The New Monarchs



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AP European History

Hancock


The New Monarchs

Constructing an Argument for an Essay


PROMPT

The “new monarchs” of the Renaissance redefined how rulers should assert their authority. They established the ideas of strong royal authority and national purpose. They emphasized the monarchy was the institution that linked all aspects of society together to help form a nation. Beginning in the 15th century, these monarchs used the aggressive methods discussed by Machiavelli to build their governments and ultimately form strong nation-states.

Assess the validity of this statement with respect to the policies and practices of TWO of the following groups of Renaissance rulers.





TASK #1Deconstructing the question. On your own sheet you should write the appropriate response for each of the 4 tasks below.

  1. What are the Directive word(s)? Circle or underline these in the prompt

  2. Identify key events, places, and people within the prompt

  3. Identify if the prompt is asking for change over time

  4. Explain what the prompt is explicitly asking you to do. Write your response in complete sentences. (DO NOT simply restate the question)



TASK #2Organizational categories Create Read the statement in the prompt carefully and find 3 organizational categories that you will use to respond to the prompt.

TASK #3Assembling evidence (Facts). Recreate the table on your own piece of paper and fill it in with appropriate information. Remember to always link your information to the essay prompt.

For each group of rulers:




ORGANIZATIONAL CATEGORIES

(identified in task #2)


FRANCE

Write a statement of fact where you put specific policies and practices of each organizational category. (yes complete sentence(s))




ENGLAND


SPAIN







































TASK #4 - Constructing an argument (Analysis). Now that you have created the table in Task #3 you need to determine the degree to which each of the monarchs successfully reflected each organizational category as the essay question prompts you to do.

  • *You need to determine where on the scale each monarch falls and you need to explain why you placed them here. Use your responses in Task #3 to help.




Organizational Categories

3 - Machiavelli Medal for New Monarch

2 – Honorable Mention as New Monarch

1 – Join More on the Execution Block for failure

Strong Royal Authority











National Purpose











Aggressive methods












TASK #5 - Constructing a thesis statement. Using all the work you have done in tasks 1-4 write a thesis statement that completely and coherently responds to the prompt. Make sure to go back read the prompt first. Write thesis on your paper.

Remember:



  • An effective thesis:




    • Fully addresses the question (prompt) asked







    • Provides organizational categories that will be used in the essay

Example:
The leaders of France, England, and Spain all demonstrated characteristics of a ‘New Monarch’ during the Renaissance in their political, economic, and religious policies and practices. However, the policies and practices of Charles VII and Louis XI of France were far more Machiavellian than Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain because they were able to unify their country as an absolute monarchy without having to resort to outwardly brutal tactics and suffer from the lasting negative repercussions of these strategies.
AP European History

Hancock


The New Monarchs

Constructing an Argument for an Essay


PROMPT

The “new monarchs” of the Renaissance redefined how rulers should assert their authority. They established the ideas of strong royal authority and national purpose. They emphasized the monarchy was the institution that linked all aspects of society together to help form a nation. Beginning in the 15th century, these monarchs used the aggressive methods discussed by Machiavelli to build their governments and ultimately form strong nation-states.

Assess the validity of this statement with respect to the policies and practices of TWO of the following groups of Renaissance rulers.

    • Charles VII and Louis XI of France

    • The Tudors (Henry VII, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I) of England

    • Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain





Look on the board/projector and complete tasks as directed.
Politics and the State in the Renaissance (ca 1450 - 1521)

A. Fifteenth-century rulers began the process of order through centralization of power.

1. The result was the rise of many powerful and ruthless rulers interested in the centralization of power and the elimination of disorder and violence.

2. Many of them, such as Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, seemed to be acting according to Machiavelli’s principles.

3. These monarchs invested kingship with a strong sense of royal authority and national purpose.

4. The ideas of the new monarchs were not entirely original — some of them had their roots in the Middle Ages.

B. France (after the Hundred Years’ War)

1. Charles VII ushered in an age of recovery and ended civil war.

a. He expelled the English, reorganized the royal council, strengthened royal finances, reformed the justice system, and remodeled the army.

b. He made the church subject to the state.

2. Louis XI expanded the French state and laid the foundations of later French absolutism.

C. England (after the Hundred Years’ War) — also suffered from disorder

1. Feudal lords controlled the royal council and Parliament in the fifteenth century.

2. Between 1455 and 1471, the houses of York and Lancaster fought a civil war called the Wars of the Roses that hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry.

3. Edward IV and his followers began to restore royal power; Edward avoided expensive war and reduced his reliance on Parliament for funds.

4. The English Parliament had become a power center for the aristocracy but was manipulated by Henry VII into becoming a tool of the king.

5. Henry VII used the royal council and the court of Star Chamber to check aristocratic power.

6. Henry and his successors won the support of the upper middle class by linking government policy with their interests.

D. Spain

1. The reconquista was the centuries-long attempt to unite Spain and expel Arabs and Jews.

2. The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella was the last major step in the unification and Christianization of Spain.

a. Under their reign, however, Spain remained a loose confederation of separate states.

b. they used the hermandades, or local police forces, to administer royal justice.

3. They restructured the royal council to curb aristocratic power.

4. The church was also used to strengthen royal authority.

5. Ferdinand and Isabella completed the reconquista in 1492, but many Jews remained.



a. Jews were often financiers and professionals; many (called conversos) had converted but were still disliked and distrusted.

b. Ferdinand and Isabella revived the Inquisition and used its cruel methods to unify Spain and expel the Jews.


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