The Northern Tropics



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The Northern Tropics

  • The Guianas

  • Countries

    • Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana

  • Culture reflects ____________________________

    • Official Languages

      • Guyana – English

      • Suriname – Dutch

      • French Guyana - French

    • Religions

      • Suriname and Guyana – Muslim and Hindu

  • Effects of Migration

    • Africans were brought to area as _________________

    • Asians migrated to area after slavery ended

    • Suriname has a large mulatto population

  • Economic Activities

    • ____________________ is important

    • Farmers grow sugar cane and rice

    • Bauxite is abundant here

Venezuela

    • Population is 24 million

    • Average per capita GNP is $780 – South America’s poorest country

    • Life Expectancy is 73 years

    • Official Language is Spanish and most residents are Catholic

    • The Andean Highlands

      • Area of plateaus and hills near the Andes

      • Capital of Caracas located here

      • Most of the population live in rachitos or small shacks – similar to fevelas

  • Waterfalls and Grasslands

    • ______________________________ are found on the border with Brazil

    • World’s largest waterfall (__________________________) located here

    • _____________________ is a savannah region that receives rain only half the year making agriculture difficult

  • Elevation and Climate

    • _______________________ effects the vegetation of the region

    • Coffee is grown in the tierra templada region where the climate is mild

  • An Oil-Rich Region

    • Venezuela is a major producer of oil

    • Oil deposits are found in four areas

      • Eastern Llanos

      • The lowlands near Lake Maracaibo

      • The Orinoco River Delta

      • Offshore

Colombia

    • Named after __________________________________

  • Physical Characteristics

    • Has three regions

      • Lowlands, mountains, llanos

    • 75% of the population live in the plateau between the mountains

    • Bogotá is located here



  • A Single Crop

    • ___________________ is the only cash-crop grown in Colombia

    • Campesinos (tenant farmers) can barely keep their families fed

    • If coffee prices drop, the country could be in trouble

  • The Drug Trade

    • Marijuana and Cocaine has become a major product of Colombia

    • Small groups of people or families control most of the trade leading to violence

    • US and Colombian governments have tried to stop this problem

  • Cooperation and Conflict

    • Colombia has seen many civil wars since gaining independence from Spain in the 1820s

    • 200,000 people were killed in a civil war in the 1950s

    • Conflict still continues today

Brazil’s Quest for Economic Growth

  • Economic Challenges

    • Most of Brazil’s poor live in ____________

    • Small number of wealthy own plantations

    • Rural workers have to find jobs on plantations or become subsistence farmers

    • The government promised land redistribution that never happened

    • People living in the ____________ face high poverty because of the weak soil

  • Government Policies

    • Brazilian government has tried to boost the ________________________and encourage ____________________________________

    • Economic Activities

      • Government built ____________ and ____________in the 1940s

      • It also built hydroelectric plants along the rivers

      • A bank was established to loan money to new business owners

      • Brazil’s economy moved from ____________ to____________during the 1950s because of auto, chemical, and steel industries

  • Patterns of Settlement

    • ____________ was created to encourage people to move from Rio and Sao Paulo

    • Government built thousands of roads with Brasilia at the ____________

    • The government gave away _________________in the north to encourage settlement

    • 1 million people migrated to the Amazon between 1970 and 1985

  • Economic Growth

    • Industry makes up 1/3 of Brazil’s GNP

    • Gasohol (mix of gasoline and alcohol) helped country respond to high gas prices in the 1970s

    • Ethanol is now made from ________________________

    • ______ of the workforce is in mining, manufacturing, and construction

    • Service industries are also being developed

    • These moves have created an educated workforce and growing middle-class

  • Environmental Challenges

    • Economic development has led to more ____________ because people can’t find jobs

    • Government has tried to create low cost housing to help

    • Challenges and opportunities

    • Farming in the Amazon is difficult

      • Thick vegetation that was ____________ which led to soil washing away

      • Soil is not very fertile

      • Settlers must clear more land after a growing season

    • New Efforts

      • _________________ is becoming a very serious problem

      • Brazil’s military patrols the rain forest to cut down on illegal forestry

      • Taxes encourage people to maintain forest areas

      • ________________ allows people to vacation without affecting the ecosystem


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