The politics of public relations: concepts of image, reputation and authority in henry viii’s england



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Starkey, David. The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.
Thomson, Patricia. Sir Thomas Wyatt and His Background. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964.
Warner, James. Henry VIII's Divorce: Literature and the Politics of the Printing Press. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1998.
Warnicke, Retha M. The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn: Family Politics at the Court of Henry VIII. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Weir, Alison. Henry VIII: The King and His Court. Reprint ed. New York: Ballantine Books, 2002.
Weir, Alison. The Lady in the Tower: The Fall of Anne Boleyn. New York: Ballantine Books, 2002.
Wiesner, Mary. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Wilson, Derek. In the Lion's Court: Power, Ambition, and Sudden Death in the Reign of Henry VIII. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002.


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Bernard, G.W. The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.
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Gowing, Laura. “Women, Status and the Popular Culture of Dishonour.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Sixth series, vol. 6 (1996): 225-34.
Haas, S.W. “Henry VIII's Glasse of Truthe,” History 64, no. 212 (October 1979): 353-62.

Ives, Eric. “The Fall of Anne Boleyn Reconsidered,” The English Historical Review, Vol. 107, No. 424 (Jul., 1992), pp. 651-664


Scott, Joan. “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis.” The American Historical Review 91, no. 5 (December 1986): 1053-75.
Walker, Greg. “Rethinking the Fall of Anne Boleyn.” The Historical Journal 45, no. 1 (2002): 1–29.

VITA


Lyndsi Lewis was born in New Orleans, Louisiana in July 1990. She grew up in New Orleans, and later Slidell, Louisiana where she attended Slidell High School before graduating in 2008. She earned her B.A. in Mass Communication from the Louisiana State University Manship School in 2012.


1 Susan Bordo, The Creation of Anne Boleyn: A New Look at England's Most Notorious Queen (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013), x.

2 Kevin SharpeSelling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-Century England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), xxiv.


3 Sharpe, xxiii.

4 Mary P. Schoen, “Museum-Public Relationships: Exploring the Relationship Management Theory of Public Relations” (master's thesis, Louisiana State University, 2005), 8.

5 Cutlip, Center and Broom, as cited in Mary P. Schoen, “Museum-Public Relationships: Exploring the Relationship Management Theory of Public Relations” (master's thesis, Louisiana State University, 2005), 8.

6 Sharpe, xv.

7 Sharpe, xxiii.

8 Suzannah Lipscomb, “The Fall of Anne Boleyn: A Crisis in Gender Relations?” in Henry VIII and the Court: Art, Politics, and Performance (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013), 305.

9 Laura Gowing, “Women, Status and the Popular Culture of Dishonour,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 6 (1996): 225.

10 Patricia Crawford, Women and Religion in England: 1500-1720 (Christianity and Society in the Modern World), New ed. (London: Routledge, 1996), 1.

11 Crawford, 97.

12 Crawford, 17.

13 Lipscomb, The Fall, 301.

14 Lipscomb, The Fall, 305.

15 Gowing, 225.

16 Gowing, 226.

17 Lipscomb, The Fall, 305.

18 Lipscomb, The Fall, 305.

191 Derek Wilson, In the Lion's Court: Power, Ambition, and Sudden Death in the Reign of Henry VIII (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002), 36.

202 From John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III, and his mistress Katherine Swynford. The children of this union bore the name Beaufort and were disinherited from the throne of England by Letters of Patent of King Henry IV in 1399.

213 Both Henry VII and Henry VIII dealt with these fears directly. Edward VI’s reign, while brief, was rocked by political instability. Mary Tudor would bring about her own ruin in pursuit of a Catholic marriage an heir and Elizabeth I’s entire reign was plagued by questions of marriage and the succession.

224 Thomas Penn, Winter King: Henry VII and the Dawn of Tudor England (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012), xxvii.


235 Penn, 11.

246 Eric Simons, Henry VII: The First Tudor King (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1968), 22.

257 Simons, 87.

268 Ralph Dutton, English Court Life from Henry VII to George II, 1st ed. (London: Batsford, 1963), 18.

279 Dutton,19.

2810 Sharpe, 66.

2911 Sharpe, 62.

3012 Sharpe, 62.

3113 Sharpe, 62.

3214 Sharpe, 62.

3315 Dutton, 24.

3416 Eric Ives’ suggested date based on a 1527 letter written by Henry to Anne in which he suggests he has ‘been now above one whole year struck with the dart of love’ (T. Stemmler, ed., Die Liebesbriefe Heinrichs VIII an Anna Boleyn (Zürich, 1988).

