THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
A revolutionary movement swept with unprecedented speed across the breadth of Europe in the early months of 1848. Declared the “Springtime of the Peoples” by contemporaries and known to history as the Revolution of 1848, the upheaval proved extremely short-lived. By the summer of 1849, the forces of revolution across the continent had been resoundingly defeated. Despite the movement's complete failure, the Revolution of 1848 nevertheless played a profound role in shaping the modern history of Europe.
Driven by a varied mixture of classical liberalism, Romanticism, and nationalism, the revolutionary outbreak began in Italy in January of 1848 and spread like wildfire across Central and Eastern Europe. At its height, the revolutionary furor engulfed the disunited Germanic states of Northern Europe and Italian states on the southern part of the continent. The multinational and multiethnic mass of Central and Eastern Europe under the rule of the Hapsburg Empire also burst forth in revolt. In total, all or part of many modern-day nations—including France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania—were directly affected by revolution. Of the major European powers at the time, only such industrialized and liberal nations as England and the Netherlands, the autocratic regime of the Russian Empire, and the then introverted Iberian Peninsula and Ottoman Empire remained impervious to the revolutionary outbreak that gripped the continent.
Causes of the Revolution of 1848
The causes of the Revolution of 1848 varied greatly from country to country. In Western Europe, where there existed a degree of popular representation in government, the revolution was fueled primarily by a demand for expanded representation as well as by economic concerns. In the central and eastern part of the continent, generally governed by more autocratic regimes, revolutionaries emphasized an expansion of individual rights and the introduction of suffrage for at least a part of the population. Romantic nationalism also emerged as a driving force in the revolutionary outbreaks in the Germanic and Italian states. Nationalism of a different sort—fueled by rebellions of subjected ethnic minorities—also underscored the revolutionary outbreaks in the lands of the Hapsburg Empire.
Economic Roots of Revolution
The most universal of the factors leading to the revolutionary outbreak was an economic recession brought on by poor harvests and crop failures beginning in 1845. The drop in agricultural production drove large numbers of rural dwellers to search for work in the burgeoning urban centers of the continent. Unemployment swelled in major cities, driving down wages and pushing up the price of food in cities.
Rapid social change, prompted in large part by the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, also served to promote revolutionary impulses, especially in Western Europe. Artisans and urban laborers alike perceived a threat to their livelihoods in the growth of mechanized industry and an increase in cheaper foreign goods. Simultaneous with the increasing impoverishment of workers was the increasing wealth of an emerging social group that benefited from the expansion of trade and industry. This ascending middle class—which included such professions as bankers, entrepreneurs, industrialists, shop owners and traders—looked to assert its influence in the realm of politics by challenging the still pervasive rule of European monarchies.
These widening social divisions prompted numerous social thinkers to prophesy the onset of class struggles. On the eve of revolution, numerous social observers argued that the emerging middle class, or bourgeoisie, would rise up to overthrow the oligarchic monarchies that continued to dominate the continent. Karl Marx, who saw in class struggles the driving force of history, argued that this victorious bourgeoisie would ultimately face a greater challenge from the expanding industrial working class. In January of 1848, weeks before revolution first exploded in the streets of Paris, Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels penned the The Communist Manifesto, outlining their view that impending class based revolution would ultimately pave the way for the advent of “scientific” socialism. This document would prove one of the most enduring products of the turbulent year.
Revolutionary Nationalism and Romanticism
While Marx prophesied that economic divisions would lead to social revolution, a far different source of revolutionary fervor was growing in his homeland and other regions of the continent. The outpouring of French patriotism that followed the 1789 French Revolution was unique in that citizens envisioned themselves not as members of a particular province or region, but of a French nation. With that change in perception, the idea of nationalism was born. As the Napoleonic armies of the French nation spread through Europe in the early 19th century, they brought with them this spirit of nationalism.
Various individuals in the regions subjected to French domination began to define themselves in opposition to revolutionary Napoleonic France. In doing so, many rejected the rational, universal nature of humanity professed by 18th-century French Enlightenment philosophers. Instead, they saw differences that were rooted in intrinsic national “spirit” shaped by history and language. The rejection of 18th-century theories of rationalism in favor of beliefs of national particularity grounded in emotion and spirit became characteristic of the movement known as Romanticism.
