The politics of public relations: concepts of image, reputation and authority in henry viii’s england



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Paul's Cross and the Culture of Persuasion in England, 1520-1640 (Studies in the History of Christian Traditions)(Boston: Brill Academic Pub, 2013), 14.

196 Richard Rex, “Paul’s Cross and the Crisis of the 1530s” in Paul's Cross and the Culture of Persuasion in England, 1520-1640 (Studies in the History of Christian Thought), 107.

197 LP, V, 589; Rex, 109-110.

198 LP, VII, 266 cited in Rex, 110.

199 LP, VIII, 1019 cited in Rex, 111.

200 Simon Matthewe, A Sermon made in the cathedrall churche of saynt Paule at London, the XXVII. day of Iune, Anno. 1535. London: Berthelet, July 1535. As cited in Rex, 115.

201 LP, VI, 391; Rex, 110.

202 Rex, 115.

203 Sharpe, 112.

204 Murphy, 136.

205 Murphy, 139.

206 LP, V, 685.

207 Murphy, 155.

208 Murphy, 155.

209 Murphy, 155.

210 One of whom was Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, had refused to absolve an earl for marrying a relative.

211 Murphy, 157.

212 Sharpe, 105.

213 According to Murphy’s timeline, who cites the reading of it by a priest at St. Albans as the determinant.

214 Henry VIII, Glass, 385.

215 Henry VIII, Glass, 386.

216 James Warner, Henry VIII's Divorce: Literature and the Politics of the Printing Press (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1998), 42.

217 LP, II, 1, 1313.

218 Lipscomb, 1536, 39.

219 J.N. King “Henry as David: The King’s Image and Reformation Politics” in P.C. Herman, ed. Rethinking the Henrician era. Essays on Early Tudor Texts and Contexts, (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 87—9.

220 Sharpe, 129.

221 Sharpe, 129.

222 Sharpe, 130.

223 Sharpe, 130.

224 Sharpe, 130.

225 Sharpe, 131.

226 J. Rowlands, Holbein: The Paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1985), 72-3 and 81.

227 Sharpe, 130.

228 Lipscomb, 1536, 95.

229 Sharpe, 131.

230 D. Starkey, ed. The Inventory of Henry VIII: Society of Antiquaries MS 129 and British Library MS Harley 1419 (1998), no. 10632, 238. As cited in Sharpe, 132.

231 St. Clare Byrne, 137. As cited in Sharpe, 149.

232 John N. King, Tudor Royal Iconography: Literature and Art in the Age of Religious Crisis. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989) 57-60. As cited in Graves, 34.

233 Graves, 34.

234 John N. King “Henry VIII as David: The King’s Image and Reformation Politics” in Rethinking the Henrician Era: Essays on Early Tudor Texts and Context, ed. P.C. Herman. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 87-89.

235 Hoak, 104.

236 Loades, Power, 5.

237 Lipscomb, 1536, 95.

238 Susan Foister, Holbein and England (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004) 11-22. As cited in Sharpe, 70.

239 Lipscomb, 1536, 95.

240 Loades, Court, 31.

241 Sharpe, 128.

242 Venetian Ambassador Mario Savorgnano, letter dated August 25, 153. Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Vol. IV, 682.

243 Lipscomb, 39.

244 Cavendish, 137.

245 Denny, 178.

246 As decreed in the 1510 Act of Apparel which stated that only the immediate royal family could wear cloth of purple. See Maria Hayward, Rich Apparel: Clothing and the Law in Henry VIII’s England, (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009), 29.

247 Alison Weir, The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn, (New York: Ballantine Books, 2002), 294.

248 Ives, Life and Death, 259.

249 Letter from Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor, August 26, 1532, Calendar of State Papers, Spain, IV, II, 986.

250 Weir, The Lady, 320.

251Account of the king’s visit to Calais, in LP, V, 1484.

252 Sharpe, 166.

253 Ives, The Life, 221.

254 Ives, The Life, 222.

255 Sharpe, 167.

256 LP, VI, 351.

257 Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, as cited in Weir, The Lady, 286.

258 Calendar of State Papers, Venice, IV, 701.

259 Weir, The Lady, 10.

260 Bordo, 39.

261 Juan Luis Vives, The Education of a Christian Woman: A Sixteenth-Century Manual (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2000), 127.

262 Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier from the Italian of Count Baldassare Castiglione, Daniel Javitch, ed., Charles S. Singleton, Translator, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002) 176-177.