3517 S.W. Haas, “Henry VIII's Glasse of Truthe,” History 64, no. 212 (October 1979): 353-62.

3618 Sharpe, 2.

3719 Sharpe, 4.

3820 Sharpe, 1.

3921 As defined by the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) and the Oxford Dictionary, respectively.

4022 Marty Neumeier, Zag: The Number-One Strategy of High-Performance Brands: A Whiteboard Overview (Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2007), 19.

4123 Sharpe, 6.

4224 Sharpe, 7.

4325 Neumeier, 19.

4426 Sharpe, 9.

4527 Sharpe, 9.

4628 Sharpe, 6.

4729 Penn, xxv.

4830 Penn, 352.

4931 The Correspondence of Erasmus, Letters 142-297, Volume II, 1501-1514, 215.

5032 J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, 1st ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), 4.

5133 Sharpe, 48.

5234 Dale Hoak, ed., “The Iconography of the Crown Imperial” in Tudor Political Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 77.

5335 Michael A. Graves, Henry VIII: Profiles in Power (London: Longman, 2003), 9.

54 Penn, 367.

55 Penn, 367.

5636 Alison Weir, Henry VIII: The King and His Court, Reprint ed. (New York: Ballantine Books, 2002), 4.

5737 Graves, 9.

5838 Letter dated 1515, by Piero Pasqualigo, quoted in Sebastian Giustinian, Four Years at the Court of Henry VIII (London, 1854), I, 83.

5939 George Cavendish, The Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, Early English Text Society No. 243 (London: Oxford University Press, 1959), 179.

6040 Graves, 10.

6141 Cited by Weir, Henry, 15.

6242 David Loades, The Tudor Court. (Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books, 1987), 6.

6343 Loades, Court, 5.

6444 Graves, 12.

6545 Thomas More, Coronation Ode of King Henry VIII, 1509, ln. 13.

6646 The Anglica Historia of Polydore Vergil A.D. 1485-1537. Edited with a Translation by Denys Hay. Camden Series LXXIV (London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society: London, 1950), 151.

6747 Graves, 13.

6848 Edward Hall, Hall's Chronicle Containing the History of England, During the Reign of Henry the Fourth, and the Succeeding Monarchs, to the End of the Reign of Henry the Eighth, in Which Are Particularly Described the Manners and Customs of Those Periods. Carefully Collated with the Editions of 1548 and 1550. (London: Printed for J. Johnson [etc.], 1809), 507-510.

6949 Hall, 510.

7050 Martin Biddle and Beatrice Clayre, Winchester Castle and Great Hall (Winchester: 1983) 40, cited in Tudor Political Culture, 83.

7151 Neil Samman, “The Progresses of Henry VIII, 1509-1529” in The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy and Piety, ed. Diarmaid MacCulloch (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995), 59.

7252 Weir, Henry, 2.

7353 Graves, 30.

7454 Letter dated May 3, 1515, by Nicolo Sagudino, quoted in Giustinian, Four Years at the Court of Henry, I, 81.

7555 Hall, 630-32.

7656 Graves, 39.

7757 Loades Court, 8.

7858 Eric W. Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: The Most Happy' (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2004), 6.

7959 Loades Court, 3.

8060 Ives, Life and Death, 6.

8161 Loades Court, 3.

8262 Samman, “The Progresses,” 59.

8363 A.H. Thomas and I.D. Thornley, The Great Chronicle of London, 215, in Samman “The Progresses,” in The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy and Piety, ed. Diarmaid MacCulloch (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995), 59.

8464 Samman, “The Progresses,” 65.

8565 Loades, Court, 128.

8666 Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII: Volume I, 51.

8767 Cited in Weir, Henry, 9.

8868 Giustinian, I, 76.

8969 Scarisbrick, 21.

9070 Loades, Court, 1.

9171 Graves, 21.

9272 Loades, Court, 1.

9374 Scarisbrick, 22.

9475 LP, I, 17.

9576 Graves, 172.

9677 Scarisbrick, 23.

9778 LP, I, 2170.

9879 Diary of John Taylor in LP, I, 2391.

9980 Margaret Tudor did not inherit a valuable some of jewels following her father’s death.

10081 The English killed the Scottish warden of the Marches and a naval commander at sea.

10182 Scarisbrick, 24.

10283 Graves, 37.

10384 Graves, 37.

10485 Weir, Henry, 116.

10586 Hall, fol. 4v.

10687 LP, I, 2391.

10788 Weir, Henry, 118.

10889 Loades, Court, 27.

10990 Weir, Henry, 117.

11091 Loades Court, 2.

11192 “The Early Life of Anne Boleyn Part Two—The Court of Margaret of Austria,” The Anne Boleyn Files, accessed April 8, 2012, http://www.theanneboleynfiles.com/6816/the-early-life-of-anne-boleyn-part-two-the-court-of-margaret-of-austria/.