Romanticism blended seemlessly with the newly influential movement of nationalism, taking root in nations throughout Europe. Nowhere, however, did the union between Romanticism and nationalism prove as powerful and pervasive as in those nations where national ambitions remained unfulfilled, such as the disunited Italian and Germanic states. In these regions, the flowering of Romantic nationalism gave rise to the idea of political unification. This idea of political unification was by nature revolutionary in lands united by ethnicity, language, and culture, but nevertheless divided by political boundaries governed by aristocratic regimes.
While the goal of unification spurred on the Germanic and Italian nationalist movements, a different type of nationalism arose in Eastern Europe and within the Hapsburg Empire. Nationalist movements in these regions were dominated by ethnic minorities seeking to win independence from large, multiethnic and autocratic empires. The movement that evolved in Hungary under Lajos Kossuth would prove the most influential of these movements for nationalist-based independence. For a variety of reasons, the brief success of the Hungarian nationalist movement prompted similar movements among Czech, Serb, Croat, and Romanian minorities living in the Hapsburg lands of Eastern Europe.
The Outbreak of the Revolution of 1848
Following a familiar historical pattern, the Revolution of 1848 began primarily as an economic-based revolt that rapidly became politicized. The year began with civil disturbances in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies—the southernmost Italian principality. Rising food prices and unemployment sparked civil disorder in the city of Naples that exploded on January 13. Artisans, siding with middle class representatives favoring the establishment of a republic, staged urban uprisings in major cities in the principality. On January 29, Ferdinand II, the king of the Two Sicilies, bowed to his rebellious subjects and issued a constitution in Naples, granting limited suffrage for the Two Sicilies. The first salvo of revolution had been fired.
Revolt in France
The events in southern Italy were quickly overshadowed by the rumblings of rebellion in France, which was the unrivaled center of European revolutionary activity at the time. Civil disturbances in early February began with food rioting and disturbances on the part of the urban poor and working classes. Fearing an escalation of disturbances, the government of King Louis-Philippe banned mass gatherings. As a result, politically active citizens—predominantly drawn from the middle class—began holding private politicized “banquets” to push for greater political reform. On February 22, Louis-Philippe's prime minister, François Guizot, ordered the closing of the banquet clubs. Enraged workers, artisans, urban poor, and radical intellectuals threw up barricades throughout the city as revolution once again gripped Paris. A total of some 370 people died on both sides of the barricade.
The speed and ferocity of the uprising quickly took the fight out of Louis-Philippe. After two days of revolt, he abdicated in favor of his grandson—the young and ineffectual Comte de Paris. On February 24, a provisional government was formed with representatives drawn from across the political spectrum. On the following day, the provisional government—bowing to the demands of radicals—declared the founding of the Second Republic and called for the convening of a constituent assembly to be elected by direct suffrage of all men.
In addition to these declared reforms, the provisional government—under pressure from the Socialists Louis Blanc and Martin Albert—greatly expanded worker rights. Among other policies, the provisional government shortened the work day, imposed a minimum wage, and guaranteed all people the right to work. National workshops, headed by Blanc, were established by the state to employ the mass of unemployed laborers in Paris. For the moment, the radical and socialist bloc reigned triumphant in France.
As was the case with the French Revolution of 1789, the outbreak of revolution in Paris and the declaration of a Republic sparked a rash of revolutionary activity throughout Europe. Unlike the events of the first French Revolution, the spread of the revolt was measured in days, not months and years.
Revolt in Germany
On February 27, demonstrations influenced by the revolution in France broke out in the Western Germanic principality of Baden, resulting in greater freedom of the press and the appointment of liberal ministers. The spirit of revolution spread to the Germanic principalities of Hesse-Darmstadt, Bavaria, and the Kingdom of Württemberg. Citizens in the states took to the streets to demand—and ultimately received—such rights as freedom of the press, the introduction of jury trials, and expanded suffrage. In numerous Germanic states, the last vestiges of feudalism were also swept away, as landowners—fearing the impulsive will of the peasantry—granted an end to payments of seignorial dues.