263 Bordo, 40.

264 Bordo, 41.

265 LP, VII, 1193.

266 As cited in Weir, The Lady, 14.

267 Ives, Anne Boleyn, 260.

268 Ives, Anne Boleyn, 124.

269 R.W. Hoyle.

270 Ives, 295.

271 Weir, The Lady, 18.

272 David Starkey, The Six Wives of Henry VIII (New York: Harper Collins, 2004), 549.

273 George Wyatt, cited in Weir, The Lady, 7.

274 LP, X, 351.

275 Weir, The Lady, 11.

276 According to Ives.

277 Eric Ives, “The Fall of Anne Boleyn Reconsidered,” The English Historical Review, Vol. 107, No. 424 (Jul., 1992), 664.

278 Lipscomb, 1536, 55.

279 Lipscomb, 1536, 55.

280 Lipscomb, 1536, 55.

281 Lyndal Roper, cited in Lipscomb, 1536, 62.

282 Lipscomb, 1536, 63.

283 Greg Walker, “Rethinking the Fall of Anne Boleyn,” The Historical Journal 45, no.1 (2002): 2.

284 Charles Wriothesley, A Chronicle of England During the Reigns of the Tudors from Ad 1485 to 1559: (Volume 1) (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1875), 33.

285 Theory argued by Retha Warnicke in The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn: Family Politics at the Court of Henry VIII.

286 Joanna Denny in Anne Boleyn: A New Life for England’s Tragic Queen and Eric Ives in The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: The Most Happy, respectively.

287 Walker, 9.

288 LP, X, 699.

289 LP, X, 720.

290 LP, X, 615.

291 Skip was interrogated and censured for “preaching seditious doctrines and slandering the king’s highness” and his counselors. LP, X, 615.

292 LP, X, 699.

293 As cited in Lipscomb, 1536, 88.

294 There was so little evidence in fact, that many were concerned that the king’s honor would be damaged even further by an unjust trial and execution; Cavendish, 458-9.

295 G.W. Bernard, “The Fall of Anne Boleyn,” English Historical Review 106, no. 420 (July 1991): 584.

296 Walker, 14.

297 Walker, 14.

298 Ives, Life and Death, 321.

299 LP, X, 1069.

300 Lipscomb, 1536, 75; Walker, 28.

301 Walker, 16.

302 My theory sides with the works of Greg Walker and Lipscomb.

303 Joan Scott, “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis.” The American Historical Review 91, no. 5 (December 1986): 1053-75.

304 Mary Wiesner, Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 239.

305 Gowing, 225.

306 Lipscomb, The Fall, 292.

307 Polydore Vergil, cited in Weir, Henry, 321.

308 Walker, 19.

309LP, X, 873.

310 G. W. Bernard, Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 597.

311 Bernard, Weir, and Lipscomb all reference this work as a potential impetus.

312 LP, X, 953 and 964.

313 LP, X, 793. Bernard suggests that this was because of guilt and that Worcester named her daughter Anne when she was born out of penitence, Fatal Attractions, 597.

314 Bernard, Fatal Attractions, 597.

315 LP, X, 798.

316 Lipscomb, 1536, 79.

317 LP, X, 789.

318 Calendar of State Papers, Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 1 – 1558-1559, 1303.

319 A treasonable offense to even imagine the king’s death. See Statutes of the Realm (London, 1817), III 26 Henry VIII, c. 13, 508-9.

320 LP, X, 793.

321 Lipscomb, The Fall, 298; LP, X, 786.

322 Walker, 23; LP X, 793.

323 LP, X, 793.

324 Walker, 28; Lipscomb, 1536, 81.

325 LP, X , 793.

326 Patricia Thomson, Sir Thomas Wyatt and His Background (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964), 35.

327 Thomson, 35.

328 LP, X, 908.

329 Walker, 29.

330 LP, X, 873.

331 Anthony Fletcher, Gender, Sex, and Subordination in England, 1500-1800 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), 103.

332 Castiglione, 151 as cited in Lipscomb, The Fall, 299.

333 Lipscomb, The Fall, 335.

334 William Thomas, The Pilgrim, 56. As cited in Walker, 26-27.

335 Fletcher, 101. As cited in Lipscomb, The Fall, 300.

336 John Dod and Robert Cleaver, A Godlie Form of Householde Government (London, 1612), 36. As cited in Lipscomb, The Fall, 303.

337 LP, X, 792.

338 Fletcher, 103.

339 Graves, 34.

340 Giustinian, II, 271.

341 Hall, fols 67-68v. As cited in Graves, 35.

342 Warner, 2.

343 John Guy, The Public Career of Sir Thomas More, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980) 97-9. As cited in Warner, 48.

344 Sharpe, 68.

345 Sharpe, 68.

346 Sharpe, 68.

347 Sharpe, 69.

348 Sharpe, 69.


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