The Reformation/Counter Reformation/Religious Wars Test answer key



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The Reformation/Counter Reformation/Religious Wars Test ANSWER KEY

  1. The Reformation broke out first in the cities of ________.

    1. Germany and France

    2. England and Switzerland

    3. Switzerland and Germany

    4. England and Germany

Answer: C
Page Ref: 321
Skill: Factual
Topic: Society and Religion



  1. From the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, lay religious groups shared a common goal of religious __________.

    1. domination

    2. independence

    3. ecstasy

    4. simplicity

Answer: D
Page Ref: 321
Skill: Factual
Topic: Society and Religion



  1. Martin Luther ________.

    1. was the son of a successful Thüringian miner

    2. was pledged to the church at an early age

    3. had no formal training in theology

    4. believed that marriage was un-Christian

Answer: A
Page Ref: 324
Skill: Factual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525


  1. In his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Luther urged the German princes to ________.

    1. force reforms on the Roman Catholic Church

    2. embrace the Modern Devotion order

    3. allow the Roman church to retain its political and economic power in Germany

    4. embrace the Dominican order

Answer: A
Page Ref: 326
Skill: Factual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525


  1. German Protestant rulers realized the political implications of the demise of the Roman Catholic Church and formed a defensive alliance called the ________.

    1. Peasants’ Revolt

    2. Edict of Worms

    3. Swiss Reformation

    4. Schmalkaldic League

Answer: D
Page Ref: 327
Skill: Factual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525


  1. The Reformation in Zurich was led by ________.

    1. Ulrich Zwingli

    2. John Calvin

    3. Philip III

    4. Blaise Pascal

Answer: A

Page Ref: 329

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere




  1. Anabaptists are the sixteenth-century ancestors of which of the following modern groups?

    1. Baptists

    2. Lutherans

    3. Mormons

    4. Mennonites and Amish

Answer: D

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere




  1. How did predestination factor into Calvin’s theology?

    1. Predestination played no part in Calvin’s theology.

    2. Predestination played a small part in Calvin’s theology.

    3. Predestination was central to Calvin’s theology.

    4. Predestination was important but not central to Calvin’s theology.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere


9. In what city did Calvin make his name?

A. Bern


B. Geneva

C. Wittenberg

D. Strasbourg

Answer: B

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere
10. The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice, which was that _________.

A. the religion of the land was determined by the Holy Roman Emperor

B. the ruler of a land would determine the religion in his territory

C. Calvinists were to be tolerated throughout Europe

D. Protestants everywhere must restore Catholic beliefs and practices

Answer: B

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Factual

Topic: Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
11. What meeting did Charles V call in which Protestant and Catholic representatives addressed the growing religious divisions within the empire in the wake of the Reformation’s success?

A. the Council of Trent

B. the Marburg Colloquy

C. the Diet of Worms

D. the Diet of Augsburg

Answer: D

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Factual

Topic: Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
12. The Act of Succession ________.


  1. made James VI of Scotland Henry VIII’s heir

  2. made the heir to the throne the first-born child of a king regardless of gender

  3. made Anne Boleyn’s children the legitimate heirs to the throne

  4. gave Parliament the right to choose the next monarch of England

Answer: C

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Factual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553


13. The Book of Common Prayer, written by Thomas Cranmer, was imposed on all English churches by the ________.

  1. Act of Succession

  2. Diet of Augsburg

  3. Reformation Parliament

  4. Act of Uniformity

Answer: D

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Factual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553


14. William Tyndale is known for ________.

A. being the chief minister of King Henry VIII

B. leading the royal opposition to English Protestantism

C. being the recipient of the title “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo X

D. being the man who translated the New Testament into English

Answer: D

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Factual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553
15. Recognized by the pope in 1528, this group sought to return to the original ideals of Saint Francis and became popular among the ordinary people to whom they directed their ministry.


  1. the Theatines

  2. the Oratorians

  3. the Somaschi

  4. the Capuchins

Answer: D

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Factual

Topic: Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation


16. Which of the following was an influential women’s order founded in 1535 for the religious education of girls from all social classes?