As in France, the outbreak of revolution began largely as a spontaneous uprising from below, staged by workers, artisans, peasants, and students. By March 3, revolution swept through the Rhineland and to the city of Cologne, where workers—led by Karl Marx and the German Communist League—staged demonstrations demanding expanded workers rights. Ten days later, the revolutionary impulse spread to the city of Berlin in the heart of the Prussian state. Street fighting broke out between students, artisans, and workers and the Prussian police. After five days of rebellion, the Prussian King, Frederick William IV, promised reforms, including a constitution for Prussia and the introduction of limited suffrage. When celebratory demonstrations broke out in Berlin, however, the military was called in to quell the disturbances. Fighting resumed, resulting in the deaths of some 300 rebels—almost all of whom were drawn from the working poor. After several days of fighting, Frederick William IV changed course and withdrew the military, replacing it with a citizen's army, the Bergerwehr, composed primarily of representatives of the middle class. With the withdrawal of the army, the Prussian capital was firmly in the hands of middle class liberals.
With rebellious groups in control of governments across the Germanic states, the revolutionaries turned their attention to the question of German unification. In March 1848, an assembly of 600 delegates from the Germanic states convened in the city of Frankfurt to discuss plans for the political unification of Germany.
The Hapsburg Empire
As Berlin exploded in rebellion, the other bastion of Germanic rule—the Hapsburg Empire—also faced rebellion. On March 13, revolutionaries took to the streets of Vienna. The following day Hapsburg Emperor Ferdinand I dismissed Prime Minister Prince Klemens von Metternich—Europe's paragon of conservative rule. A constitution, promised on March 17, was granted on April 25.
The revolt in Vienna, however, paled in gravity to the rising of nationalist movements in the outskirts of the empire. Signs of an impending Hungarian nationalist uprising were evident even before the revolt in Vienna. On March 3, Kossuth called on the Hapsburg Empire to grant autonomy to Hungary. Emperor Ferdinand conceded this demand on March 17. Following the example of France, Hungary granted near universal suffrage—extending the vote to all non-Jewish property owners of the Hungarian lands. Despite the trappings of liberalism, however, the Hungarian national assembly, known as the Diet, was dominated by members of the Magyar nobility, a landed gentry of Germanic descent. Fearing a rebellion by the Hungarian peasantry, the Hungarian Diet emancipated the serfs of Hungary. The emancipation of Hungary's serfs was one of the few tangible reforms to survive the revolutionary year of 1848.
In the southern Italian states of the empire, revolution also flourished. Milan, the capital of Lombardy, exploded in revolt upon hearing of the ouster of Metternich's government. The revolt in Milan resulted in five days of street fighting led primarily by workers. On March 22, a provisional government was declared. On the same day, revolution gripped the province of Venetia, as Venice staged a revolution and declared the founding of the Republic of St. Marks under Danielle Manin. The rebellious Italian regions of the Hapsburg Empire quickly became a focal point of a larger regional goal—the unification of Italy.
Italian States in Revolt
After the January 13 uprisings in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Italian states revolted once again in February. On February 17, Leopold II granted a constitution for Tuscany. King Charles Albert of Piedmont followed suit on March 4, granting the relatively conservative Statuto which extended suffrage only to a tiny number of landowners. Ten days later, Pope Pius IX offered a limited constitution to the Papal States.
As in Germany, the outbreak or revolution in Italy made palpable the idea of the political unification of the Italian people. Unlike the revolutionaries in the Germanic states, who sought to legislate a united Germany into existence, the revolutionaries of the Italian states sought to unite Italy by force of arms. Austrian forces, having suffered a setback, began to regroup following the revolts in Milan and Venice. These two states appealed to their Italian brethren for assistance in an impending fight against the Hapsburg military. On March 25, Charles Albert of Piedmont—the reluctant carrier of the drive for Italian unification—declared war on Austria in the name of the Italian states.
