The Progressive Era Name



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The Progressive Era Name:

US History





  1. What was Upton Sinclair’s intent when he wrote The Jungle?


  1. What was the “Progressive Era”?


  1. Compare and contrast the Populists’ and Progressives’.


  1. Who were muckrakers? What did Tarbell, Norris, Riis, and Steffens write?


  1. Describe what happened at NY City’s Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911. Why?


  1. What was the closed shop? What were open shops?


  1. What is socialism? Why did many workers not like capitalism?


  1. Provide the following information about the Industrial Workers of the World:

Beliefs or Goals:


Differences from A.F. of L.
Members:
Nickname:
Reasons for Failure:


  1. What was the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union? It led to the passage of which amendment?


  1. What was the NAACP? Who were two of its founders?


  1. Briefly explain the following reforms made in the election process:

Direct primary

Seventeenth Amendment

Initiative

Referendum

Recall



  1. Who was Robert La Follette?


  1. How or why did Teddy Roosevelt become president?


  1. What was the “bully pulpit”?


  1. Briefly describe the mine workers strike. What was arbitration?


  1. What was the “Square Deal”?


  1. What was trustbusting? How did TR decide which businesses to sue?


  1. Briefly identify these reforms that were passed at the federal level:

Hepburn Act:

Meat Inspection Act:

Pure Food and Drug Act:





  1. What steps did TR take in protecting the environment?


  1. List several of Taft’s accomplishments while president.


  1. How did Taft anger the Progressives?


  1. What happened to the Republican party in the 1912 election?


  1. List the candidates, their platforms, and the winner of the 1912 election.


  1. Explain the following reforms passed during Wilson’s presidency.

Underwood Tariff

Federal Reserve Act

Clayton Anti-trust Act

Federal Trade Commission

Workmen’s Compensation

Nineteenth Amendment

25. List the names of important suffragettes that helped secure the 19th amendment.




  1. What was Upton Sinclair’s intent when he wrote The Jungle?

  • He wanted to alert the public about the consequences of capitalism (no government regulations of industry)

  • He believed that the government should pass laws to regulate industry to ensure that foods etc. were clean (move towards socialism)

  • Otherwise, we will always have rats in our sausage!




  1. What was the “Progressive Era”?

  • Reform movement from 1900-1920

  • Reform-minded people wanted to better life in the US

  • They wanted “progress” in social, economic, and political areas

  • Period when we tried to eliminate the problems that were present in the Gilded Age




  1. Compare and contrast the Populists’ and Progressives’.

  • Both protested unfair, corrupt corporate practices

  • Both wanted the govt. to intervene and stop the corruption

  • Both opposed monopolies

  • Both proposed election reforms that would allow for more democracy

  • Both wanted a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, 8 hour workday, minimum wages, safe working conditions, and no child labor

  • Populism was a rural movement; farmers and other lower-middle class workers

  • Progressivism focused on urban problems such as unsafe working conditions, bad sanitation, political machines

  • Progressives were middle-upper class, native born, college educated, men and women; social workers, engineers, writers, teachers, doctors, ministers, lawyers, small business owners…




  1. Who were muckrakers? What did Tarbell, Norris, Riis, and Steffens write?

  • Progressive journalists who exposed problems in society

  • They wrote about corruption in society, politics, industry, etc.

  • Ida Tarbell- History of the Standard Oil Company

  • Frank Norris- The Octopus (railroad corruption/monopolies)

  • Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives (slum life in NYC)

  • Lincoln Steffens- The Shame of the Cities (Political corruption)

  • Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meatpacking industry and capitalist greed)




  1. Describe what happened at NY City’s Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911. Why?

  • A fire started as workers were leaving work

  • There were only 2 stairways in the 10 story building and the exit doors were locked

  • Many people jumped to their death to escape the flames

  • 146 people died

  • The public was enraged and demanded legislators to do something about it; Strict fire safety codes were passed




  1. What was the closed shop? What were open shops?

  • Closed- a workplace where the employer hires only union members

  • Open- a workplace where the employer hires non-union workers




  1. What is socialism? Why did many workers not like capitalism?

  • System where the government owns factories, utilities (electricity and water), transportation systems (railroads and today airlines), and communications systems (today radio, TV)

  • Monopolies could exist and workers/consumers were paid little but paid high prices for goods




  1. Provide the following information about the Industrial Workers of the World:

Beliefs or Goals: opposed capitalism


Differences from A.F. of L.: They criticized the AFL for cooperating with business owners and for its exclusive membership
Members: skilled/unskilled, men/women, white, AF-Am, Hispanic-Am, Asian-Am
Nickname: Wobblies
Reasons for Failure: Several IWW led strikes failed , some thought they were radical, the government cracked down on them, and their leaders disagreed on issues
The AFL still existed but the majority of industrial workers were not in labor unions.



  1. What was the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union? It led to the passage of which amendment?

  • A group that led the fight against alcohol; they wanted prohibition (to outlaw alcohol)

  • They believed alcohol was responsible for unemployment, crime, and the break-up of families

  • Carry Nation was a radical temperance crusader. Her husband died from heavy drinking and so she went in saloons with a hatchet and smashed kegs and liquor bottles

  • The 18th amendment was ratified in 1919 which banned the manufacture, sale, and importation of alcoholic beverages




  1. What was the NAACP? Who were two of its founders?

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

  • Worked for social reforms that would ensure equal rights for Af-Am

  • WEB DuBois and Jane Addams




  1. Briefly explain the following reforms made in the election process:

Direct primary: an election where voters choose the candidates who will later run in a general election