112 Loades, Court, 1.

113 LP, III, 2, 2968.

114 Loades, Court, 2.

115 J.G. Nichols, ed., “The Chronicle of the Grey Friars: Henry VIII”, in Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, Camden Society Old Series, Volume 53, (London, 1852), 30.

116 Scarisbrick, 16.

117 Scarisbrick, 16.

118 Scarisbrick, 97.

119 Scarisbrick, 97.

120 Scarisbrick, 83.

121 Scarisbrick, 46.

122 Scarisbrick, 79.

123 Scarisbrick, 82.

124 Scarisbrick, 74.

125 Loades, Court, 29.

126 Graves, 33.

127 Scarisbrick, 105.

128 Scarisbrick, 97.

129 Weir, Henry, 230.

130 Henry VIII, Rev. Louis O’Donovan, ed. Assertio Septem Sacramentorum: or Defence of the Seven Sacraments (Classic Reprint) (New York: Benzinger Brothers, 1908), 312.

131 Weir, Henry, 21.

132 Weir, Henry, 231.

133 Sharpe, 1.

134 Sharpe, 84.

135 Paul L. Hughes, & Larkin, James F., ed., Tudor Royal Proclamations, Volume I: The Early Tudors (1485-1555) (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1964), item 122, ix.

136 Sharpe, 85.

137 Scarisbrick, 20.

138 Scarisbrick, 20.

139 William Roper, “The Life of Thomas More, Knight” in Two Early Tudor Lives, ed. R.S. Sylvester and D.P. Harding (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1962), 228.

140 Scarisbrick, 17.

141 Weir, Henry, 25.

142 This was a post reserved for young teenagers, not children as Boleyn would have been if the 1507 birth date were accepted.

143 Ives, Life and Death, 19.

144 Lancelot de Carles, La Grande Bretagne devant L’Opinion de Francaise, ed. G. Ascoli, (Paris: Gamber, 1927), lines 53-4.

145 de Carles, as cited in Weir, Henry, 258.

146 Cavendish, 29.

147 Cavendish, 30.

148 Cavendish, 34.

149 Cavendish, 29.

150 Cited in Weir, Henry, 123.

151 Based on 1535 comments made by John Hale, vicar of Isleworth, LP, VIII, 567.

152 Weir, Henry, 123.

153 According to his confessor John Longland who said in 1532 that he had first heard rumblings of a divorce from the king “nine or ten years ago.”

154 Edward was notoriously promiscuous but remained famously devoted to his wife, in part due to the ten children (two of whom were sons who lived past infancy) she bore him throughout their marriage.

155 Hall, 707.

156 Cited in Bordo, 43.

157 William Thomas, as cited in Denny, 16.

158 Bordo, 38.

159 Denny, Anne Boleyn: A New Life of England's Tragic Queen.

160 G. W. Bernard, Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010).

161 Paul Friedmann, Anne Boleyn: A Chapter of English History, 1527-1536. (London: Macmillan, 1884).

162 Cited in Denny, 14.

163 Spanish Ambassador Mendoza reported August 16, 1527 in Calendar of State Papers: Spain, Vol. 3 Part II, 1527-1529, ed. Pascual de Gayangos (London, 1877), 152, pp. 323-338.

164 This would come back to haunt Boleyn during her fall as the dispensation alludes to the fact that the king had prior relations with her sister, Mary. Henry would use this argument to invalidate their marriage in 1536.

165 Cavendish, 86.

166 Suzannah Lipscomb, 1536: The Year That Changed Henry VIII (Oxford: Lion UK, 2010), 38.

167 Warner, 3.

168 Warner, 3.

169 Virginia Murphy, “The First Divorce: Literature and Propaganda” in The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy and Piety, ed. Diarmaid MacCulloch (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995), 141.

170 Lipscomb, 1536, 38.

171 LP, IV, 4908.

172 Murphy, 136.

173 Leviticus 18:16 and 20:21.

174 Scarisbrick, 152.

175 Sharpe, 85.

176 Ecclesiastes 8:4; Sharpe, 85.

177 Sharpe, 85.

178 Sharpe, 86.

179 Tyndale’s The Obedience of a Christian Man.

180 Sharpe, 92.

181 Muriel St. Clare Byrne, The Letters of Henry VIII, 61-2, cited in Sharpe, 92.

182 Warner, 59.

183 Sharpe, 95.

184 Sharpe, 95.

185 Hall, 754-5, as cited in Sharpe, 95.

186 Hall, 747.

187 Sharpe, 97.

188 Hughes and Larkin, 197 and 229.

189 Hughes and Larkin, 209.

190 Sharpe, 110.

191 Hughes and Larkin, xxiii; Sharpe, 98.

192 Hughes and Larkin, no. 129, 245.

193 Sharpe, 98.

194 Sharpe, 112.

195 Torrance Kirby and Stanwood, P. G., eds.,
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