The Policies and Programs of fdr and the “Brain Trust”

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FDR & The New Deal/Unit 10

The Policies and Programs of FDR and the “Brain Trust”

  1. Background of FDR

  • in NY 1910-13

  • Asst. Sec. of US Navy

  • Democratic VP candidate with in 1920 (lost to )

  • Aug 1921 – Contracts at age 40

    • Most people assume his !

  • Summer of 1926 – began trips to therapy center in

    • Buys the center and establishes a for children!

    • Uses $200,000 of his to establish foundation!

  • 1928 – Became Governor of NY by 25,000 vote margin!

  1. 1932 Presidential Campaign

  • He had promised in the campaign to take action and “bold, ”.

  • No one knew what it meant, but it sounded great!

  • Roosevelt himself what the “New Deal” would be, but it would be better than the current plan…which was !

  • He had been successful as the Governor of New York.

  • Most NY citizens did not realize that FDR used a to get around.

  • His campaign manager went across the country in 1932 securing FDR’s position as the

  • He was nominated at the convention in and flew there to make a dramatic acceptance speech in which he promised a “ ” for America!

  • His task was simple:

    • Republicans took credit for ! They should take for problems as well It Worked!

  1. Election of 1932

A. for the economic downturn ("No president must ever admit he has been wrong") and was booed and jeered when he made his few campaign appearances outside Washington

1. Campaign slogans: " ," " "

2. Accused FDR of seeking

B. Franklin Roosevelt preached a brand of cautious liberalism, rejecting Hoover's conservatism and the radical approach of socialists and communists.

1. Offered a for the "forgotten man" and promised a balanced budget along with economic reforms

2. Campaign slogan: " " signaled Democratic optimism in face of economic problems

C. Democrats supported repeal of Prohibition and an increase in federal relief

D. FDR won of the popular vote and took control of both the House and Senate

E. FDR launched Hundred Days of legislative and administrative changes

1. 2. 3.

  1. 1932 – November Election

  • Roosevelt wins of states!

  • Stood For: Public Power Reduction of Balanced Budget

  • Received 58% of !

  • Roosevelt Hoover !

  • People had to wait until for any of Roosevelt’s Promises to begin to take shape!

  • Because of this, Congress passed the (LAME DUCK) which changed inauguration date to .

  • Roosevelt is the to be inaugurated in March!

  • Feb 15th, 1933 - attempt by in Miami, FL.

  1. Roosevelt & The Media:

  • While Hoover waited in the White House to leave, trying to restore people’s confidence in the Govt. and their ability to of the Depression!

  • Roosevelt was the first President to have his wife in Political affairs. She joined him on these “tours”.

  • FDR used the media to his advantage, always to reporters and was quoted almost daily in the papers between Nov. and March. This kept his plan in the forefront of media exposure!

  1. The Roosevelt’s: Eleanor & Franklin

  • He had recovered but never !

  • was married to in 1905 and they had 6 children!

  • She worked diligently as a for Children, and worker’s rights!

First President to harness the power of the Media

"Do something. And when you have done that something, if it works, do it some more. And if it does not work, then do something else.”

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

  1. The New Deal:

  • The Election of 1932 was the for the . A vote for was really a vote !

  • Hoover had wanted to use efforts to end the Depression.

  • He asked businesses to and ! It could not be done!

  • He believed in the principle of economic policies and did not want to interfere in the economy of the USA. Said it was !
  1. First Hundred Days

  • Roosevelt had said during the campaign that he would of his administration to .

  • He organized a select group of , and to help him with his program of a “New Deal”.

  • They were called the “

  • FDR came into the Presidency with the notion that he would and not the Congress! He wanted to !

  1. Alphabet Soup Legislation:

  • AAA Agricultural Adjustment Act - It stabilized prices for and gave subsidies to farmers who . This would drive up , because there would be a limited !

  • CCC Civilian Conservation Corps- Public Works project run by . Young unemployed men were organized to , build and and lakes with fish. Gave them a job and !

  • TVA Tennessee Valley Authority -Built Dams and throughout the Region and brought power to .

  • NIRA National Industrial Recovery Act - This was supposed to set up and for Industry which would be enforced by the Govt. Many people said this was because the Govt. was and Industry! This Failed!

  • FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation - A Federal Agency that would up to . So if bank failed, you could !

