The Roles of Women, African Americans and Foreigners in the American Revolution dbq historical Context



Download 52.68 Kb.
Date conversion20.04.2016
Size52.68 Kb.



The Roles of Women, African Americans and Foreigners in the American Revolution DBQ



Historical Context: -1st Rhode Island Regiment at the Battle of Bloody Run Brook
Men and women from all walks of life were caught up in the American Revolution. Women served in a variety of ways, including a few who fought on the battlefield. African Americans, free and enslaved alike, served and became some of the war’s earliest heroes. Volunteers from Europe played important roles in the Continental Army, as well.
General Directions: The following thesis question is based on the accompanying documents (1-8). As you analyze the documents, take into account both the source of each document and the author’s point of view. Be sure to:

  1. Carefully read the document-based question. Consider what you already know about this topic. How would you answer the question if you had no documents to examine?

  2. Now, read each document carefully, highlighting key phrases and words that address the document-based question. You may also wish to add comments or notes. Answer the questions that follow each document.

  3. Based on your own knowledge and on the information found in the documents, formulate a thesis that directly answers the question.

  4. Organize supportive and relevant information into a brief outline.

  5. Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis. The essay should be logically presented and should include information both from the documents and from your own knowledge outside of the documents.



Thesis Question: Compare/Contrast the roles played in the American Revolution by women, African Americans, and foreigners.



Directions Part A (48 points): The following documents address the question of whether the American colonists were really justified in waging war against England. Examine each document carefully, and answer the question or questions that follow.
Document #1
The Edenton Ladies' Patriotic Guild signed the following agreement on 25 October 1774. It was subsequently published in British newspapers:


The provincial deputies of North Carolina having resolved [agreed] not to drink any more tea nor wear any more British cloth, etc., many ladies of this province have determined to give a memorable proof of their patriotism, and have accordingly entered into the following honorable and spirited association. I send it to you to show your fair countrywomen how zealously and faithfully American ladies follow the laudable example of their husbands, and what opposition your matchless ministers may expect to receive from a people, thus firmly united against them:
Edenton, North Carolina, October 25 (1774).
As we cannot be indifferent on any occasion that appears nearly to affect the peace and happiness of our country, and as it has been thought necessary, for the public good, to enter into several particular resolves by a meeting of members deputed from the whole province, it is a duty which we owe, not only to our near and dear connections, who have concurred in them, but to ourselves, who are essentially interested in their welfare, to do everything, as far as lies in our power, to testify our sincere adherence to the same. . . .


-- Excerpt from "Edenton Ladies' Agreement," 27 October 1774, which appeared in the

Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, 16 January 1775

1A. According to the above document, how did the ladies of North Carolina plan to prove their patriotism?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
1B. Why do you think it was important to these women to sign this agreement?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________


Document #2

Despite their low positions in society, women did participate. On the home front, they sewed uniforms and knitted stockings for soldiers. With their husbands away fighting, some women had to take over as weavers, carpenters, blacksmiths, or shipbuilders. Others transformed their homes into hospitals for the wounded.

Both man and women fought on the battlefield. Hundreds of women served as nurses, laundresses, cooks … there were some that actually engaged in battle … Deborah Sampson put on men’s clothing and called herself Robert Shirtliffe in order to enlist in the Army. “Robert Shirtliffe” fought courageously; “his” company defeated marauding Indians north of Ticonderoga.

-Tina Ann Nguyen, “American Athenas: Women in the Revolution”

2A. What kinds of jobs did women take over from men during the American Revolution?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

2B. How did Deborah Sampson manage to enlist as a solider in the army?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Document #3



-Molly Pitcher at the Battle on Monmouth

3A. According to legend, Molly Pitcher took over the cannon after her husband dropped from exhaustion. What seems to be the reaction of the other soldiers?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

3B. How is Molly Pitcher represented in this engraving?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Document #4
T
We hear from Maryland, that the most liberal contributions have been made by the women of that State, for the assistance of the army, -- That some individuals have presented 15 guineas -- that in one of the smallest and most remote counties, have been collected upwards of 60,000 dollars -- that a considerable part of the sums collected has been laid out in the purchase of linen, and a thousand shirts are already made up; no woman of whatever quality neglecting the honour of assisting with her own hands to make them up. The women of this city [Philadelphia] have been employed in like manner, which, when it is related in Europe, will be a signal honour to our cause. Those disposed to lessen [hurt] the reputation of female patriotism might have said that what our women have contributed, must, in the first instance, have come from the pockets of their husbands; but, where their own labour is bestowed, the most delicate fingers being employed in the workmanship, it must be acknowledged an effort of virtue, the praise of which must peculiarly belong to themselves.
he following paragraph was part of an obituary for a leader of the Ladies' Association of Philadelphia.

-- Excerpt from Esther Reed Obituary, Pennsylvania Gazette, 27 September 1780.
4A. In what two ways did women contribute to the American Revolution?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
4B. Why was it important to the women to actually make the shirts themselves?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Document #5


The Militia Act of the summer of 1775 had required that “all free male persons, hired servants, and apprentices between the ages of 16 and 50 years … be enrolled or forced into companies.” This excluded slaves by definition, but free blacks were registered, though “without arms.”

… Many a runaway told the nearest recruiter that he was a freeman, anxious to fight. More often than not, he was accepted without too many questions; the army was short of men.

