Character of Alexander III – conservative nature – influence of tutor – ideas about his father’s ‘liberalism’
b) The New Conservatism The Safeguard System – how this worked – how it was thought that the autocracy could be preserved – Land Captains – how these were supposed to reverse the reforms of Alexander II – why did Alexander III not aim to completely reverse his father’ s reforms?
c) Economic developments in the 1880s
The lessons of war – what did the Russians begin to realise about their backward industrial structure?
Why couldn’t Russia go through an industrial revolution like the British and the Germans?
What steps had already been taken by Alexander II and his finance minister to boost the economy?
How successful had these early initiatives been?
What 2 major problems faced Russian finance ministers and what 2 courses of action were available to them?
What were the results of Vyshnegradsky’s policy of exporting grain?
How did all this help the status of the Zemstva?
d) Economic Development 1892-1900 Sergei Witte – his policy statement – his plan for rapid industrialisation – procurement of foreign loans - why Nicholas II was prepared to back his ideas – the importance of the railway network – the success of this policy (use examples from the table on page 71 eg ‘Between 1861 and 1913 industrial production increased x 11’.
e) Witte’s social policies – what steps were taken to improve conditions for urban workers?
f) The Gold Standard – explain Witte’s policy – what was the impact of this on the Russian economy?