The Past Continuous Tense. Г.В.Верба, Л.Г. Верба. Граматика сучасної англійської мови. pp. 28-30.
Exercises: Т.В.Барановська. Граматика англійської мови. Ex. 51-54, 60-65 pp.80-90.
Read, translate, learn the unknown words.
THE HISTORY OF UKRAINE
The State of Kyiv Rus was set. up in the 9th century. It was a powerful feudal state with highly developed culture and various crafts widely known throughout Europe. ,
From the 13th century Ukraine was continuously struggling against invasions by the Tatar — Mongols, the Turks, the Crimean Tatars. Lithuanian and Polish rulers, who pursued a policy of merciless national oppression. The long struggle of the Ukrainian people for independence ended victoriously under the leadership of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, in 1654, a treaty of union between Ukraine and Russian czar was signed. The hetman had the right to administer Ukraine, to possess an army and navy, collect taxes. Soon after Khmelnytsky's death, the czar interpreted the treaty as a «personal union» and demanded its revision whenever a new hetman was to be elected. Several hetmans tried to break away from Russia but failed (I. Vyhovsky in 1659, P. Doroshenko in 1665-1676, I. Mazepa in 1708-1709). After each such defeat the czar reduced the Ukrainians' treaty rights. Finally, in 1764, the office of the hetman was abolished altogether, and in 1775 Katherine II destroyed the stronghold of the Ukrainian sovereignty, the Zaporozhian Sich. She introduced serfdom in Ukraine. The Ukrainian people have never stopped struggling against tsarist economic and national oppression.
After the overthrow of the czar in March 1917, Ukrainian political and military organizations convened an assembly in Kyiv, called the Central Rada. It proclaimed the establishment of the Ukrainian People's Republic. After the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917, Lenin officially recognized Ukraine as a sovereign state.
However Stalin accused Ukrainians of «nationalism». The policy of russianization was reintroduced and waves of arrests, exiles and executions followed in 1933-1940.
A terrible famine in 1932-1933 killed some seven million Ukrainians.
Millions of the Ukrainian people were lost during the second world war.
Free-thinking was punished also after war especially under Brezhnev-Shcherbytsky stagnation ruling.
And only on August 24, 1991 the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian Republic proclaimed Ukraine an independent democratic sovereign state.
The oldest archaeological findings of the Trident («Trizub») on the Ukrainian lands take their origin into the first century A. D. It might be a symbol or a sign of power of the tribe which lived there.
The depiction of the Trident, which looked like the emblem of the Ukrainian People's Republic (the UPR), belonged to the edge of the Xth — Xlth centuries. It perhaps was a symbol of Prince's power in Kyiv Rus. The Trident remained on the gold and silver coins of Volodymyr the Great (980 — 1015).
The revival of historical traditions started at the beginning of the XXth century. On February 12, 1918 the little Council in Korosten adopted the Trident on the blue background for the National Emblem of the UPR. On March 22, 1918 it was confirmed by the Central Council. On the same day the Big and the Small stamps (печатки) of .the UPR with the Trident's sign were approved.
The author of the Trident's projects was the painter V. Krychevsky.
The Trident was printed on the banknotes of the UPR.
Hetman Skoropadsky (1918) and Directoria (1918 — 1920) used the Trident as the emblem too.
On January 22, 1919 the UPR reunited with the Western Ukrainian People's Republic and the Trident became the Emblem of the united state.
In 1920s -«- 1940s many political groups in the Western Ukraine used the symbols with the depiction of the Trident.
On August 24, 1991 Ukraine was proclaimed an independent democratic state at the Extraordinary Session of the Ukrainian Supreme Council. It was necessary to create true symbols of the young state. On February 19,1992 after long and heated debates at the session of the Supreme Council the Golden Trident on the Blue Pentagon Shield was confirmed as the «small emblem» and the key element of the «big emblem» of Ukraine. The state stamp with the Trident's depiction was confirmed too.
UKRAINIAN NATIONAL FLAG
The origin of Ukrainian national flag dates back to the 11th and 12th centuries. The national colours were first adopted by King Danylo of the Halych-Volynian Kingdom, and carried on through history by Kyiv Rus Kings, Queens, Princesses and Cossacks State, Zaporozhian Sich, Hetmanat State and carried on to the 20th century.
This composition of national colours was decreed by a law of the independent Ukrainian National Republic on March 22, 1918» The light blue above yellow flag was established by the Western Ukrainian National Republic on November 13, 1918, for the Carpathian - Ukrainian unity. The light blue above yellow flag was confirmed by the Ukrainian National Rada In Exile on June 27, 1949. On January 28, 1992 the Supreme Council (Rada) adopted the decree on the national blue-and-yellow flag as the state flag of Ukraine.
The bluest skies and the most golden fields of wheat could only represent that natural beauty and wealth found in Ukraine. And thus, the blue and yellow became not only a patriotic symbol for the Ukrainian nation, but they also became the total manifestation of those God given qualities that have created the beauty we call our native soil.
to adopt — приймати
to decree — видавати декрет, закон
to confirm — затверджувати
exile — заслання, вигнання
manifestation — виявлення