phonetically transcribed as ae or ε. The first is the symbol of the English a of cab (kaeb), the latter, the French ê of même, or the German ä of Lärm. Phonetically it lies between e and a and therefore there is justification for Jung’s use of e’, and Haguenauer’s use of e. However, according to Jung’s chart, the pronunciation of ᅢ is closer to a than to e and etymologically it seems to have the a element in it

We have decided to Romanize ㅐ as ae. The use of a single letter with a diacritical mark was ruled out for various reasons, particularly because of the difficulty in choosing between


1 The Unified System has eliminated the use of ㅡ (u) after these labial consonants and has substituted ㅜ (u) for it, except for the spelling of certain parts ot speech. An illustration of this change of spelling is afforded by the word puk (north), spelled

by Gale and in most hancha dictionaries, but as 북 in the Unified System and in the Government-General dictionary.

The vowel-letter ㅡ has also another variant pronunciation. After s ㅅ, ss ㅆ, ch or j ㅈ, tch ㅾ and ch’ ᄎ, it is often pronounced as a short i. Since it may be pronounced either as u or i in these cases, we have thought it best to disregard this phenomenon in Romanization. Examples are : kusŭl 구술 (beads), ssŭda 쏘다 (to sweep), chŭksi 즉시 (immediately), iltchŭk 일쯕 (early) and ch’ŭnggye 층계 (flight of steps).
[page 14] the letters a and e. Although the latter is more acceptable phonetically, it would fail to satisfy Germans, who identify the vowel-sound it represents with ä, or English-speaking people, who identify it with the “short” English a. The digraph ai which has been commonly used in the past is not acceptable because it is used in both the Hepburn and Wade-Giles Romanization systems for an ai diphthong. The Romanization ae is obviously superior from the phone-tician’s viewpoint, for this combination is used as a ligature (ae) to represent one of the two pronunciations of this vowel-letter. The digraph ae also calls to mind the alternative spelling of the German ä, the normal pronunciation of which is similar to that of ㅐ. Examples of the Romanization of ㅐ are : taemun 대문 (main entrance), paektu 백두 (whitehead) and sae 새 (bird).
LABIALIZED VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS
In Korean the vowel-letters ㅗ (o) and ㅜ (u) are both used in certain combinations to represent the half-vowel w. The former, ㅗ, combined with ㅏ (a) and ㅐ (ae), spells ㅘ and ㅙ which are Romanized wa and wae respectively. The latter, ㅜ, is combined with ㅓ (o) and ᅦ (e) to spell ㅝ and ㅞ, Romanized wo and we respectively.

The ŏnmun digraph ㅟ varies in pronunciation from a labialized i (wi) through a semi-labialized form to a simple vowel-sound, corresponding closely to the German u and the French u. There is some dispute as to the normal pronunciation of ㅟ in standard dialect, as the variant renderings of Ogura, Jung, Haguenauer and others clearly show. Although it is generally pronounced as a simple vowel-sound throughout southern and eastern Korea and occasionally in the capital region itself, the simple vowel form cannot be considered its standard pronunciation.

Except as a syllabic initial, however, the labial element in the pronunciation of ㅟ in the standard dialect is weaker than it is in the other labialized vowels. This is particularly true when it is preceded by the consonants s ㅅ, ch or j ㅈ [page 15] and ch’ ᄎ. In some respects ui, representing a semi-labialized vowel, might be the best Romanization for ㅟ. But since the Romanization wi is necessary to represent the fully labialized form of this vowel as a syllabic initial, and since ui is easily confused in pronunciation with a diphthong, we have preferred to Romanize it wi throughout One exception to this rule is that after the labial consonants m ㅁ, p or b ㅂ, pp ㅽ and p’ ㅍ, the labial element is lost in the vowel, and therefore, in these cases, ㅟ is to be Romanized as simple i.1

The digraph ㅚ, like ㅟ, is pronounced as a simple vowel throughout southern Korea, and some authorities regard this as its standard pronunciation. As a simple vowel it may be phonetically transcribed Φ or oe and it thus quite similar to the German o. Haguenauer, however, describes it as a semi-labialized e, which may be phonetically transcribed we, a pronunciation which is often heard in capital dialect.

We Romanize this vowel-letter, ㅚ, as oe in order to suggest both the simple vowel form and the semi-labial form, and also because oe is close to the ŏnmun spelling, ㅗ (o) plus ㅑ (i). The pronunciation of the labial element of this vowel is more noticeable when it is not preceded by a consonant, as in oeguk 외국 (foreign states), but is almost negligible after most consonants, as for example, in the common surname Ch’oe 최.