Collapse of the Revolution
The revolutions that exploded with force and rising expectations throughout Europe dissipated nearly as quickly as they emerged. In general, the regions affected by revolution in the spring of 1848 followed a similar path toward counterrevolution during the summer and fall of that year. The unity displayed by the various revolutionary groups during the early stages of the revolt ultimately gave way to increasing divisions.
In general, the various revolutionary camps divided between radicals and liberals. The former generally favored the extension of suffrage and the introduction of major social reform. Liberals, who seized control of revolutionary movements begun by the radicals in the street, stiffened before the prospect of the increased influence of the radicalized masses. The memory of the French Revolution of 1789 and its rallying cry of “liberty, equality, and fraternity” doubtlessly fueled the initial enthusiasm for revolt throughout Europe. It quickly became overshadowed in the minds of moderate liberals, however, by the memory of 1792—the year when radical Jacobin Republicans seized control of the French Revolution and launched the infamous Reign of Terror. Faced with the choice between “liberty”—and the potentially anarchic will of the people—and the promise of restored order from the old monarchies, moderate liberals across Europe enthusiastically supported the latter and threw their weight behind counterrevolutions. Others clung desperately to their newfound authority, but in their political isolation proved easy prey for counterrevolutionary forces.
Another unexpected source of counterrevolutionary support came from what was still by far the largest social group in Europe at the time—the peasantry. In numerous regions engulfed by revolution, the peasantry proved to be not a potentially revolutionary mass as numerous proponents of social revolution—particularly in Eastern Europe—had long argued, but rather a decidedly conservative force. These “sacks of potatoes,” as Marx pejoratively labeled them, flocked to the defense of the old regimes.
It was in Sicily, the springboard of the revolutionary outbreaks of the year, that the counterrevolution first emerged victorious. Having won a constitution and a parliament elected by limited suffrage from King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies, the liberals in the Sicilian revolutionary movement gained considerable influence over the state. Their position, however, was quickly challenged by the outbreak of violence in the countryside, as Sicilian peasants began forcibly to take control of the estates of the landed gentry. Alarmed, the landowners, backed by liberal politicians in the parliament, suppressed these uprisings with arms. Having driven a wedge between itself and the predominantly peasant masses, the liberal-dominated Sicilian parliament stood completely isolated. On May 15, with the enthusiastic support of the bulk of Sicily's population, Ferdinand II disbanded the parliament. With that action, the counterrevolution had begun.
Counterrevolution in France
The dominance of the radical elements evident in the first days of the Revolution of 1848 quickly passed. Some two months after emerging victorious in Paris, the revolutionary forces in France began to divide. On Easter Day of 1848, a constituent assembly, elected by universal male suffrage, was convened in Paris. By and large, the constituent assembly comprised moderate liberals, as the population of Paris voted only 34 radical members to the legislative body.
Support for radical policies, however, remained strong among the laboring and poor populations of the city. On May 15, revolutionaries led by radicals François Raspail and Louis Blanqui attempted forcibly to take control of the constituent assembly. These radical leaders demanded the intensification of the revolution and called on the people of France to launch an offensive revolutionary war throughout Europe to liberate all peoples still saddled by the yoke of monarchical rule. After a brief struggle, the moderate liberals easily retook control of the constituent assembly from the radical firebrands. The events of that day, however, exposed the wide gulf that existed between the aims of moderate liberals in the government and radical factions.
The June Days
Having defeated the radical insurrection in the constituent assembly, the liberal majority attempted to stem the flow of radical sentiment among the urban population. Unemployment proved a continuing source of urban discontent, especially among the laboring poor. The situation worsened as a steady stream of peasants and agrarian laborers, enticed by the government's proclaimed right to work, poured into the cities in search of work. Blanc's National Workshops proved a magnet to these new arrivals from the countryside, quickly becoming a hotbed of radicalism. Fearing the advent of what was referred to as the “red revolution,” or a new revolution by ultra radicals, the constituent assembly, on June 21, ordered the closing of the national workshops.
