The Germans change tactics
After the German Navy’s defeat at the Battle of the Dogger Bank in January 1915 the German commander, Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, was sacked and replaced by Admiral Hugo von Pohl. Pohl quickly made a complete transformation of German naval strategy. He abandoned attempts to whittle away Britain’s naval superiority by surface engagements and instead turned to unrestricted U-Boat warfare. Pohl took command on 2nd February 1915 and issued his orders only two days afterwards, so he had obviously taken up his post with his mind already made up.
German submarines began to sink merchant ships without warning, causing widespread disgust around the world. On 7th May 1915 the passenger liner RMS Lusitania was sunk by U-20. From a total of 1,959 people on board, 1,198 were killed, 128 of whom were American citizens. This had a profound effect on American opinion to such an extent that the Germans began to fear that the United States might join the Allies. The Germans accordingly moderated their policy.
On 23rd February 1916 von Pohl died of liver cancer and command of the German navy passed to Reinhard Scheer, who eschewed unrestricted U-Boat warfare and returned to Ingenohl’s policy of seeking to engage and deplete Britain’s surface fleet.
The German Battle Plan
The Germans planned a raid on Sunderland in late May 1916 to draw British warships out to engage them. German submarines were sent out to positions in the North Sea where, it was felt, they would be most likely to encounter the emerging British ships and ambush them. Zeppelins were to be used for aerial reconnaissance.
The German plan had to be modified when weather conditions were unsuitable for the deployment of Zeppelins and the submarines began to return to base having reached the end of their operational endurance. It was decided to sortie into the Skagerrak instead of attacking Sunderland, as this would mean that any engagement took place nearer to German home bases. Hipper’s battle cruiser force left harbour at 01.00 on 31 May 1916, to be followed at 02.30 by Scheer with the main force.
British Naval Intelligence was extremely effective in the First World War, and the British were very soon aware that the Germans were planning a major naval operation. The British main force was in the Grand Fleet, commanded by the shrewd and cool-headed Admiral John Rushworth Jellicoe, who took his force out into the North Sea at 22.30 on 30th May. Jellicoe did not have precise information of the Germans’ intentions but he placed his ships where they could have the maximum number of responses when a clearer picture developed.
A secondary British force was led by Vice-Admiral David Richard Beatty. This was formed by the 1st and 2nd Battlecruiser Squadrons, with a total of six fast, modern Battlecruisers, and the 5th Battle Squadron with four dreadnought battleships. In addition to these major units, Beatty also had 14 Light Cruisers, 27 Destroyers and a seaplane tender. Beatty was based further south than the rest of the British force and so was likely to be the first into action. This certainly suited Beatty, who seemed to personify aggression.
As the British ships deployed into the North Sea they encountered the German U-Boat screen but swept it aside. The U-Boats scored no hits on the passing British ships and sent back radio messages of sightings which confused the German higher command.
The Battlecruiser action
Beatty’s force was heading east while Hipper’s battlecruisers were heading north. Each force had light units scouting ahead. At 14.20 the Light Cruisers HMS Galatea and HMS Phaeton encountered the German Destroyers B109 and B110. At 14.28 the British ships opened fire and the German Destroyers withdrew with the British in pursuit. A recurring feature of the Battle of Jutland was that an apparent withdrawal by one side was really an attempt to lure
their opponents towards a much larger force and secure its destruction. This tactic was first used at this stage of the battle, as the German 2nd Scouting Group appeared from the south and SMS Elbing opened fire at extreme range and hit the Galatea.
Beatty was aware that his scouting units had engaged the enemy and he led his main force to cut the Germans off from their bases. He launched a seaplane from the seaplane tender, HMS Engadine, and this was the first time that a carrier-based plane was used for reconnaissance in battle. The plane did sight some of the German units, but was unable to report back to the flagship.
Beatty’s flagship was the battlecruiser HMS Lion, which had been launched in 1910 and had a main armament of eight breech-loading 13.5-inch guns mounted in four turrets and a speed of 28 knots. Within her crew of 1,092 were three men who had been listed in the Grand Lodge of England’s 1915 Roll of Honour. These were Brothers Peter Catterall, of Old Brunswick Loyal Orange Lodge 88, which met in Liverpool, and James Brown and G Flaherty, both of Ulster Scot Loyal Orange Lodge 287 of Devonport.