    1. the Capuchins

    2. the Ursulines

    3. the Jesuits

    4. the Theatines

Answer: B

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Factual

Topic: Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

17. The Roman Catholic Church recognized the need for reform and met from 1545–1563 at the _______.

A. Peace of Augsburg

B. Marburg Colloquy

C. Council of Trent

D. Diet of Worms

Answer: C

Page Ref: 342

Skill: Factual

Topic: Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
18. The new Protestant schools and universities were most likely to teach ________.

A. the ideas of humanism

B. the ideas of Scholasticism

C. strict church doctrine

D. Roman Catholicism

Answer: A

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe
19. Scholastic dialectics were promoted and taught by the ________.

A. supporters of the Counter-Reformation

B. leaders of Lutheranism

C. leaders of Calvinism

D. teachers at Protestant schools and universities

Answer: A

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe
20. For which of the following novels is Cervantes best known?


  1. La Galatea

  2. La Gitanilla

  3. El Amante Liberal

  4. Don Quixote

Answer: D

Page Ref: 349

Skill: Factual

Topic: Literary Imagination in Transition

21. Thirteenth- through fifteenth-century lay religious movements shared a common goal of ________.


  1. religious simplicity in the imitation of Jesus

  2. a more complex understanding of God’s true nature

  3. overthrowing the institutions of the church

  4. establishing a more authoritarian church to more efficiently suppress heretics

Answer: A
Page Ref: 323
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Society and Religion

22. What advantage did an indulgence grant the buyer?



  1. release from time in purgatory

  2. the granting of an ecclesiastical post

  3. the founding of a religious order

  4. freedom from the church’s holiday obligations

Answer: A
Page Ref: 323
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Society and Religion

23. The medieval church had always taught that salvation was ________.



  1. a joint venture of the faithful and the clergy

  2. solely left to the individual

  3. dictated by God’s judgment

  4. impossible, and therefore one must constantly repent

Answer: A
Page Ref: 324
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
24. Luther’s ninety-five theses ________.

  1. earned him a position teaching at Wittenburg University

  2. had little real impact

  3. sparked the Reformation in Germany

  4. expressed his belief that salvation could be bought and sold

Answer: C
Page Ref: 325
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
25. Freedom of a Christian, written by Martin Luther, summarized the new teaching of salvation ________.

  1. through pious actions

  2. by faith alone

  3. through prayer

  4. as the unattainable goal

Answer: B
Page Ref: 326
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525

26. Luther’s response to the German Peasants’ Revolt proved that his reforms were ________.



  1. religious, not social

  2. aimed at all facets of German culture and society

  3. limited to Germany

  4. more radical than most contemporaries thought

Answer: A
Page Ref: 328
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525

27. How was Frederick the Wise connected to Martin Luther?



  1. He was Luther’s king.

  2. He was the pope during Luther’s protests.

  3. He was Luther’s lord and protector.

  4. He was the rector of the University of Wittenberg.

Answer: C
Page Ref: 325
Skill: Conceptual
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
28. Anabaptists desired ________.

  1. an immediate end to the practice of adult baptism

  2. an immediate end to the practice of baptism for everyone, child or adult

  3. more radical reform than Luther desired

  4. the imposition of a strict social hierarchy based on gender

Answer: C

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere


29. For what is Ulrich Zwingli known?

  1. He was the leader of the Swiss Reformation.

  2. He called the Marburg Colloquy.

  3. He was the hero of the Swiss Civil War.

  4. He spread Luther’s ideas in Switzerland.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 329

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere


30. What was the outcome of the Marburg Colloquy?

  1. Luther and Zwingli resolved their differences and formed a single theology.

  2. The Colloquy splintered the Protestant movement theologically and politically.

  3. The Colloquy led to the Swiss Civil War.

  4. The Colloquy established a new church movement.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere


31. Calvin’s work Institutes of the Christian Religion is considered ________.



  1. a heretical work even by Protestants

  2. a rejection of Catholic theology

  3. a summary of the beliefs of Anabaptism

  4. the definitive theological statement of Protestant faith

Answer: D

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere


32. What was the goal of the Marburg Colloquy?

A. to work out the differences between Swiss and German Protestants and form a mutual defense pact

B. to debate the differences between Catholics and Protestants

C. to educate Landgrave Philip of Hesse on Protestant theology

D. to introduce Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Luther to one another

Answer: A

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere
33. How did Poland react to the expansion of the Reformation?