The closing of the workshops sparked the most widespread and significant battles of the revolutions of 1848. Known as the June Days, the uprising lasted from June 24 to June 26. Barricades went up in the poorest sections of Paris as workers looked to defend their interests by force of arms. Some 1,500 combatants died during the two days of intense fighting before the worker revolt was crushed. The victorious constituent assembly meted out harsh justice. As many as 3,000 workers were executed for their role in the uprising, while some 10,000 additional rebels were sent into forced labor in Algeria. The June Days—the first pure workers' revolt in history—resulted in absolute defeat for the laboring class.
The June Days proved the beginning of the end for the revolutionary cause. Following the insurrection, the constituent assembly drafted a new constitution calling for the election of a president by universal suffrage. In December of that year, the population of France resoundingly elected Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as president of the country, giving the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte some 75 percent of the popular vote. A political unknown, Louis-Napoleon united moderates, conservatives, and the French peasantry behind the promise of order.
The first French Revolution culminated in the launching of a revolutionary war to “liberate” the peoples of Europe from tyrannical monarchies. Under Louis-Napoleon, the Second Republic embarked on a decisively counterrevolutionary mission, wiping out the last vestiges of revolutionary rule in Europe. While the French Republic remained in effect in theory, the advances won by the revolutionaries in early 1848 were steadily overturned. Among other measures, freedom of the press was drastically curtailed and on May 31, 1850, some 3 million French citizens were deprived of the vote. On Dec. 31, 1851, Louis-Napoleon did away with the trappings of the republic altogether, staging a coup d'état to overthrow the constituent assembly. Some 27,000 political opponents were arrested. One year later, Louis-Napoleon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III.
Counterrevolution in the Germanic States
By the time the National Assembly convened in May of 1848 in Frankfurt to discuss German unification, the revolutionary fervor displayed throughout the Germanic states in March had begun to fade. The 830 delegates assembled in Frankfurt were dominated by moderate liberal members of the middle class. The same was true of the constituent assembly called to govern Berlin. As in France, social upheaval in late June—staged by workers to protest cuts in wages—pushed the moderate governing bodies toward counterrevolution. On June 28, and again on October 12, worker-led rioting broke out in Berlin, only to be suppressed by the middle-class dominated Bergerwehr.
Divided, the revolutionary movement proved ripe for defeat. Buoyed by the obvious split between liberals and radicals in the revolutionary camp, Frederick William IV reasserted his authority. On November 10, some 13,000 Prussian troops occupied Berlin to reestablish the authority of the crown. The following month, Frederick William unceremoniously exiled the constituent assembly from Berlin.
While the defeat of the revolution in Berlin crippled the push for liberal constitutional rule, a glimmer of hope remained for German unification. In early 1840, the National Assembly in Frankfurt proposed the founding of a German federation—a loose political union of the Germanic states to be headed by Frederick William. Declaring that he would not accept a crown offered “from the gutter,” Frederick William rejected the offer to head the German Federation. With this rejection, the goal of unifying the Germanic states came to an abrupt, if temporary, end. The following month, having solidified his grip on power, William Frederick dissolved the National Assembly. When protest revolts broke out in the Rhineland, Saxony, and Bavaria, Frederick William sent the Prussian army—allied with the newly restored Austrian army—to suppress the revolts.
The Hapsburg Empire Regroups
Within the Hapsburg Empire, as in Germany, the uprisings of 1848 were ultimately extinguished by the military. As revolution continued to blaze in Vienna—the heart of the Hapsburg Empire—through the summer of 1848, the army of the Hapsburg monarchy regrouped to quell revolts outside the capital.
In mid-May, Austrian forces suppressed a revolutionary outbreak in Prague, the Czech-dominated city in the Province of Bohemia. On July 25, the Austrian army soundly defeated the upstart Italian army under Charles Albert of Piedmont at the battle of Custozza and proceeded to crush the Republic in Milan. By the autumn of 1848, most of the Hapsburg territory had been reclaimed by the military, and the army turned its attention to the two bastions of revolt: Hungary and Vienna.