The only vowel-letter representing a diphthong is the


1 These consonant and vowel-letter combinations are not very common in ŏnmun, and never occur in words directly derived from the Chinese. Such syllables Gale spells according to the older orthography with ㅟ but the Unified System in keeping with its rules, employs the simple vowel-letter ㅣ (i), and the Government-General dictionary uses ㅢ. Examples of uses of this vowel-letter, ㅟ, are included in the following list.

Romanization Gale Gov.-Gen. Unif. Sys. Meaning

nabi 나뷔 나븨 나비 butterfly

miwohada 뮈워하다 믜워하다 미워하다 to hate

wisin 위신 same same prestige

kwisin 귀신 same same spirits

twi 뒤 same same after, behind

chwi 쥐 same same mouse


[page 16]

digraph ㅢ.1 This is a rising diphthong, composed of the two elements, ㅡ (u) and ㅣ (i), and the natural and easiest way to Romanize it, is simply ui. This digraph, ᅴ, however, represents a diphthong only as a syllabic initial, and after h ㅎ. After all the other consonants it is pronounced like the simple vowel-letter ㅣ and should therefore be Romanized as i in these cases.2


YOTIZED OR PALATIZED VOWELS
The Korean vowel-letters ㅑ, ㅕ , ㅛ and ㅠ representing yotized or palatized vowels, are formed by adding one stroke to each of the simple vowel-letters ㅏ, ㅓ,丄 and ㅜ to indicate that the vowel-sound is preceded by a yod element. The yod element could be Romanized either as i or y, but, since the use of i for it would lead to confusion between yotized vowels and diphthongs, we have adopted the use of y. These four vowels, therefore, are to be Romanized ya, yo, yo and yu respectively, except where special rules noted below lead to the omission of the y.

There are only two ŏnmun digraphs and trigraphs representing yotized vowels, ㅒ and ㅖ.3 The first of these, which


1 There are many other diphthongs in Korean but they are all written in onmun as two syllables. For example Soul 셔울 contains a common Korean diphthong, ou 어우, the component parts of which are always written separately.

2 Because of the phenomenon, the Unified System has changed the spelling of ᅴ to ㅣ where in a single syllable ᅴ follows any consonant but h ㅎ. When the syllable hŭi occurs at the beginning of a word it is often pronounced hi, but this assimilation, does not always take place. It rarely occurs when 희 appears as any but the first syllable. A few examples will illustrate the Unified System of spelling and the principles of the Roman ization of ㅢ.

Romanization Gale Unif. Sys. Meaning

ŭisa 의 사 의 사 doctor

koŭi 고 의 고 의 summer trousers

kunŭi 군 의 군 의 military doctor

hŭimang 희 망 희 망 hope

kich’a 긔 차 기 차 steam train

p’ida 픠 다 피 다 to bloom

3 The two virtually obsolete digraphs ㅠㅣ and ㅠㅔ, which seem to represent yotized vowels are only found in the syllables 슈ㅣ, 츄ㅣ, and 츄ㅔ. They are to be Romanized shwi. ch’wi and ch’we respectively, because, as is explained below, the yod element is always dropped after the two consonants s ㅅ and ch’ ㅊ.


[page 17]

is rarely used, signifies a yotized form of the vowel-sound represented by ㅐ (ae), and is therefore to be Romanized yae. The second, the digraph ㅖ, demands special consideration, because, though frequently used,1 its pronunciation is irregular in so far as the yod element is concerned. As a syllabic initial the yod element is clearly heard;2 but after consonants it is very weak even in careful diction, and many speakers omit it altogether.3 To attempt to indicate, in Romanization, a distinction between weak and strong yod elements would be difficult and impractical We have consequently come to the conclusion that the digraph ㅖ should be Romanized ye in all cases where special rules do not lead to the complete omission of the yod element.

One important rule regarding the Romanization of the vowel-letters ᅣ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ and ㅖ, is that the yod element of all yotized vowels has been completely lost in standard pronunciation following the consonants s ㅅ, ss ㅆ, ch or j ㅈ(ㄷ),4 tch ㅾ, and ch’ ㅊ(ㅌ).4 Consequently, in such cases,
1 The digraph ㅖ occurs frequently in Sino-Korean words, while the digraph ㅔ occurs only in two uncommon forms, 에 (e) and 게 (ke). The digraph ㅖ, however, is not used often in native Korean words.

2 When pronounced as a syllabic initial it is written 예, 레 and 네, since the consonants ㄹ (I, r) or ㄴ (n), occurring at the beginning of a word, are silent before yotized vowels in capital dialect.

