The practice of absolutism



Download 15.03 Kb.
Date conversion14.04.2016
Size15.03 Kb.


AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp. 408-413

THE PRACTICE OF ABSOLUTISM:

Absolute Monarchy = Absolutism = the king has absolute power/authority

Divine Right Monarchy - kings receive their power from God

Jacques Bossuet - Politics Drawn from the Words of Holy Scripture = spelled out the divine right theory



FRANCE AND ABSOLUTE MONARCH:

France during the reign of Louis XIV - best example of absolutism

French culture, language, and manners dominated Europe

French diplomacy and wars shaped the political affairs of the seventeenth century

Monarchs wanted to “be like Louis!”

FOUNDATIONS OF FRENCH ABSOLUTISM:

Period of fifty years prior to Louis XIV taking power were a time of struggle and weakness

Louis XIII and Louis XIV both boys when they cam to the throne

Cardinal Richelieu = chief minister to King Louis XIII - strengthened the power of the monarchy

1. Eliminated the political and military power of the Huguenots - maintained relig toleration

2. Kept in check the power of the nobles - network of spies

3. Reformed and strengthened central admin - Intendants

4. Less successful in financial reform - resistance to paying taxes/overspending by the King for wars

5. The Taille = French land/property tax

Richelieu dies in 1642, Louis XIII dies in 1643, Louis XIV becomes king at age four

Cardinal Mazarin = chief minister to Louis XIV/ran the govt while Louis was a child - cont Richel’s policies

The Fronde = tax revolt/rebellion against Cardinal Mazarin

Nobility of the Robe - led the first Fronde/the Parlement of Paris = law court made up of nobles

Nobility of the Sword - led the second Fronde which was crushed by the govt

French citizens looked to the monarchy for stability

THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV 1643-1715:

In 1661 at the age of 23 Louis XIV takes formal power

Dominates Europe - period from 1616 to 1715 comes to be called “the Age of Louis XIV”

The Sun King

“L’etat, C’est moi.”

Restructures and centralizes governmental administration

Builds the great palace of Versailles - used to contain and control nobles/tie them up in court life

Bypasses the powerful nobles by filling his royal council with new aristocratic families

Personally dominates his ministers and secretaries

The Edict of Fontainebleau = the revocation of the Edict of Nantes - Huguenot churches and schools closed

“one king, one law, one faith”

Jean-Baptiste Colbert = controller general of finances - increase power/wealth of France via Mercantilism

1. Decrease imports/increase exports

2. Expand quantity and quality of French manufactured goods

3. Start new industries - give tax exemptions, loans, and subsidies

4. Improve communication and transportation - new roads and canals

5. Raise tariffs(taxes) on foreign goods

6. Create merchant marine/fleet

7. The more Colbert brought in, the more the King spent

DAILY LIFE AT THE COURT OF VERSAILLES:

Louis builds a vast new and expensive palace outside of Paris = Versailles

1. Residence of the King

2. Reception hall for state affairs

3. Office for members of the king’s government

4. Nobles lived at Versailles serving the King - distracted them from real power and real politics

Elaborate ceremony and routine of court life

Competition among nobles to win the favor of the King



Versailles becomes the model for all other wannabe absolute monarchs



The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page