As the counterrevolutionary Hapsburg army reasserted its strength, the Hapsburg monarchy was besieged inside the walled city of Vienna. In May, Emperor Ferdinand I passed laws granting limited suffrage to the citizens of Vienna. One week later, radicals took to the streets, demanding a constituent assembly elected by universal suffrage of all men. His army far from Vienna, Ferdinand conceded to the popular will and, fearing revolt, fled from the city.
As in France, the Viennese constituent assembly—elected by universal suffrage as demanded by the radicals— proved decidedly conservative in composition when it convened in July. Furthermore, what popular support existed for this constituent assembly dissipated in the coming months. In August, the constituent assembly ordered the emancipation the serfs of Austria, instantaneously turning the landed gentry against the revolutionary body. Workers and artisans, meanwhile, became increasingly dissatisfied with the revolutionary government because of ever-increasing unemployment and ever-decreasing wages.
Isolated, the constituent assembly proved virtually powerless to rally the population to the defense of the city when, on November 20, the Austrian army appeared at the gates of Vienna. After laying siege to Vienna, the Hapsburg military stormed the city. Radical clubs were closed down, radical politicians were shot, and the entire constituent assembly was exiled, to be replaced by a government under the conservative minister Felix von Schwarzenberg. On December 2, Ferdinand I agreed to abdicate in favor of his son, and Francis Joseph was placed on the Hapsburg throne in the reconquered capital.
Italian States Defeated
While the revolutions in western and central Europe were defeated by successful counterrevolutions, the revolts in the Italian states were largely defeated by foreign armies. The first setback came in July, when Austria soundly defeated the army of Charles Albert and suppressed revolution in Lombardy.
Even as the revolution in northern Italy suffered setbacks, the revolutionary force continued in the central Papal States. Having granted a limited constitution in March, Pope Pius IX attempted to reassert his control over Rome and the Papal States during the summer, appointing conservative Pelligrino Rossi to head the government in Rome. In November of 1848, radicals assassinated Rossi and took over Rome. The Roman republic was declared, headed by Giuseppe Mazzini, the foremost thinker of the Italian unification movement. Pope Pius IX, by then a fervent conservative, fled the country.
The overthrow of the pope, combined with the increasing anticlericalism of the Roman republic, prompted further foreign intervention in the affairs of the Italian states. In early 1849, the French army of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte arrived on the Italian peninsula, crushing first the republic in Sicily before marching on Rome. Giuseppe Garibaldi, who would one day emerge as a primary figure in the unification of Italy, staged a valiant defense of the city. After months of resistance, the Roman republic eventually fell to French troops in July of 1849 and Pope Pius IX was restored to power. As France defeated the Roman republic, Austrian forces once again defeated an attempted uprising by Charles Albert before crushing the last of the Italian republics in Vienna in August of 1849.
Defeat of Hungary
Of the numerous revolts that erupted throughout Europe, the Hungarian revolution proved the most durable. United by a fierce nationalist movement, the Magyar nobility that dominated Hungary proved capable of avoiding the political divisions that doomed revolutionary movements throughout the rest of Europe. Furthermore, the Hungarian army proved more than a match for the Austrian military. In September of 1848 and again in January of 1849, Hungarian troops repulsed offensives by Austria. To shore up popular support against Austria the Hungarian revolutionaries, in April 1849, founded a republic under nationalist hero Kossuth.
Unable to defeat Hungary by direct force of arms, the Hapsburg Empire turned the source of Hungary's strength against the Magyar Republic. In 1849, the Hapsburg government began to support nationalist movements that had begun to surface in the Hungarian lands. Appealing to Croats, Serbs, and Romanians, the Austrian government stirred up rebellion and covertly supported the uprising of Croats led by Gen. Josip Jelacic against Hungary. Whipping up nationalist, anti-Hungarian, and pro-Austrian sentiment among these minorities proved no difficult task. While nationalism in Hungary proved an effective revolutionary force, it also proved itself to be harshly intolerant toward the rights of non-Hungarian minorities. These minorities came to look back fondly on the rule of the relatively tolerant Hapsburg Empire. Appreciation of this tolerance prompted the Czech historian Frantisek Palacky, at the time of the revolutions, to quip that “if Austria did not exist, it would need to be created.”