A. Poland rejected the ideas of the Reformation and persecuted Protestants.

B. Poland permitted limited freedoms for the two major faiths.

C. Polish leaders demanded that Poles remain faithful to the Roman Catholic Church.

D. Poland became a model of religious pluralism and toleration.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
34. The Reformation Parliament met for seven years and determined that ________.


  1. English citizens could determine their own religion

  2. the Catholic Church would remain the church of England

  3. Henry VIII would rule the church in England “as far as the law of Christ allows”

  4. the clergy would be awarded more rights and power

Answer: C

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553


35. King Henry VIII received the title “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo X for ________.

A. divorcing Catherine of Aragon

B. marrying Catherine of Aragon

C. defending the seven sacraments against Luther

D. promoting Thomas Cranmer to Archbishop of Canterbury

Answer: C

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553

36. One of the most important problems in the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was that _________

A. the couple had different religious views

B. the couple lived in different countries

C. Catherine had been raised in Spain

D. Henry VIII needed a male heir

Answer: D

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The English Reformation to 1553


37. The Council of Trent’s most important reforms concerned ________.

  1. religious tolerance

  2. discipline within the church

  3. transubstantiation

  4. the power structure of the church

Answer: B

Page Ref: 342

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation


38. Protestants were more likely than Catholics to ________.

  1. advocate religious tolerance

  2. permit premarital sex

  3. permit divorce

  4. advocate religious violence

Answer: C

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe


39. Which of the following statements characterizes Protestant views of the popular antiwoman and antimarriage literature of the Middle Ages?

  1. They completely agreed with this literature.

  2. They agreed in part with the antimarriage literature, but that was the extent.

  3. They agreed in part with the antiwoman sentiment, but felt marriage was a necessity.

  4. They completely disagreed with this literature.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe


40. Marriages in the early modern period were arranged in the sense that they were ________.

A. dictated by the bride’s parents

B. dictated by the groom’s parents

C. planned

D. determined when the bride reached the age of fifteen

Answer: C

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Family Life in Early Modern Europe
41. Shakespeare’s work can be said to deal with _________.

A. the intellectual currents of his day

B. themes common to humanity

C. contemporary religious issues

D. the dichotomy between medieval and contemporary society

Answer: B

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Literary Imagination in Transition
42. Which of these best summarizes changing notions about women resulting from the Protestant Reformation?


  1. Women gained greater legal rights and much greater autonomy.

  2. Education was thought unimportant, given the emphasis on women as mothers.

  3. Women were increasingly associated with Eve more than the Virgin Mary.

  4. Women’s roles were more esteemed, though not greatly expanded.

Answer: D
Page Ref: 321
Skill: Analytical
Topic: Society and Religion

43. Luther’s theology was illustrated by his attack on five of the traditional sacraments; he rejected them because they were _________.



  1. Catholic

  2. not supported by the Bible

  3. more about ritual than piety

  4. medieval

Answer: B
Page Ref: 326
Skill: Analytical
Topic: Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
44. The Swiss Civil Wars illustrated which of these widespread impacts of the Reformation?

A. the dominance of Protestantism in Germanic lands

B. the violence of the Catholic Church in trying to suppress reform

C. violent conflict based on religious differences

D. the role of the printing press in an age of religious strife

Answer: C

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere
45. Which of these patterns appeared in the Reformation?

A. Religious divisions were greater where political divisions were more pronounced.

B. Religious dissent was more common in France and England, where strong monarchies prevailed.

C. The Reformation was strongest in Mediterranean Europe.

D. The Reformation was strongest in those areas that had been most thoroughly Romanized.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 328–334

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Reformation Elsewhere
46. Which writer advised people to look within themselves for religious truth and no longer to churches and creeds?

