The Opposing Sides



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Chapter 11 Guided Readings
Chapter 11 Section 1 pp. 350-356 “The Opposing Sides”


  1. Who received an offer from President Lincoln to command the Union’s troops?

  2. Where were seven of the U.S.’s eight military colleges in 1860?

  3. From where were more than three-quarters of the United States Navy’s officers in 1860?

  4. How was population in the North and South a factor in the Civil War?

  5. When was the Confederacy finally able to produce enough weapons, gunpowder, and ammunition to meet its needs?

  6. What was the purpose of the Legal Tender Act?

  7. What was the inflation rate in both the North and South by the end of the war?

  8. Who were the War Democrats?

  9. Who were the Peace Democrats?

  10. Why did Republicans refer to Peace Democrats as “Copperheads”?

  11. When did Congress introduce a militia law?

  12. Why did President Lincoln suspend writs of habeas corpus?

  13. Why did the British not want to support the Confederacy?

  14. What was the result of the combination of rifles and trenches in the Civil War?

  15. What was Confederate President Davis’s war strategy?

  16. What was Winfield Scott’s strategy defeating the South?



Chapter 11 Section 2 pp. 357-363 “The Early Stages”
Directions: Identifying Supporting Details Read each main idea. Use your textbook to supply the details that support or explain each main idea.
Main Idea: In the first few months of the Civil War, President Lincoln was under tremendous pressure to strike quickly against the South, and Confederate troops were gathering only 25 miles south of Washington DC, near Manassas Junction, or Bull Run.

  1. Detail: The Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run made it clear that the North would need a ___ to defeat the South.

  2. Detail: As the war dragged on and casualties rose, fewer young men volunteered, forcing both governments to resort to _.


Main Idea: In April 1961, President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of all Confederate ports.

  1. Detail: The South used ___ to smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under the cover of night.

  2. Detail: In spite of a powerful attack by the Confederates, all but four of the ships commanded by ___ survived to arrive at New Orleans on April 25, 1862.


Main Idea: General Ulysses S. Grant began a campaign in the west.

  1. Detail: With the fall of Fort Donelson and Fort Henry, all of ___ and most of ___ came under Union military control.

  2. Detail: In the ___, 20,000 troops were killed or wounded, more than any other battle up to that point.

  3. Detail: General Braxton Bragg hoped his invasion of ___ would lead to an ___ of pro-Confederate supporters in the state.


Main Idea: Another major campaign was being waged in the east to capture Richmond, Virginia.

  1. Detail: In the ___, the two sides suffered over 30,000 casualties.

  2. Detail: The __ was the bloodiest one-day battle in American history, with nearly __ men killed and another __ wounded.


Main Idea: With Northern casualties rising to staggering levels, many Northerners began to agree that slavery had to end, in part to punish the South and in part to make the soldiers’ sacrifices worthwhile.

  1. Detail: The ___ freed all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863, but not in the border states.


Chapter 11 Section 3 pp. 364-368 “Life During the War”


  1. The Wartime Economies

    1. What led to the severe food shortages in the South in the winter of 1862?

    2. What was the result of food shortages in Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of 1863?

    3. Why did the North experience an economic boom during the war?

    4. What were three innovations that helped the North’s economy during the war?




  1. African Americans in the Military

    1. When did African Americans begin to join the military?

    2. Who made up the 54th Massachusetts regiment, and what happened to the men?




  1. Military Life

    1. What was a standard meal for soldiers in each army?

    2. Why did infection spread quickly in field hospitals?

    3. What killed as many soldiers as battle?

    4. What was one of the most common treatments of appalling wounds?

    5. What were two of Elizabeth Blackwell’s contributions during the war years?

    6. What role did Clara Barton play in the Civil War?

    7. What was the South’s stance on prisoner exchange after the Emancipation Proclamation?

    8. Why was Andersonville the most infamous prison in the South?



Chapter 11 Section 4 pp. 369-373 “The Turning Point”


  1. To capture ___, Ulysses S. Grant first tried to approach the city from the north, but the land was too ___.

  2. Grant decided to move his troops across the ___ to the west bank, march south, and then attack the city ___.

  3. To distract the Confederates while Grant carried out this maneuver, Benjamin Grierson and 1,700 troops traveled ___ miles in two weeks, tearing up ___, burning ___, and fighting ___.

  4. Because Grant was able to drive the Confederates back into their defenses at Vicksburg but not win the battle, he decided to put the city ___.

  5. President Lincoln became frustrated with General ___ because he let the Confederates slip away.

  6. In the battle of the Wilderness, Lee’s troops were outnumbered ___.

  7. At the end of June 1863, some of Lee’s troops headed into the town of ___, hoping to seize a supply of shoes. Instead, they encountered ___.

  8. At Gettysburg, the Union suffered ___ casualties, but the South’s toll was an estimated ___ casualties.

  9. The disaster at Gettysburg proved to be the ___.

  10. In Tennessee, both sides knew that if the Union forces captured ___, they would control a major railroad running south to ___.

  11. In September 1863, Union General ___ forced the Confederates to evacuate ___, but he then became surrounded by Confederates.

  12. President Lincoln sent General Meade to help at Chattanooga, and with him were ___ men with their ___, ___, and ___.

  13. Charging uphill through swirling fog, Union forces quickly drove the Southern troops off ___.

  14. General George Thomas’s charge up ___ scattered the surprised Confederates.

  15. Lincoln rewarded Grant by appointing him ___ of the Union forces and promoting him to ___, a rank no one had held since George Washington.


Chapter 11 Section 5 pp. 376-380 “The War Ends”


  1. Grant Versus Lee

    1. In the spring of 1864, Grant headed to ___ to take command of the Union troops facing ___.

    2. After the first battle of Grant’s campaign in the ___, he headed southeast toward ___ where the two armies battled for ___.

    3. Because the Confederate fortress at Petersburg was too strong, Grant put the city ___.




  1. Union Victories in the South

    1. While Grant battled Lee in Virginia, ___ marched his army from Chattanooga toward ___.

    2. David Farragut did not capture ___, but he did seal it off.

    3. When Sherman ordered all civilians to leave Atlanta, he told the mayor that he was ___.

    4. Sherman’s ___ cut a swath of destruction through Georgia that was in places 60 miles wide.




  1. The South Surrenders

    1. To oppose Lincoln in the 1864 election, the Democrats nominated ___.

    2. The ___ came just in time to revitalize support for the President. Lincoln, who won re-election with ___ percent of the popular vote.

    3. On January 31, 1865, the ___ to the Constitution, banning ___ in the U.S. passed the House of Representatives.

    4. Lee’s attempt to escape Grant’s forces failed when Sheridan’s cavalry got ahead of Lee’s troops and blocked the road at ___.

    5. Grant’s generous terms of surrender guaranteed that the U.S. would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for ___.

    6. Grant also allowed the Confederates to take their ___ home.

    7. The North’s victory in the Civil War saved the Union and strengthened the power of the ___ over the states.


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