With Hungary bogged down by nationalist revolts, Austria looked to deliver a decisive blow to the rebellious region. To do so, the Hapsburg government turned to the most extreme reactionary force in Europe. In June of 1849, the Austrian government appealed to autocratic Russian Czar Nicholas I to intervene in Hungary. By August, the Russian army delivered the final blow of the revolutionary year by crushing the Hungarian republic.
Effects of the Revolution of 1848
While the Revolution of 1848 proved a unilateral failure, the effects of the revolt proved highly influential in the course of late 19th-century and early 20th-century Europe. The counterrevolution returned to power many of the same governments that had ruled before the unrest began. These governments, however, were also influenced by the revolution—and more significantly by their desire to thwart the return of the revolutionary fervor.
The most lasting influence of the revolution was the solidification of a compromise between the old monarchical institutions and the rising middle class. From 1848 until World War I, these two social groups made an effective alliance, supplanting the idea of class struggle with cooperation. With the state—that is, the monarchical governments backed by the military—safeguarding the well-being of the middle class, the second half of the 19th century proved to be an era of unprecedented economic growth and prosperity. Cooperation between the state and the middle classes in much of Europe, therefore, paved the way for the acceleration and expansion of business, trade, and industry.
Cooperation between the state and the middle class was also evident in the realm of politics. Having learned firsthand the wrath and power of the people, the states affected by revolution in 1848 largely accepted some form of suffrage, if only for the landowning minority. Even Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, who oversaw the repeal of suffrage for millions of citizens in 1851, eventually realized the value of popular support and reintroduced universal suffrage. The introduction of electoral mass processes, while usually for consultative bodies rather that legislative ones, was nevertheless one of the lasting results of the Revolution of 1848.
In Germany and Italy, the Revolution of 1848 proved a harbinger of political unification that would ultimately come about in the 1860s and 1870s. In Italy, the events of 1848 not only brought the goal of unification to the forefront, but they also introduced the man who would play the primary role in making the unification of Italy a reality: Giuseppe Garibaldi. Garibaldi, who led the valiant defense of the Roman Republic, would prove to be one of the most enduring figures of the tumultuous year, returning to prominence in the 1860s as the military leader of Italian unification. As in Italy, when unification eventually did evolve in Germany, it came not through revolutionary upheaval, but through the military might of Prussia under Otto von Bismarck in the 1870s.
In Hungary and the lands of Eastern Europe, the nationalism unleashed by the Revolution of 1848 unleashed powerful forces the lingering effects of which remained evident into the 21st century. In Hungary, the strength and breadth of the nationalist movement proved enduring. As a result, in 1867 Francis Joseph of Austria elevated Hungary to the status of equality with Austria, and the Austria-Hungary Empire was formed to replace the fading Hapsburg Empire. In other regions of the old Hapsburg Empire, however, nationalist ambitions among other ethnic minorities went unfulfilled, creating explosive conditions that came to the fore at the start of World War I.
The most profound long-term effects of the Revolution of 1848, however, were felt in the country that emerged in the last days of the conflict to serve as the gendarme of conservative order—the Russian Empire. While ideas of liberalism, Romanticism, and nationalism that sparked the Revolution of 1848 began to lose their force in much of Europe, they found fertile ground in the autocratic lands of the Russian Empire. Promoted by such thinkers as Aleksandr Herzen and Mikhail Bakunin—who witnessed the events of 1848 firsthand in Western Europe—these ideas profoundly influenced a later generation of radicals in the realm of the czars. Moreover, Marx, who briefly came to the fore in 1848 but whose ideas were quickly forgotten by all but the most ardent socialists in Western Europe, found an avid audience among the radical, late–19th-century Russian intelligentsia. When, some seven decades later, revolution once again burst forth on the continent of Europe, it occurred not in the lands of Western and Central Europe but within the Russian Empire. However, the ideas and beliefs that guided the Russian Revolution of 1917 were profoundly shaped in the cauldron of the Revolution of 1848.
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