3 After h ㅎ and r ㄹ. occurring as other than word initials, the yod element is more distinct than after k or g ㄱ, p’ ㅍ and a medial n ㄴ. It is not used after other consonants or else is entirely unpronounced because of a general phonetic law discussed below. Examples of these variations follow.

Romanization Onmun Meaning Strength of yotization

yesan 예 산 calculation strong

yemul 레 물 gift strong

unhye 은 혜 favor weak

sarye 사 레 thanks weak

kyesan 계 산 computation almost omitted

p’yebang 페 방 deserted room almost omitted


4 When occuring before yotized vowels, t or d ㄷ and t’ ㅌ are pronounced the same as ch or j ㅈ and ch’ ᄎ. See page 28. Theoretically tt ㅆ should also be included, but it is never used in onmun with a yotized vowel-letter.
[page 18] the y is to be omitted in Romanization.1
LONG AND SHORT FORMS OF THE VOWELS
We have already mentioned the variations in the length of the Korean vowels.2 These variations, which are usually accompanied by differences in articulation, are particularly marked in the cases of e ㅔ, ye ㅖ, i ㅣ, u ㅜ and yu ㅠ. In native Korean words the length of the vowels differs greatly in the different dialects with the result that both individuals and dictionaries vary considerably in evaluating them. However, in Sino-Korean words the length of the vowel, with but a few exceptions, is determined by the tone of the character in Chinese. Characters of the first or second tone (shang-p’ing 上平 and hsia-p’ing 下平) usually have short vowels in Korean, while those of the other tones (shang-sheng 上聲, ch’u-sheng 去聲 and ju-sheng 入聲) are characterized by long vowels. One general exception to this rule is that syllables ending in k ㄱ, p ㅂ and l ㄹ are always short.3

Although dictionaries sometimes disagree as to the length of the vowels in native Korean and Sino-Korean words, they usually indicate whether the vowels are long or short. Gale’s dictionary indicates the length of the first vowel in all words. The Government-General dictionary goes further in marking all long vowels in each word. Thus it is quite possible, merely through the use of dictionaries, to


1 The Unified System has taken this phonetic rule into consideration by omitting the sign of yotization in spelling the vowels which follow any of these consonants. A few examples of this rule and of the Unified System’s revision of spelling are :

Romanization Gale Unified System Meaning

Chosŏn 죠 션 조 선 Korea

cheil 데 일 제 일 best

chŏnyŏk 져 녁 저 지 evening

2 It is usual to speak of long and short vowels in Korean, but Professor Choi points out in his Uri mal pon 우리말본 (The fundamentals of our language), Sŏul, 1934, that there are actually three distinguishable lengths, long, medium and short. However, we have followed the usual method of distinguishing only between long and short forms.

3 There are minor exceptions as well. For example, the syllable ch’e 체 is apparently always short no matter what character it represents. Another exception is ye or rye 례, representing the Chinese character 禮, which also is pronounced with a short vowel in Korean.
[page 19] determine which vowels are long and which are short However, it is usually unneccesary to indicate differences in vowel lengths in Romanizing, for the distinction is not important in most words, and with the exception of a few cases in which the vowels e, i and u are concerned, there can be little confusion caused by the failure to mark the length of the vowel.

We suggest, therefore, that the Romanizer employ a dia-critical mark to indicate a long vowel only where he feels that confusion is likely to occur unless a distinction is made between long and short vowels. As an indication of the long vowel, we suggest the use of the long sign―over all vowel-letters but e, where we recommend the use of the accent acute, é.

A few examples will help to indicate the difference between the long and short forms of a few vowels, and will

illustrate how they may be specially Romanized in the cases where it is desireable to distinguish between the two forms. The i of 김 is short, Kim, in the common surname, but long, kīm, in the word for steam. The letter ㅜ indicates a short vowel in munan 문안 (inside the gates), but a long vowel in munan 문안 (respectful salutation). Similarly ㅠ is short in kyul 귤 (tangerine) but long in yumyŏng 유명 (famous). The vowel digraph ㅔ represents a short vowel in megi 메기 (food) but a long vowel in meda 메다 (to carry on shoulders), while the corresponding yotized form ㅖ is short in yemul 례물 (present) but long in yesan 예산 (agreement).1


1 Jung’s two phonetic renderings of each of the Korean vowel letters will give some idea of the differences between the long and short forms and the accompanying differences in their oral formation. This can also be roughly illustrated by a few English words. In each case the English vowel is by no means identical with the Korean, but it will at least help to indicate the nature of the change in the Korean vowel. The short and long forms of the Korean vowel represented by I may be compared to the i’s in hit and machine; the two forms of the vowel written ㅜ to the u’s of put and rule; and the long and short forms of the vowel represented by ㅔ to the vowels of bed and they.
[page 20]
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