The Polish Review, Vol. LVI, Nos. 1-2, 2011: 111-152 2011 The Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America



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64 See Maurice Gamelin, Servir ( Paris: Plon, 1946) 2: 356, cit. Cienciala, Poland and the Western Powers, 132.

65 For Fierlinger’s report of September 23, 1938, see Cienciala in Lukes and Goldberg, Munich Crisis, 62-63.

66 On Stalin and the second imperialist war; his plans for Poland; Potemkin’s article and oral statements on the partition of Poland and Soviet-German negotiations in 1939, see R.C. Raack, “His Question Asked and Answered. Stalin on ‘Whither Poland?’” TPR 55 (2010), no. 2: 195- 216.

67 A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1961; Atheneum, New York, 1961), 210. This was also the theme of Patrick J. Buchanan’s book Churchill, Hitler and Unnecessary War: How Britain Lost its Empire and the West lost the World (New York: Basic Books, 2008). The best critique of Taylor’s treatment of Polish foreign policy is by Piotr S. Wandycz, “Poland Between East and West,” in Gordon Martel, ed., The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered: The A.J. P. Taylor debate after twenty-five years (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1986), 187-209.

68 Documents on German Foreign Policy, D (London, Washington, D.C. 1956), 6, doc. 99. Hitler’s proposed annexation line indicates he meant to recover Prussian Poland as it existed in 1914, plus all of Upper Silesia, which was also part of Prussia at that time.

69 See Documents cit. above, doc. 433. For the most authoritative interpretation of Hitler’s foreign policy, see Gerhard L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler’s Germany: Starting World War II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), and idem, Germany, Hitler and World War II: Essays in Modern German and World History (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

70 Taylor, Origins, 251. For a recent Russian claim that Poland was to blame for the outbreak of World War II, see Sergei Kovalev’s article on the Russian government website, May 25, 2009, Window on Eurasia, June 4, 2009, and the report in Gazeta Wyborcza, June 6, 2009; it was removed after a protest by the Polish government.

71 For the quotation from Balzac (without giving the source), see Roland N. Stromberg, Europe in the Twentieth Century, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997), 239.

72 See Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Books, 2006), 379; reviewed by Cienciala in TPR 53, no. 1 (2008): 97-103.

73 See “Rozmowa w Profesorem P. Wieczorkiewiczem” [A Conversation with Prof. P. Wieczorkiewicz] Rzeczpospolita, 17 September 2005. Grzegorz Górski pursued the same train of thought in his book Wrzesień 1939, rozważania alternatywne [September 1939; Alternative Considerations] (Warsaw: Bellona, 2000).

74 Beck statement, as recorded in the unpublished memoirs of Polish diplomat Jan Bociański in The Józef Piłsudski Institute, London, Collection 50, p. 57, cit. Marek Kornat, “Polska między Niemcami a Związkiem Sowieckim (1938-1939)” [Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union, 1938-1939], in Sławomir Dębski and Mikhail Narinski, eds., Kryzys 1939 roku w interpretacjach polskich i rosyjskich historyków [The Crisis of 1939 in the Interpretations of Polish and Russian Historians] (Warsaw: Polski Instytut Spraw Międzynarodowych, 2009), 361.

75 On French and British aims in 1939 and their dishonest military commitments to Poland, see Cienciala, “Poland in British and French Policy in 1939: Determination of Fight — or Avoid War,” in Patrick Finney, ed., The Origins of the Second World War (London: Arnold, 1997), 413-433; this is an abbreviated version of the article published in TPR 34, no. 3 (1989): 199-226. On Poland and the French, British-Soviet and German-Soviet negotiations preceding the signature of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, see Cienciala, “The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 23, 1939: When did Stalin Decide to Align with Hitler, and was Poland the culprit?” in M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003), 147-226.

76 On Beck and Munich, see A.J.P. Taylor, Origins, 80, 189. On Taylor’s support for unilateral British nuclear disarmament while writing the book, see A.J. P. Taylor, A Personal History (New York: Atheneum, 1983) 225-230. When the author of this article met Taylor in London in 1968 and asked whether he had written the book to provoke a reaction, he angrily replied: “I meant every word I said.”

77 For a critical study of Beck’s policies in 1938-39, see Żerko, Stosunki polsko-niemieckie. For a polemic with his views, see Marek Kornat, “W związku z książką Stanisława Żerki o stosunkach polsko-niemieckich 1938-1939” [In Connection with Stanisław Żerko’s Book on Polish-German Relations, 1938-1939], Dzieje Najnowsze, 2000, nr. 4: 71-90.

78 See Gerhard L. Weinberg, “A Proposed Compromise over Danzig in 1939?” in his Germany, Hitler and World War II, 121-128.

79 On Witos and Rataj, see Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, “Józef Beck,” Zeszyty Historyczne nr. 76 (see n. 49 above), p. 27; conclusion on Beck, p. 32.

80 PDFR, doc. 108; reprint from The Polish White Book (New York: Greystone Press and Wydawnictwo “Rój” in exile, 1942), doc. 77. See also J.H. Harley, The Authentic Biography of Colonel Beck (based on the Polish of Conrad Wrzos, Introduction by Count Edward Raczyński) (London: Hutchinson & Company, n.d.), 184-193, photograph facing p. 156. The book was most likely printed in summer or early fall 1939; it was taken out of circulation by the new Polish government established in Paris on September 30, 1939.

81 Report on Adam D. Rotfeld’s speech, cited in Gazeta Wyborcza, May 5, 2009.

82 See John Lukacs, The Duel: Hitler vs. Churchill, 10 May — 31 July 1940 (London: Bodley Head, 1990).

83 For a recent work on Polish pilots and their service in World War II Britain, see Lynne Olson and Stanley Cloud, A Question of Honor: The Kościuszko Squadron; Forgotten Heroes of World War II (New York: Alfred Knopf, 2003).

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