  • Bank Holiday - Told that banks would be closed for about . That would allow Inspectors to make sure !

  1. Goals of the New Deal:

  • Provide Relief

  • Create for People

  • Restore faith in & .

  • Improve for Americans.

  • Initiate and .

  1. New Deal Relief:

  • FDIC - Insure accounts to $5000.

  • FERA - Provide Relief funds to .

  • WPA - Public Works programs that built , , and public places. Also promoted American culture by , and artists to paint murals and musicians to record .

  • CWA - Civil Works Administration gave people jobs , airports, , subways.

  • NRA - National Recovery Act was supposed to bolster !

  1. Key Components of the New Deal:

  • Wagner Act - It was officially known as the . It would preserve and strengthen workers right to and Bargain !

  • Social Security Act - This provided to people who had paid in under They would receive their at the age of ! This would eventually be taken over by the Govt. Because at first it was strictly .

  • Wealth Tax Act - Taxed the of the and put taxes on inheritance, and

  1. The End of the Honeymoon: 1936-37

  • rules that most of the original New Deal legislation is .

  • Roosevelt has to and approach his second term with a new plan.

  • will approach the Depression with more .

Second New Deal: (1936-1940)

  • Would restructure and improve the original intentions of the First New Deal.

  • Farm Security Agency -(1937) replaced the and made sure that Southern landlords were not pocketing meant for farmers. It also set up camps for


  • National Labor Relations Board - Created to settle disputes between and . It banned in the USA and established a for all workers!

  1. Election of 1936:

  • Roosevelt but not by the huge margin that he did!

  • He wins with every state except and .

  • FDR gained support from , union members, and .

  1. Problems for the New Deal:

  • New Deal legislation did not .

  • Women received of the amount of that men received under the .

  • Most labor related legislation provided coverage for related work.

  • African Americans received .

  • Most public works jobs were , African Americans received and performed harder work!
  1. Critics of the New Deal:

  • Wealthy people regarded FDR as their enemy because they felt that penalized successful people.

  • American Liberty League (1934) was at the front of of the New Deal. They said that New Deal programs were .

  • Some saw Social Security as 1st step to .

  • Father Charles Coughlin - He was the “Radio Priest”

  • Used the radio throughout the 1930’s to .

  • Was not always with his .

  • Sometimes he , sometimes he supported them.

  • He insulted Roosevelt.

  • Coughlin became increasingly throughout the 1930’s

  • He showered praise and support on people like and .

  • By the early 1940’s, had ordered him to cease broadcasting.

  • Huey Long (aka “kingfish)

  • Former La. Governor and elected as from LA. In .

  • He promoted “ ” clubs throughout the USA.

  • He built , hospitals and organizations throughout LA.

  • People loved him.

  1. Battles with the Supreme Court:

  • The had thrown out various parts of the when they were challenged.

  • NRA, AAA and many state laws were thrown out .

  • FDR proposed in 1937 that would restructure the .

  • The Court was composed of , and four of them were Conservatives who always voted against .

“The Court Packing Scheme”

  • FDR asked Congress to let him appoint .

  • One !

  • Reality of this was that he was trying to favorable to the New Deal.

  • FDR was forced to .

  • Later on he does get to appoint some judges.

  1. Reality of the New Deal for America:

  • It did not attempt truly to the .

  • It did lead to in American social and political life.

  • The nations expectations for the as a caretaker were increased.

  • People expected candidates to .

  • Government was now expected to intervene on behalf of the public and “ .”

Recession of 1937:

  • Americans had in their pockets partly because of NEW DEAL programs .

  • The adjustment period was .

  • FDR was convinced that but did not want to .

  1. Cultural Reality of the New Deal:

  • increased because of the and the legalization of Labor Unions.

  • Strikes at major factories .

  • WPA support of the Arts allows , , and to continue to contribute to the culture of American society.

  • becomes an accepted part of everyday life and leads to the of the 1960’s.

  1. Lasting Effects for America:

  • Bridges, Dams, tunnels, , hospitals all remind us of the role that the New Deal played in American society.

  • Conservation efforts allowed , beaches and to flourish and become part of the National Identity.

  • Forged a .

  1. Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

  • Elected President four different times.

  • 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944

  • enacted because of FDR.

  • No person shall be elected as more than or serve more than 10 years!

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