With Beatty was the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, composed of HMS Princess Royal, HMS Queen Mary, and HMS Tiger, each with a speed of 28 knots and carrying eight 13.5-inch guns. The flagship for this Squadron was the Princess Royal which, in the 1915 Roll of Honour, was shown as the posting for Brother H Ferritt of Sons of Temperance LOL 698, which was based in Gosport.
There was also the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron, composed of HMS New Zealand and HMS Indefatigable, both battlecruisers capable of 25 knots and with a main armament of eight 12-inch guns. HMS New Zealand was flagship for the Squadron. Its building had been financed by the New Zealand government to show support for the mother country. The 1915 Roll of Honour shows Brothers T H Green, of Ulster Scot Loyal Orange Lodge 287, and W Roberts, of Devon Pioneer Loyal Orange Lodge 824, as being crew members. Both these lodges were based in Devonport. Indefatigable had Brother J Moorcroft. On the Roll of Honour Brother Moorcroft is shown as a member of both Carnarvon Loyal Orange Lodge 827 and also of King William Loyal Orange Lodge 688, the latter being based at Plymouth. Brother Moorcroft was indeed mentioned in the Lodge Report of the Orange Standard of February 1915 as being both Secretary and Treasurer of 827, which suggests he was the work-horse of the Lodge.
The 5th Battle Squadron accompanied Beatty as part of his force. It comprised four battleships of the new Queen Elizabeth class, the Barham, Valiant, Warspite and Malaya, each with a main armament of eight 15-inch guns and capable of 24 knots. HMS Warspite, of course, was the ship that now had an entire lodge on board, King William’s Own Loyal Orange Lodge Number 872. The 5th Battle Squadron was accompanied by the 1st Destroyer Flotilla, composed of the Light Cruiser HMS Fearless and nine destroyers.
Also part of Beatty’s force was the Light Cruiser HMS Dublin which was part of the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron, which was part of the escort of light cruisers and destroyers that were accompanying Beatty’s battlecruisers. On board HMS Dublin was Brother G Minford of Ulster Scot LOL 287.
Beatty’s force, with its strong Orange contingent, was now heading south with all speed to cut off the German force and destroy it. The battlecruisers were faster than the battleships of the 5th Battle Squadron and that, combined with signalling problems, caused Beatty’s force to lose cohesion and the course of the battleships diverged from that of the battlecruisers. Hipper’s force comprised 5 battlecruisers, 5 light cruisers, and 30 torpedo boats, which were the equivalent of the British destroyers. Beatty thus had a considerable numerical advantage.
At 15.20 Hipper’s ships sighted Beatty’s force, while the British did not sight their enemy until 15.30. Hipper changed course and turned to the south at 15.45. Beatty turned to pursue him but, in fact, Hipper’s manoeuvre was designed to lure Beatty’s force towards the much superior High Seas Fleet, led by Scheer, so that it could be destroyed and the German tactical objective be achieved. This phase of the battle is known as “the Run to the South”.
The “Run to the South”
The Germans fired first, at 15.48. Beatty ordered his own ships to open fire, and each ship was to engage its opposite number in the German line. Thus, Princess Royal was to target the Lutzow, the Queen Mary would target the Derfflinger, the Tiger would target the Seydlitz, New Zealand would target Moltke, and Indefatigable would target Von der Tann. In addition Beatty’s flagship, HMS Lion, would also target the Lutzow so that Hipper’s own flagship would come under fire from two battlecruisers.
This, at least, was the plan. In fact, the eastern sky was dull and overcast, obscuring the German ships, and Beatty was to the windward so that gun smoke and funnel smoke also caused problems for the British gunners. In addition, only Lion and Princess Royal had finished taking up position so that the other British ships were still manoeuvring. The first British salvos overshot the German ships. Further problems with British signalling caused the Queen Mary to fire on Moltke, leaving Derfflinger to fire on the British ships without having to take return fire.
German gunnery was murderously efficient. Lion was hit by Lutzow twice within the first three minutes, and at the same time Derfflinger hit Princess Royal twice. Lion did not score a hit on Lutzow until 15.59. Although under fire from two British battlecruisers, Moltke scored nine hits on Tiger in the first twelve minutes.