A. William Shakespeare

B. John Calvin

C. Valentin Weigel

D. Martin Luther

Answer: C

Page Ref: 355

Skill: Factual

Topic: Renewed Religious Struggle

47. The Peace of Augsburg recognized that ________.


      1. the religion of the land was determined by the Holy Roman Emperor

      2. the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land

      3. Calvinists were to be tolerated throughout Europe

      4. Protestants everywhere must restore Catholic beliefs and practices

Answer: B

Page Ref: 355

Skill: Factual

Topic: Renewed Religious Struggle
48. The most successful politique was ________.

  1. Oliver Cromwell

  2. Philip II of Spain

  3. Elizabeth I of England

  4. Mary I of England

Answer: C

Page Ref: 355



Skill: Factual

Topic: Renewed Religious Struggle


49. What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France?

  1. Protestants plastering Paris and other cities with anti-Catholic placards

  2. the capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia

  3. the passing of the Edict of Fontainebleau

  4. the passing of the Edict of Chateaubriand under Henry II

Answer: B

Page Ref: 356

Skill: Factual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


50. Who were the three powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of king Henry II?

  1. the Bourbons, Racheals, and Orleans

  2. the Bourbons, Montmorency-Chatillons, and Guises

  3. the Burgundians, Ostrogoths, and Guises

  4. the Bourbons, Lombards, and Franks

Answer: B

Page Ref: 356–358

Skill: Factual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

51. Huguenots made up about ________ of the French population, but _______ of the aristocracy.


  1. two-thirds; one-twelfth

  2. one-half; one-quarter

  3. one-fifteenth; two-fifths

  4. one-quarter; three quarters

Answer: C

Page Ref: 356

Skill: Factual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


52. The Edict of Nantes was criticized for ________.

  1. revoking the rights of the Huguenots

  2. creating a state within a state

  3. turning a long cold war into a long hot war

  4. removing Catholicism as the official religion of France

Answer: C

Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)
53. The ruler of Spain for most of the later 1500s was _________.

A. Philip II

B. Ferdinand I

C. Charles V

D. Carlos I

Answer: A

Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)
54. What is William of Orange known for?

A. He led the movement for the independence of the Netherlands from Spain.

B. He led the Turks against Spain.

C. He was the captain of the Spanish Armada.

D. Along with the Duke of Alba, he suppressed the Protestant revolt.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 364–366

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)
55. Hostilities between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when ________.


  1. Henry III was assassinated

  2. Henry IV was assassinated

  3. the Edict of Nantes was signed

  4. the Spanish Armada was sent to invade England

Answer: D

Page Ref: 366

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)


56. Which of the following adjectives most accurately describes Philip II?



  1. withdrawn

  2. spontaneous

  3. unschooled

  4. naïve

Answer: A

Page Ref: 362–365

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)


57. During the first half of his reign, Philip II focused on ________.

  1. events in Germany

  2. the Netherlands

  3. the Mediterranean and the Turkish threat

  4. the growth of English power

Answer: C

Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)


58. What was the reaction from Europe when the Turks invaded Austria?

A. The Spanish under Philip II allied with Venice, Genoa, and the Pope to defend Europe against the Turks.

B. Europeans largely ignored the invasion and allowed Austria to be taken over.

C. The Greeks stepped up to defend Austria and defeat the Turks.

D. The Huguenots came to the aid of Austria in hopes of gaining momentum for their resistance movement.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 363

Skill: Factual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)
59. Who was deposed after only a few days on the throne as Edward VI’s chosen successor in England?


      1. Lady Jane Grey

      2. Mary Tudor

      3. Elizabeth

      4. Mary Queen of Scots

Answer: A

Page Ref: 366

Skill: Factual

Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)


60. Queen Elizabeth I was cautious and firm with groups such as the ________ ensuring that nothing lessened the hierarchical unity of the Church of England.

