Used sociology to defend limiting work hours for women by documenting the high costs of long working hours for both the individual and society.
Scientific management- studies by Frederick Taylor focused on time and motion to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing task into simpler parts.
“Taylorism” became a fad as industrial reformers used these scientific management students to see how quickly each task could be performed
The assembly line sped up production, but also caused high worker turnover, and led to injuries suffered by tired workers
Henry Ford reduced the work-day to 8 hours and paid his workers $5 a day, twice the average wage
Cleaning Up Government- ***Progressives hoped to change government. To make it more democratic and more responsive to social issues.
Reforming Local Government- While solving the problems of industrialization in the nation’s cities was one goal of the Progressives, they also sought to make government more efficient and responsive to social issues
Commission System- Following the botched rebuilding effort by the Galveston, Texas city council after a devastating hurricane in 1900, The Texas legislature appointed a five-member commission of experts to take over. This prompted the city to adopt the commission system as a form of government
By 1917, 500 U.S. cities had adopted the commission system
Council-Manager System- Following an flood in 1917, Dayton, OH adopted the council-manager form of government
People elect a city council to make laws
The council appointed qualified managers to run city departments
By 1925, nearly 250 cities had adopted the council-manager system
Reform Mayors- Mayors instituted progressive reforms without changing how a city’s government was organized
Hazen Pengree of Detroit instituted a fairer tax system, lowered fares for public transportation, rooted out corruption, and set up a system of work relief for the unemployed
Other reform mayors focused on taking over utilities from corrupt and greedy private owners, converting the utilities into publically owned enterprises
Reform at the State Level- many states passed laws to regulate railroads, mines, mills, telephone companies, and other large businesses
other states followed Maryland’s lead and passed workers compensation laws
Reforming State Elections- Starting with Oregon, states began to reform state governments, putting more power in the hands of citizens
Initiative- A bill originating from the people, which is put on the ballot after citizens petition legislators
Referendum- When voters accept or reject an initiative
Recall- enables voters to remove elected officials by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term.
By 1920, 20 states had adopted at least one of these reform procedures
Primary system- 1899, Minnesota became the first state to enable voters, instead of political machines, to choose candidates for political office through special elections
Direct Election of Senators- The success of the direct primary led to a Constitutional amendment to make senators more responsive to the public.
Before 1913, senators were chosen by each state’s legislature, putting considerable power in the hands of political machines and party bosses
Seventeenth Amendment- Ratified in 1913, the 17th Amendment made the direct election of senators by the people of each state the law of the land
c. Analyze the efforts to achieve women’s suffrage in the early twentieth century.
Women Continue to Fight for Suffrage- The end of the Civil War brought about renewed demands for equal rights from the women of America. They would find that a united movement would be nearly as elusive as the franchise they hoped to secure. Constitutional Amendments and Tactics Split the Suffrage Movement
***Immediately following the Civil War, the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment strongly influenced the women’s rights movement. Why?
The Fifteenth Amendment did not protect women from having their right to vote denied.
***Susan B. Anthony, a leader in the women’s suffrage (the right to vote) movement, worked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to form the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA)
***The most significant split in the women’s suffrage movement was whether women seeking the right to vote should concentrate on the national or state level
The American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) focused on the securing the vote at the state level
The NWSA and later NAWSA worked at the national level to secure a Constitutional amendment protecting women’s right to vote
***The effort of suffragists to achieve reform at both the state and national level reflects a strategy based on the constitutional principle of federalism (the division of power between the states and national government
A Three-part Strategy for Suffrage
Convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote.
Wyoming territory granted women he right to vote in 1869, the first to do so.
***By the 1890s, women had been given the right to vote in state and local elections in much of the western portion of the United States
Women filed court cases to test the Fourteenth Amendment, which declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose governmental representatives
1871-72: Susan B. Anthony and others attempted to vote at least 150 times in ten states and the District of Columbia
1875: The Supreme Court ruled that women were citizens BUT denied that citizenship automatically conferred voting rights
Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment for the right to vote
A representative from California was the first to propose an amendment for women’s suffrage in 1878. It was defeated in 1881.
Women would lobby to have it reintroduced for the next three decades, only to see it continually voted down.
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal- Roosevelt saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” to influence and shape legislation that would curb business excess and see that the common American got a “square deal”.
TR’s Square Deal- the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration
***The purpose of the Square Deal was to promote policies beneficial to U.S. society as a whole, not just certain sectors
TR the Trustbuster- While Roosevelt did not believe that all trusts/monopolies were harmful, he sought to curb the actions of those that hurt the public interest.
TR ‘s administration filed 44 antitrust suits, winning many and breaking up some of the harmful trusts
***He was guided by the idea that business monopolies were harmful to the public good
TR and the 1902 anthracite coal strike- 140,000 Pennsylvania coal miners striked, demanding a 20% raise, a nine-hour workday, and the right to organize a union. The mine operators refused to negotiate.
After five months, the nation’s coal reserves ran low
Roosevelt called both side to the White House to negotiate an end to the strike
The opposing sides agreed to arbitration (a third party to mediate the dispute)
1903- the arbitration commission issued its compromise: the miners won a 10% raise and a nine-hour work day, but they had to give up their demand for a union and their right to strike for three years
TR’s actions reflected the progressive belief that disputes could be settled in an orderly way, and when a strike threatened the public welfare the federal gov. was expected to intervene.
Railroad Regulation- Roosevelt pushed for federal regulation over businesses such as the railroads. He urged Congress to pass laws to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Elkins Act (1903)- made it illegal for railroad officials to give, and for shippers to receive, rebates for using certain railroads.
Also said RRs could not change set rates without notifying the public
Hepburn Act (1906)- strictly limited the distribution of free railroad passes.
Gave the ICC power to set maximum railroad rates.
Regulating Food and Durgs- After reading Upton Sinclair’sThe Jungle, a book exposing the shocking conditions of the meatpacking industry, Roosevelt pushed for passage of regulatory laws to clean up the industry.
Meat Inspection Act (1906)- Dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a program of federal meat inspections
Following a series of lectures by Dr. Harvey Washington, chief chemist at the Department of Agriculture, regarding harmful preservatives to food and deadly ingredients in medicines, TR pushed for regulation of the food and drug industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act- Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines
Called for truth in labeling so consumers would be given accurate information to make wise decisions
Conservation and Natural Resources- In the late 19th century, Americans had exploited their natural resource to extremes. Farmers leveled forests and plowed up the prairies. Ranchers allowed cattle to overgraze the Great Plains. Lumber companies over-logged forests leading to flooding, while failing to replant trees.
Conservation Measures- Roosevelt worked toward sensible conservation- that meant some wilderness areas would be preserved, while others would be developed for the common good.
Set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves
Set aside 1.5 million acres of water-power sites
Set aside 80 million acres of land to explore for mineral and water resources
Established more than 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parks
Named Gifford Pinchot as head of the U.S. Forest Service.
Pinchot was a professional conservationist. He advised Roosevelt to conserve forest and grazing lands by keeping large tract of federal land exempt from private sale
National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) of 1902-Set aside money from the sale of public lands in the West to fund large-scale irrigation projects
Set the precedent of the federal gov. managing the water resources of the west