Around 16.00 Lutzow landed a 12-inch shell on Lion’s Q Turret. Everyone in the turret was killed or wounded, and there was imminent danger of a flash fire travelling down to the main magazine. This would have caused the main magazine to explode and destroy the whole ship, and Admiral Beatty along with it. This disaster was averted when Major Francis Harvey of the Royal Marines, although mortally wounded himself, ordered the magazine doors shut and the magazine flooded. He then gave orders that a report be taken to the Captain and he then fell dead. At 16.28 the feared flash fire happened and ignited cordite charges, and most of the magazine and shell room crews were killed. That this did not cause the destruction of HMS Lion was due to Harvey’s prompt action, and he was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross.
Also around 16.00, HMS Indefatigable was hit by two or three 11-inch shells from Von der Tann around the rear turret. The damage was so severe that Indefatigable fell out of the line and started sinking by the stern. At 16.03 two further shells fell on the stricken ship, around the forecastle and forward turret. Indefatigable exploded with a force so great that large
pieces of the ship were thrown 200 feet into the air. Of the crew of 1,019 only two survived, both of them being picked up by the German S16.
Brother James Moorcroft, of Carnarvon Loyal Orange Lodge number 827, who had played such a large part in helping to keep the Lodge working when it became disrupted by the coming of the War, was among the dead and is commemorated as Leading Seaman James Moorcroft, service number J/1192, on Panel 11 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial.
So sudden a loss of the Indefatigable must have been unsettling for Beatty and his men, and the British numerical advantage had been eliminated at a stroke. By this time, however, the British 5th Battle Squadron was catching up with the battle, and at 16.08 HMS Barham opened fire at extreme range and, in the first minute, landed a 15-inch shell on the Von der Tann. By 16.15 all four battleships of the 5th Battle Squadron were firing at Hipper’s ships.
Both sides were making, and taking, hits. An officer aboard the Derfflinger commented later that British gunnery was starting to cause serious damage to the German ships. HMS Queen Mary was shooting well but also being hit from Derfflinger and Seydlitz. At 16.26 two shells hit Queen Mary and caused explosions in the magazines, literally breaking the ship in two. Once again casualties were terrible, with only 20 men surviving against 1,266 lost.
The German ships were launching torpedo attacks. Moltke fired torpedoes at HMS Lion, which managed to evade them but thought that they were from submarines. Moltke also launched torpedoes at HMS Princess Royal, but scored no hits.
Shortly after the Queen Mary blew up, German salvos straddled HMS Princess Royal, which temporarily obscured her. This caused some of the British to think that Princess Royal had also blown up, and a signalman reported to Beatty, “Princess Royal’s blown up, Sir”. This was when Beatty, famously, turned to his Flag-Captain, Ernle Chatfield, and said, “Chatfield, there seems to be something wrong with our bloody ships today”. Fortunately for the British, when the spray cleared Princess Royal was seen to be still afloat and still in the battle.
All the time the capital ships were slugging it out, the destroyers were fighting their own battle in the space between the battle cruiser lines. A torpedo from HMS Petard struck the
Seydlitz, but without causing much damage. The German V27 was disabled and later abandoned and sank. Petard then torpedoed and sank the V29, but two British destroyers, HMS Nestor and HMS Nomad, were immobilised by German gunfire.
The “Run to the South” had lasted from 15.48 to 16.54, and during that time the Germans had scored nine hits on Lion, six hits on Princess Royal, seven on Queen Mary, fourteen on Tiger, one on New Zealand, five on Indefatigable, and two on Barham, in all a total of forty-four hits of variously 12-inch and 11-inch shells.
In return, the British had scored only four 13.5-inch hits on the Lutzow, four on Seydlitz, two on Moltke, and one on Von der Tann, a total of 11 hits scored by the battlecruisers. In addition, the four battleships of the 5th Battle Squadron had landed one 15-inch shell on the Seydlitz, four on the Moltke, and one on Von Der Tann.
At 16.30 Scheer’s High Seas Fleet sighted the battlecruiser action. In turn, Commodore Goodenough took the Light Cruiser HMS Southampton towards the newly-arrived enemy to get an accurate assessment of their strength. This was very dangerous because the Southampton came under very heavy fire, but its mission was successful, The Germans had sixteen dreadnought battleships and six pre-dreadnoughts. Goodenough informed Beatty that the German High Seas Fleet had arrived.