A. Catholics

B. Puritans

C. Congregationalists

D. Jews

Answer: B



Page Ref: 371

Skill: Factual

Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)

61. Bavaria was a major center of _______.



      1. Calvinist power

      2. Lutheran power

      3. Catholic power

      4. Anabaptist agitation

Answer: D

Page Ref: 376

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


62. The term “ecclesiastical reservation” refers to the ________.

  1. attempt to maintain the status quo concerning lands held by Protestants and Catholics

  2. right of Catholics to worship in Lutheran lands

  3. right of Lutherans to worship in Catholic lands

  4. attempt to outlaw all Protestant sects with the exception of the Lutheran church

Answer: A

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


63. The Thirty Years’ War began as a ________.

  1. peasant uprising in Germany

  2. trade war between Bohemia and Saxony

  3. revolt of Bohemian Protestant nobility against an unpopular king

  4. border dispute between Bavaria and Austria

Answer: C

Page Ref: 375–376

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


64. By 1600, the population of the Holy Roman Empire was ________.

  1. about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants

  2. about 30 percent Catholic

  3. about 70 percent Catholic

  4. about 40 percent Protestant

Answer: A

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


65. The battle at Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years’ War. Who won that battle?

  1. the Spanish

  2. the French

  3. the Dutch

  4. the Swedish

Answer: D

Page Ref: 378

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

66. Which treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an end?


  1. Treaty of Loges

  2. Treaty of Geneva

  3. Peace of Prague

  4. Union of Cologne

Answer: C

Page Ref: 379

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


67. The Treaty of Westphalia finally granted Calvinists _________.

A. legal recognition

B. the power to fortify their towns

C. the authority to gather in public

D. the permission to worship within the borders of cities

Answer: A

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
68. What did Mary I of England, Philip II of Spain, and Oliver Cromwell all have in common?

A. They were all Protestants.

B. They were all considered politiques.

C. They all sacrificed their political goals by refusing to compromise on religion.

D. They gained their religious goals and successfully restricted religious worship in their own lands.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 355

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Renewed Religious Struggle


69. What did the provision in the Edict of Nantes that allowed citizens to maintain fortified towns reveal about social conditions?

A. Protestants and Catholics did not trust one another.

B. Protestants still had to worry about assembling to worship.

C. The threat of Spanish invasion remained real.

D. Protestants had been restricted from entering public universities.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 362

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


70. The Huguenots were staunch foes of the French monarchy until ________.

A. the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye

B. the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

C. Henry of Navarre came to power

D. Elizabeth I provided financial and military support for their cause

Answer: C

Page Ref: 356

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

71. What event elevated the conflict between Huguenots and the French monarchy into an international issue?

A. the death of Coligny, the leader of the French resistance

B. the famous work First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women by John Knox

C. the elevation of Henry of Navarre to the throne

D. the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

Answer: D

Page Ref: 359

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


72. What event starkly marked the beginning of the French wars of religion?

  1. the death of Francis II

  2. the issuing of the January Edict

  3. the leak, to the Catholics, of a kidnapping plot to take Francis II from his Guise advisors

  4. the duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers

Answer: D

Page Ref: 358

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


73. King Henry IV stunned France, Spain, and the pope by ________.

  1. publicly abandoning the Protestant faith and embracing Catholicism

  2. publicly abandoning the Catholic faith and embracing Protestantism

  3. declaring France Protestant, but hoping it would remain politically weak

  4. declaring France Catholic, but hoping it would remain politically weak

Answer: A

Page Ref: 361

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


74. What event caused the Protestants and Catholics of the Netherlands to unite against a common enemy, the Spaniards?

A. the Spanish Fury

B. the exile of William of Orange

C. the signing of the Perpetual Edict

D. the issuing of the Edict of Nantes

Answer: A

Page Ref: 365

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)
75. How did Philip make an example of the Protestant rebels after the Calvinist riots in the Netherlands?