During the winter of 1777-78, dozens of black Virginians served in every one of the state regiments, freezing, starving and dying at Valley Forge. By February 1778, the survivors were marching with white comrades through the snow, practicing Baron von Steuben’s … drill. Eight weeks later, an army report listed 755 blacks in the Continental Army, including 138 Blacks in the Virginia Line.

-Robert Selig

“The Revolution’s Black Soldiers,” 1997

5A. What group of people did the Militia Act of 1775 affect?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

5B. How did runaway slaves manage to serve in the army despite the ban on slaves?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Document #6

Blacks, who understood the literal meaning of patriot rhetoric, eagerly took up the cause of American freedom, fighting bravely in the early confrontations with the British….

Blacks served at the battles of Lexington and Concord. Peter Salem, a freed slave, stood on the green at Lexington facing the British when the first battle broke out with the shot that was heard around the world.

At least 20 blacks, including Peter Salem, were in the ranks two months later when the British attacked an American position outside Boston in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Salem has been honored for firing the shot that killed Major John Pitcairn, the British officer who led the Redcoats when they had attacked his small unit at Lexington.

Source: www.americanrevolution.com/AfricanAmericansInTheRevolution.htm


6A. Why did so many slaves join the American cause in the Revolutionary War?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
6B. What do you think blacks hoped to gain by fighting in the war?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

6C. How did Peter Salem help to win the Battle of Bunker Hill?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Document #7


With the first foreign material aid in 1777, the influx of foreign officers into the American Army began … Most were adventurers in search of fortune… Few were willing to accept anything but the highest ranks. Nevertheless, they brought with them the professional military knowledge and competence that the Continental Army sorely needed…Louis DuPortail, a Frenchmen, and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, a Pole, did much to advance the art of engineering in the Continental Army…Johann de Kalb and Fredrich Wilhelm von Steuben, both Germans, and the Marquis de Lafayette, an influential French nobleman, who financed his own way, were all able to make valuable contributions as trainers and leaders.
-“The Winning of Independence, 1777-1783”

American Military History, 1989

Center of Military History, United States Army

7A. Why were foreign officers welcomed into the Continental Army?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

7B. What specific contributions did foreign volunteers make to the Continental Army?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________


Document #8


-Count de Rochambeau, French General of the Land Forces in America

Reviewing the French Troops, British cartoon, 1780
8A. This cartoon was drawn by a British artist. In it he shows the French troops in America. Why would the British care if there were French troops in America?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

8B. How can you tell that the artist was trying to make fun of the French troops. What effect would this have on the British troops?


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Directions Part B (52 points):

Essay

Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion. Use evidence from at least five documents in the body of the essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information.


Historical Context:

Men and women from all walks of life were caught up in the American Revolution. Women served in a variety of ways, including a few who fought on the battlefield. African Americans, free and enslaved alike, served and became some of the war’s earliest heroes. Volunteers from Europe played important roles in the Continental Army, as well.


Task:

Using information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, write an essay in which you:



Compare the roles of the following groups during the American Revolutionary War:


  • Women

  • African Americans

  • Foreigners






In your essay, be sure to:


interpreting at least five documents.

  • incorporate information from the documents in the body

of the essay.

  • incorporate relevant outside information.

  • support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details.

  • use a logical and clear pattern of organization.

  • introduce the theme by establishing a framework that is beyond a

simple restatement of the Task or Historical Context and conclude

with a summation of the theme.

Graphic Organizer- American Revolution DBQ
Now that you have reviewed the documents, fill in the chart below with details to assist you with your essay.



Describe the role of Women during the American Revolutionary War


DOCUMENT #

















Describe the role of African Americans American Revolutionary War


DOCUMENT #


















Describe the role of Foreigners American Revolutionary War


DOCUMENT #
















Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Use evidence from at least five documents to support your essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information.


Historical Context:

Men and women from all walks of life were caught up in the American Revolution. Women served in a variety of ways, including a few who fought on the battlefield. African Americans, free and enslaved alike, served and became some of the war’s earliest heroes. Volunteers from Europe played important roles in the Continental Army, as well.


Task:

Using information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to





Suggested Outline

Paragraph 1
Introduction - Restate the Historical Context. Do not cite or mention any material from the documents
Paragraph 2
First body paragraph - Answer the first bullet from the ‘Task’: Describe various roles of WOMEN during the American Revolutionary War ** Be sure to include a topic sentence**
Which documents discuss the role WOMEN played during American Revolutionary War?_____________________

  • Use these documents to support your answer!

  • Also, include outside information to support your answer!

  • Cite the documents that you used - As seen in Document 2 or (Doc 3).


Paragraph 3
Second body paragraph - Answer the Second bullet from the ‘Task’: Describe the various roles of African Americans during the American Revolutionary War. ** Be sure to include a topic sentence**
Which documents discuss the role AFRICAN AMERICANS played during American Revolutionary War ? ___________________


  • Use these documents to support your answer!

  • Also, include outside information to support your answer!

  • Cite the documents that you used - As seen in Document 2 or (Doc 3).

Paragraph 4
Third body paragraph - Answer the Third bullet from the ‘Task’: Describe the various roles of FOREIGNER during the American Revolutionary War. ** Be sure to include a topic sentence**
Which documents discuss the role FOREIGNERS played during American Revolutionary War?________________________


  • Use these documents to support your answer!

  • Also, include outside information to support your answer!

  • Cite the documents that you used - As seen in Document 2 or (Doc 3).


Paragraph 5
Conclusion - Summarize the essay you have written. Information from the documents is not necessary!


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page