The “Run to the North”
Jellicoe received Goodenough’s message and Jellicoe put the Grand Fleet ready for battle at 16.47. At 16.51, he informed the Admiralty. Beatty, meanwhile, sighted the High Seas Fleet at 16.40 and ordered his battlecruisers to make a 180-degree turn to the north. This manoeuvre was carried out successfully but, because of yet another British signalling failure, the message was not passed on to the 5th Battle Squadron, which steamed past Beatty’s battlecruisers going in the opposite direction. The four British battleships were left heading south, directly into the whole German fleet. Their commander, Rear-Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas, acted on his own initiative and turned his ships to the north.
The Germans thought that the British were fleeing from a greatly-superior enemy, but Beatty was actually luring the Germans north and straight towards Jellicoe and the Grand Fleet. In addition to fire from Hipper’s battlecruisers, Scheer’s leading ships opened fire at 16.48. HMS Lion took four more hits and HMS Tiger one, but Beatty’s greater speed took him out of range by 17.10.
The battleships of the 5th Battle Squadron was left at the rear of Beatty’s line, effectively acting as rearguard. They were under fire from Hipper’s battlecruisers to the east and Scheer’s High Seas Fleet to the south. Barham took four hits, Warspite two, and Malaya seven. The dreadnoughts, however, were far tougher than the battlecruisers. Not only did they withstand the German fire, but they fought back magnificently, landing their 15-inch shells on the German ships. Hipper’s battlecruisers in particular suffered their heaviest damage yet. Lutzow was hit four times, Derfflinger three, and Seydlitz six. Even Scheer’s battleships were hit five times and the Markgraf was damaged.
Earlier in the day, Jellicoe had decided to reinforce Beatty and, at 16.05, had ordered the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron south for that purpose. This Squadron was commanded by Rear-Admiral the Hon. Horace Lambert Alexander Hood, KCB, DSO, MVO. He flew his flag in HMS Invincible, accompanied by HMS Inflexible and HMS Indomitable, all of the same class, each with eight 12-inch guns. In addition, he had the cruisers HMS Canterbury and HMS Chester scouting ahead, supported by four destroyers.
At 17.38 the Chester ran into the four cruisers of the German 2nd Scouting Group and immediately started taking hits. The Chester did not have fully-armoured turrets, only armoured screens. This meant that many casualties were suffered by the gun crews, particularly to the lower limbs. British ships that sailed past later reported seeing many of the crew lying on the decks with their legs shredded or blown off, but they raised a cheer for every British ship that passed them. Many of these men died in a short time through loss of blood or shock. The most famous member of Chester’s crew was Boy Seaman First Class Jack Cornwell, who stayed at his gun even though mortally wounded. He died on 2nd June from his wounds and was awarded the Victoria Cross. Jack Cornwell was sixteen years old.
Hood’s three battlecruisers were close behind and, arriving on the scene, immediately opened fire on the 2nd Scouting Group and scattered it, saving the Chester. At 17.56 the SMS Wiesbaden was disabled, though it stayed afloat. Hood joined his Squadron to Beatty’s force, and returned to the battle with the German fleet. At this point neither Scheer nor Hipper had any inkling that the British Grand Fleet was about to arrive.
Moving forward ahead of Jellicoe was 1st Cruiser Squadron, composed of the four armoured cruisers HMS Defence, HMS Warrior, HMS Duke of Edinburgh and HMS Black Prince. The Squadron was commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot flying his flag in the Defence. At 17.33 Black Prince sighted HMS Falmouth of Beatty’s force, so that the two British forces were now able to combine.
The 1st Cruiser Squadron had a very strong Orange contingent. By referring to the 1915 Roll of Honour we can identify Brother Leonard Beasley of Ulster Scot Loyal Orange Lodge 287 as being on board HMS Warrior, while HMS Duke of Edinburgh had Brothers W A Fowler, A Harris, T McClelland, S Venus, all of Ulster Scot Loyal Orange Lodge 287, and Brother J Neill of Carnarvon Loyal Orange Lodge 827. There is, in addition, Brother R B Greenfield, shown as being a member of both those lodges. In addition there were a further eight brethren on HMS Defence, all shown as being members of Carnarvon LOL 827.