A. He sent the Duke of Alba to suppress the revolt, which ended in the execution of thousands of suspected heretics.

B. He sent his armies back to Spain to gather munitions and build his forces.

C. He published vicious attacks on the rebels in pamphlets and public announcements.

D. He sent religious leaders to preach publicly and condemn the rebels.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 364

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)

76. How did Spain come to control Portugal’s overseas empire in Africa, Brazil, and India?

A. Spain took over the trading network when the Portuguese faced steep inflation in their homeland.

B. Portuguese merchants began using Spanish ports and paid heavy taxes to Spain.

C. Philip II inherited the throne of Portugal.

D. Philip II attacked Portugal and overcame its military forces.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 363

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)


77. Following the weakening of Spain, which nation dominated Europe in the early seventeenth century?

  1. France

  2. England

  3. Germany

  4. Italy

Answer: A

Page Ref: 373

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)


78. What substantial changes occurred when Elizabeth I took the throne following Mary I of England?

A. Elizabeth eliminated the tolerance for theater and dramatic creativity supported by Mary I.

B. Elizabeth changed the irresponsible financial policies promoted by Mary I.

C. Elizabeth reversed Mary’s harsh restrictions against Protestants in favor of religious tolerance.

D. Elizabeth more fully enforced strict policies against religious disunity and dealt harshly with heretics.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 367

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)
79. How did Elizabeth I treat her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots?

A. She treated her with great respect and looked to her for advice.

B. Mary, Queen of Scots was a trusted advisor of Elizabeth.

C. Elizabeth kept Mary under house arrest for nineteen years and then had her executed for treason.

D. Elizabeth largely ignored Mary until she was far advanced in age, when Elizabeth granted her a castle in northern England.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 371

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)
80. The Thirty Years’ War broke out first in ________.


  1. Saxony

  2. Bavaria

  3. Bohemia

  4. the Swiss Confederation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 376

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


81. Due to its central location, which of the following nations had always been Europe’s highway for merchants and traders going north, south, east and west?

A. Switzerland

B. Germany

C. Austria

D. France

Answer: B

Page Ref: 374

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)
82. Which analogy is most accurate?


  1. Bavaria is to the Catholic as the Palatinate is to Protestantism.

  2. Belgium is to the Catholic as England is to the Calvinist.

  3. Italy is to Counter-Reformation as Germany is to Anglican.

  4. France is to the Catholic as Prussia is to the Calvinist.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 376

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


83. At the end of the third phase of the Thirty Years’ War, Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants ________.

  1. in Bohemia

  2. everywhere

  3. in Sweden

  4. in France

Answer: B

Page Ref: 378

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)


84. What was the effect of the Edict of Restitution in 1629?

A. Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden reacted to the edict by beginning the third phase of the Thirty Years’ War.

B. The Edict of Restitution ended the Thirty Years’ War.

C. The Edict of Restitution meant that Protestants received many substantial freedoms.

D. The Edict of Restitution was the precursor to the Treaty of Westphalia.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 378

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
85. How was the Peace of Augsburg like the Treaty of Westphalia?

A. Both agreements restricted the rights of Protestants throughout Europe.

B. Both agreements denied the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor.

C. Both agreements established the right of Protestants to fortify their own towns.

D. Both agreements established that the ruler of a land may determine the official religion of that land.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)

86. What did the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye have in common with the January Edict?

A. Both restricted the liberties of Catholics in the French territories.

B. Both were issued by a convening of German lords to define religious toleration in their lands.

C. Both were issued by the French crown in an effort to grant religious freedoms to Protestants.

D. Both were issued by Spain in an effort to direct the Protestant restrictions in the Netherlands.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 358

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

87. Henry IV converted to Catholicism, motivated by ________.


  1. faith

  2. expediency

  3. fear of Catholic power

  4. a guarantee he had made to the pope

Answer: B

Page Ref: 361

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)


88. What did the Perpetual Edict of 1577 do?

  1. ended hostilities between France and Spain

  2. joined the northern provinces of the Netherlands against Spain

  3. provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within twenty days

  4. secretively allied Philip II with the Guises to send armies under Alexander Farnese into France in 1590

Answer: C

Page Ref: 365

Skill: Analytical

Topic: Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)


89. The image The Milch Cow symbolizes which of these?

  1. the Thirty Years’ War

  2. the long-standing animosity between England and Spain

  3. religious conflict in the 1500s

  4. the Netherlands as a political pawn

Answer: D

Page Ref: 366

Skill: Analytical



Topic: England and Spain (1553–1603)


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