Seventeenth Amendment: US Senators will now be elected by the people and NOT by state legislators; much more democratic
Secret Ballot: voters could not be pressured to vote for certain candidates; all candidates were now on one ballot and not on easily identifiable separate colored ballots
Initiative: Allows voters to introduce NEW legislation by gathering signatures on a petition; if the required signatures are collected then the legislature has to consider the proposed law
Referendum: Allows voters to CHANGE a law already in place; also done by gathering signatures on a petition
Recall: Allows voters to REMOVE an elected official from office by holding a new election (ex. California Gov. Gray Davis was recalled and challenged by Arnold Swartzeneger)


  1. Who was Robert La Follette?

  • Progressive Wisconsin Governor who instituted several progressive reforms (direct primary, taxed railroad and utilities companies, created commissions to regulate corporations, backed labor legislation, and supported conservation)




  1. How or why did Teddy Roosevelt become president?

  • McKinley was assassinated and his VP was Roosevelt

  • TR had been a progressive Gov. of NY before becoming VP; legislators in his state wanted him out of NY so they supported efforts in naming him the VP candidate in 1900




  1. What was the “bully pulpit”?

  • He took a “hands-on” approach to governing and used his position as president to get things done and speak out on important issues




  1. Briefly describe the mine workers strike. What was arbitration?

  • 150,000 coal miners went on strike in PA (99% of coal in the US and 3/4ths of the world’s coal came from these mines)

  • Miners wanted higher wages, and 8 hr workday, and recognition of their union

  • In early October, TR forced the miners and mine owners into arbitration (winter was near and coal was needed for heating)

  • Arbitration- when a third neutral party listens to both sides and settles the dispute; the decision is legally binding

  • Both sides got a little and gave a little

  • TR announced that the compromise was a “Square Deal”

  1. What was the “Square Deal”?

  • TR’s 1904 campaign slogan

  • His promise that every one got a “square deal… no less, no more” (promise to be fair in dealing with labor unions, businesses, and consumers)

  • He promised to limit the power of trusts, promote public health/safety, and improve working conditions




  1. What was trustbusting? How did TR decide which businesses to sue?

  • Breaking up monopolies

  • TR filed 44 anti-trust lawsuits against “bad” corporations

  • TR concentrated on breaking up those monopolies that were bad for the public as a whole; size didn’t matter

  • TR kept an eye on the “good” monopolies to make sure that they didn’t take advantage of consumers




  1. Briefly identify these reforms that were passed at the federal level:

Hepburn Act: authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce (pipelines and ferries)


Meat Inspection Act: required government inspection of meat shipped from one state to another
Pure Food and Drug Act: outlawed sale of food and medicine that contained harmful ingredients; required containers to have ingredient labels


  1. What steps did TR take in protecting the environment?

  • Took millions of acres of public land off the market

  • Set aside 150 million acres as forest reserves

  • Created national parks and wildlife sanctuaries

  • Passed the Newlands Reclamation Act that allowed money from the sale of public land to be used for irrigation and reclamation ( process of making damaged land productive again)




  1. List several of Taft’s accomplishments while president.

  • Filed 90 anti-trust suits

  • Passed the Mann-Elkins Act that extended the powers of the ICC to telephone/telegraph companies

  • Added vast areas to our forest reserves

  • Created the Dept. of Labor to enforce labor laws

  • Passed mine safety laws

  • Est. an 8-hour workday for companies doing business w/ the federal govt.

  • 16th amendment-graduated income tax

  • 17th amendment- allowed people to vote for US Senators instead of state legislators




  1. How did Taft anger the Progressives?

  • Taft (and Progressives) favored lower tariffs that would reduce prices for consumers

  • However, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs

  • Taft could have vetoed the bill but didn’t have the political skill to oppose conservatives who supported the tariff

  • Taft’s Sec. Of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, thought TR had exceeded his authority by stopping the sale of public lands so he approved a vast area of timberland in Alaska to be sold

  • The head of the US Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, criticized Ballinger for favoring private interest over conservation

  • Taft fired Pinchot for his criticism of Ballinger

  • Progressives thought Taft was weak on conservation

  • These events angered TR too




  1. What happened to the Republican Party in the 1912 election?

  • TR decided to run against Taft

  • TR’s delegates weren’t seated/given a vote at the nominating convention so Taft easily won the Republican Party’s nomination

  • TR’s supporters were angry and held their own convention and nominated TR to be their “Progressive Party” candidate (also known as the “Bull Moose” party)

  • The Republican Party was now split




  1. List the candidates, their platforms, and the winner of the 1912 election.

  • William H. Taft- Republican

  • Theodore Roosevelt- Progressive (Bull Moose); “New Nationalism”

  • Eugene V. Debs- Socialist

  • Woodrow Wilson- Democrat; “New Freedom”- Winner




  1. Explain the following reforms passed during Wilson’s presidency.

Underwood Tariff- reduced tariffs to their lowest levels in 50 years; consumers benefited


Federal Reserve Act- three level banking system (top- Fed. Reserve Bd, middle- 12 district banks, bottom- local banks); purpose was to control the flow of money in the US by controlling interest rates
Clayton Anti-trust Act- it clarified and strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust act; it specifically stated what corporations could not do
Federal Trade Commission- could investigate corporations and order them to stop if they were being unfair; the courts were used to enforce their rulings
Workmen’s Compensation- provided benefits to federal workers injured on the job
Nineteenth Amendment- granted women full voting rights


  1. List the names of important suffragettes that helped secure the 19th amendment.

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Carrie Chapman Catt (National American Woman Suffrage Association)

  • Alice Paul (Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage)

  • They campaigned against Wilson when he didn’t support them in 1916, they picketed the White House, led hunger strikes in prison, etc.

  • Women’s patriotism during WWI helped weaken opposition to women’s suffrage

  • The 19th amendment was ratified in 1920


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