The 1st Cruiser Squadron had been in the Mediterranean at the start of the War, and we can imagine that it was the Orange brethren from these ships’ crews that would have formed the Lodge described in the Orange Standard’s lodge reports in 1914. When the Squadron was transferred to the Grand Fleet in January 1915 it was composed of the same ships. When Brother J A Britten wrote to the Orange Standard about the possibility of the Lodge folding it may have been when news came that the Squadron was being moved, but his subsequent more optimistic note was struck when he realised that the Squadron was not being broken up but was being transferred as a unit.
“We shall take the Warrant with us”
The situation where the two enemy fleets were now confronting each other was chaotic. Hipper had joined Scheer and their combined force was heading north, hoping to attack the British ships in front of them and still unaware that Jellicoe’s Grand Fleet lay just out of sight.
Beatty, Hood and Evan-Thomas were still manoeuvring to present a cohesive force with which to mount a counter-attack on the Germans. This was a very difficult and dangerous task, with huge ships moving at high speeds and criss-crossing each other’s paths. Even in calmer situations collisions were by no means unknown. This phase of the battle became known as “Windy Corner”.
At this point, 17.47, Arbuthnot’s 1st Cruiser Squadron began firing on the German 2nd Scouting Group. When their shells fell short, Arbuthnot turned to port to close the range but this took the British cruisers straight across the bows of HMS Lion, which was forced to turn sharply away to avoid a collision. This threw Beatty’s battlecruiser deployment into confusion and, by obscuring Beatty’s view of the enemy, delayed his ships opening fire on the enemy.
Only Defence and Warrior had sailed across Beatty’s front. The Duke of Edinburgh and Black Prince had been unable to follow as there would inevitably have been a collision. This meant that Arbuthnot’s force was now split into two. Nothing daunted, Arbuthnot sighted the disabled German light cruiser SMS Wiesbaden and closed in to finish her off. Suddenly the two British cruisers found themselves confronting Hipper’s battlecruisers, who unleashed a devastating fire on them. It was most likely the Lutzow that dealt the fatal blow but, within minutes, the Defence exploded and sank with all hands, 903 men including Arbuthnot.
Orange brethren known to have died on the Defence include –
Gunner Alfred Cherry, commemorated on Panel 10 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial.
Stoker 1st Class Christopher John Jenkins, K/4084, commemorated on Panel 16 of the Plymouth War Memorial. He died aged 31, the son of William Jenkins, husband of Jane Alice Jenkins of 18 Pyramid Street, Everton, Liverpool.
Brother Jenkins’s World War I Royal Navy Service Record is at the Public Record Office, Kew, Surrey, ADM 188/875.
Petty Officer Stoker William Kellow, 278184 Dev. He was born on 5th May 1876, the son of William and Ellen Kellow of St Austell, Cornwall. He was the husband of Florence E Kellow, (nee Rowe), of 23 Royal Navy Avenue, Swilly, Plymouth. He was 40 years old when he died and is commemorated on Panel 14 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial.
Engine Room Artificer 3rd Class Robert Kerr, 272303 Dev. He was the only son of Robert and Martha Ker of Dublin Street, Newtownstewart, County Tyrone. He was 24 years old when he died and is commemorated on Panel 15 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial.
Petty Officer Charles Monson, 23601 Dev. He was the son of Francis and Elizabeth Monson of “Ralina”, Lesserlough, Boyle, County Roscommon. He was aged 26 when he died, and is commemorated on Panel 1 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial. This was the Brother who was Worshipful Master of Carnarvon Loyal Orange Lodge 827 when it began in Malta in 1914.
Leading Stoker James Woodward, K/9273 Dev. He was the son of Ellen Woodward of 66 Fraser Street, Belfast, and the late John Woodward. He was aged 24 when he died, and is commemorated on Panel 15 of the Plymouth Naval Memorial. In the local newspaper his family placed the following tribute –
WOODWARD -- In loving memory of my dear son, JAMES WOODWARD (Leading Stoker, H.M.S. Defence), who lost his life at the Battle of Jutland, on 31st May, 1916.
