The Present Continuous Tense. Г.В.Верба, Л.Г. Верба. Граматика сучасної англійської мови. pp. 25-28
Exercises: Г.В.Верба, Л.Г. Верба. Граматика сучасної англійської мови. Ex. 66-71, pp.244-245.
DEMOCRATIC TRADITIONS IN UKRAINE
1. Read, translate and learn more about our history.
The pre-history of Ukraine was full of great events. On our land the first people lived 400-300 000 years B.C. They lived in the territory near the Carpathian Mountains, Zhytomyr, the Azov Sea, in Donbass and in the Crimea. Many ancient cultures appeared and disappeared on our land.
In the 8th and 9th centuries a mighty European state, Kyiv Rus, was formed. Though Princes ruled the country democratic traditions were rather strong in it. Many Slavic tribes did not want to obey the Prince so they fought against him. Besides, the Prince often had to ask his army to do this or that. If the army was against his decision he could do nothing. Of course, there was not democracy, but elements of democracy.
The Brodnyky, fore-runners of Cossacks
Later mystery people called Brodnyky appeared in our history. In many old-Rus and foreign documents of the 12th and 13th centuries one can read about them. There are many mysteries about them. Where did the Brodnyky live? Some historians say they lived on the area from the mouth of the Danube to the Caucasian mountains. Others think they lived near rivers and helped travellers to cross them. Foreign documents confirm that the main region of the Brodnyky was near the mouth of the Danube. Where did they come from? From the documents it is clear they were people from Rus mainly. If "mainly" it means that there were people from other countries too. If the Brodnyky lived friendly among themselves it means they appreciated each other's character but not colour of hair or eyes. Was it democratic? Surely. The Brodnyky were brave people who did not want to obey any Prince. They lived independently of surrounding princes and kings and defended their families and settlements by themselves. Was it possible without democracy? Of course, not. They could live together only on a democratic basis.
Many historians think that the Brodnyky were fore-runners of Cossacks.
First Cossacks appeared in the 15th century. For example, in Podillia Cossacks are mentioned by documents in 1480s, before the time when "in fourteen hundred and ninety-two Columbus sailed the ocean blue..." Later Zaporozhian Sich, founded in the 16th century, became the main centre of Cossackdom.
Who became Cossacks? Landless peasants and rich peasants, poor knights and rich brave aristocrats who wanted to defend Ukraine against the enemies. They were so different... Could they unite without a democratic basis? Certainly, not.
Ukraine gave the world great experience of democratic life, the Cossakdom. Cossacks lived according to democratic principles. All leaders were elected by them and important decisions were taken collectively.
Under Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky ruling Ukraine joined Russia as an autonomous state. But that union was not happy for us because Russia was constantly breaking the agreements and limited Ukraine's rights again and again. In 1775 the army of Katherine II destroyed Zaporozhian Sich, killed many Cossacks and made serf peasants of many of them. Nevertheless democratic traditions did not die and were very popular among Ukrainians all over the country.
The spirit of freedom and democracy has always lived in Ukraine. Even in the time of the hardest oppression there were leaders of resistance and many people supported their heroic struggle. Ukrainian history is full of dramatic pages of folk up-risings: haydamakas, opryshkas, koliyivshchyna participants, Ustym Karmaliuk, Lukyan Kobylytsia - they all took weapon to win freedom and to return former democracy.
So, Ukrainian traditions of democracy have deep roots in history. Folk memory has always kept them. Even if an official power makes people to obey other rules, democratic traditions have never died among the people who try to renew them again and again. As for the history of democracy in Ukraine, we should learn its lessons well to improve our present political life.
2. Give summary of the text.
3. Explain, why we say that Ukraine has got old democratic traditions.
1. Read, compare with your knowledge and think.
THE CONSTITUTION OF HETMAN PYLYP ORLYK
Once Ukraine had the most democratic constitution in Europe. It was in the 18th century. Pylyp Orlyk composed it near 1712.
Pylyp Orlyk (1672 - 1742) was the closest helper of Hetman Mazepa. In 1709 after Russian victory in Poltava Battle he, together with Hetman Mazepa, moved to Bendery. In May 1710, after Mazepa's death, Orlyk was elected a new Hetman. Only Karl XII, King of Sweden, confirmed his rights.
Hetman Orlyk wrote the Constitution and it was the main law for Cossacks and their families during his ruling. That period was short, the Constitution regulated only the life of a small part of Ukrainians but as Pylyp Orlyk was the last Hetman of Ukraine elected by Cossack's rules, it was legal.
2. Answer the questions.
1. When was the first democratic constitution written in our country?
2. Who created it?
3. What was that person?
4. Where was he elected a hetman?
5. What was specific in Orlyk's ruling?
6. Was Orlyk's constitution legal? Why?
7. What else can you tell about the first democratic Ukrainian constitution?