Appointed by Rome, Herod the Great ruled all Palestine (37-4 BC). Herod was famous for political maneuvering, extensive building projects, renovating the Temple, and violently securing his reign… Jesus was born during his reign (Mt 1-2).
Three of Herod’s sons ruled parts of Palestine… Herod Antipas ruled Galilee (4 BC to AD 39)… who beheaded John the Baptist (cf. Mark 6:14-29).
Roman prefects & procurators ruled Judea in AD 6-41 and AD 44-66… Pontius Pilate (AD 26-36) crucified Jesus.
Herod Agrippa 1 (HtG’s grandson) ruled as king in AD 41-44 (cf. Acts 12:1-23)
In AD 64, Rome burned and Nero blamed it on Christians.
Jewish Revolts (AD 66-73, 132-35)
The Jews became increasingly enraged at the Romans.
Judea openly revolted against Rome in AD 66.
The Romans under Vespasian subdued the revolt… and under Titus destroyed Jerusalem & the Temple in AD 70 (cf. Mark 13).
Masada fell to the Romans in AD 73.
Rabbinic Judaism emerged which focused on rituals (circumcision, Sabbath, festivals) and the Torah instead of the Temple, the land, and sacrifices.
Josephus writes The Jewish War (ca. AD 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (AD 93).
A Second Jewish Revolt (AD 132-35) was led by Simon bar Kochba… but it was squashed by the Romans under Hadrian.