Not gone from memory, nor from love,
But to our Father's home above.
Ever remembered by his loving Mother, Brothers, Sisters, and Friends.
ELLEN WOODWARD, 66 Fraser Street.
Our Orange brother, J A Britten, had written to the Orange Standard in February 1915
Dear Bro., I held a meeting of the Brothers of this ship last Tuesday, the 15th, re the disposal of our Warrant 827, Carnarvon, and it was decided to retain it, for if the ship goes down it goes with us.
In this he was being prophetic indeed. Most of the members of LOL 827 died on the Defence.
Two brethren identified as being on the Defence in the Roll of Honour do not appear as casualties of the Jutland battle which suggests, as there were no survivors, that they were not on the ship on 31st May 1916. One of them is Brother T G Keown, Secretary of the Lodge when reports of their meetings were sent to the Orange Standard. In the Grand Lodge directory for 1915 the Secretary is shown as Brother Moorhouse. This suggests that Brother Keown had been transferred, and there was a Thomas G Keown, 305825, Stoker Petty Officer (the same rank) serving on HMS Vivid, which was the Navy barracks at Devonport.
The other Brother was J A Britton or Britten, who had taken the Master’s Chair when Lodge number 827 had reorganised. John Augustus Britten, Service Number 171168, had been born on 6th December 1877 at Plumstead in Kent. His record in the National Archives is under the reference ADM 188/280/171168. He was a Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist. As his record seems to run until 1918, it would seem he had been transferred off HMS Defence before it sank.
The sinking of Defence left HMS Warrior alone to face the fire of some of the biggest guns in the German fleet. She was quickly hit by at least fifteen 11-inch shells and six 5.9-inch shells. Her destruction appeared certain, but she was saved by the unexpected intervention of HMS Warspite. The 5th Battle Squadron turned to the north at 18.19 and Warspite conformed to this move. She was hit by a shell, causing her steering to jam, and forcing her to circle. She now presented an irresistible target to the Germans who switched their attention from Warrior, enabling that ship to move slowly away to the west. There was an attempt made to tow Warrior back to port but the ship was too badly damaged. The crew were taken off and the ship foundered in the early hours of 1st June.
The two surviving ships of the 1st Cruiser Squadron, HMS Duke of Edinburgh and HMS Black Prince, were now isolated. The Duke of Edinburgh attached herself to the starboard of HMS King George V, the leading ship of 2nd Battle Squadron, and operated as a guard against submarine attack during the night. Black Prince seemed to get lost. A wireless signal was received from her at 20.45, but she was never seen again. German reports suggest that the Black Prince stumbled upon a force of German battleships about 23.35 and came under point blank fire from about six German ships for fifteen minutes. She eventually went down with all hands.
Of the four cruisers comprising the 1st Cruiser Squadron at the start of the Battle, three were sunk with heavy casualties.
Warspite, meanwhile, circling, took 13 hits. Even when she managed to break out of the circle she was heading directly towards the German heavy units. Only Warspite’s “A” turret was still able to fire. The commander of the turret was Sub-Lieutenant Herbert Annesley Packer, and he managed to fire off 12 salvoes at the Germans, but they all fell short as the rangefinders were out of action.
Warspite gained some protection from the offensive movements made against the German fleet by the ships under Beatty, Hood and Evan-Thomas. Hood’s 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron
was at the head of the attack, led by Invincible with Inflexible and Indomitable following. Derfflinger was hit three times, Seydlitz once, and Lutzow ten times.
All seemed to be going well for the British until, at 18.30, Lutzow and Derfflinger each fired three salvoes at Invincible. Once again, a hit on Q Turret led to the midships magazines igniting, and caused a huge explosion which broke the ship in two. The ship sank in 90 seconds and, for a while, both ends of the ship were sticking up out of the water. Only six survivors were picked up out of a total of 1,026 crew members. Rear-Admiral Hood was among those lost.
The surviving battlecruisers from the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron, Inflexible and Indomitable, stayed with Beatty’s ships. The 1915 Roll of Honour identified six Orangemen as being in the crew of HMS Inflexible, all of them members of Carnarvon Loyal Orange Lodge number 827. They were Brothers T Atkins; C Edwards; S J Harper; W Johnson; W G Sage; J Williams.