The nationalist movement in indo-china



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THE NATIONALIST MOVEMENT IN INDO-CHINA

  1. What did France do to increase cultivation in Vietnam? How did it affect the rice cultivation by 1931?

Ans: (1) (i) The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.

(ii) The vast system of irrigation works-canals and earthworks was built mainly with forced labour.

(2) (i) This increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.

(ii) The area under rice cultivation went up from 2,74,000 hectares in 1973 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930.

(iii) Vietnam exported two-third of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.


  1. State the importance of China in the early history of Indo-china.

Ans: (1) The early history of Indo-china shows many different groups of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China.

(2) Even when an independent country (presently, northern and central Vietnam) was established, its rules continued to maintain the Chinese system of government.

(3) Also, the rules of this independent country continued to follow Chinese culture.

(4) Vietnam was also linked to the maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas.

(5) Other networks of trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people such as Khmer Cambodians lived.

3. Who was Paul Bernard? According to him why did the economy of the colonies need to be developed?

(1) Paul Bernard was a French writer, thinker and policy-maker.

(2) Following were the views of Paul Bernard regarding the development of colonies by the mother country.

(i) He strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed

(ii) He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.

(iii) If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved they would buy more goods.

(iv) The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.

4. According to Paul Bernard what were the three main barriers to economic growth in Vietnam?

Ans: Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam:



  1. High Population levels: According to Paul, as Vietnam was a highly populated country this would be a major hindrance for economic growth in the country. High population levels would eat away the nominal economic growth of the country.

  2. Low agricultural productivity: This was also a major area of concern for the Bernard. This was because, Vietnam was an agrarian economy. The economy was primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations.

  3. Rural Poverty: He was also concerned with extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants.

In order to reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity and to create more jobs, he stressed on land reforms and industralisation in the country.

5. How was the French Indo-China formed? Describe.

Ans: (1) One of the most visible form of French control was military. French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid 19=880s, they had established a firm grip over the northern region.

(2) After the Franco-Chinese war, the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and in 1887 the French Indo-china was formed.

(3) In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position in Vietnam.



6. Who were indentured labours? What were the working conditions for the in Vietnam?

Ans: (1) Indentured labour. It was a form of labour widely used in the plantations from the mid-nineteenth century.

(2) Working conditions for them in Vietnam were as follows:

(i) Labourers worked on the basis of contracts that did not specify any rights of labourers and gave immense power to employers.

(ii) Employers could bring criminal charges against labourers and punish and jail them for non-fulfilment of contracts.

7. Describe the contribution made by the French for the development of agriculture in Vietnam.

Ans. Contribution made by the French for the development of agriculture in Vietnam were as follows:



  1. The French began by building canals and draining land in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. It increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.

  2. Infrastructure projects were developed to help the transport of goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region.

  3. Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network that would link the northern and sourthern parts of Vietnam and China, was begun.

  4. This final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910.

  5. The Second line was also built linking Vietnam to Siam, via the Combodian capital of Phnom Penh.

8. Explain any three steps taken by the French to achieve their aim to exploit the natural resources of Vietnam.

Ans: The French took the following steps to achieve the aim to exploit natural resources of Vietnam:



  1. The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. As a result of irrigation work, the rice production increased. Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

  2. Trans Indo-China rail network was constructed. It linked the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China.

  3. Another line linking Vietnam to Siam (Thailand), via the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh was also built.

  4. To ensure higher level of profits, French pressurized the government to develop infrastructure.

9. Why did the French think that colonies were necessary? Explain.

Ans. In French view, colonies were necessary due to following reasons:



  1. For supply of natural resources

  2. To bring benefits of civilization to backward people.

  3. For export of rice to international market

  4. For high level of profit for business.

  5. Infrastructural development to control entire region.

10. What was the nature of colonial economy in Vietnam?

Ans: Colonial Economy in Vietnam:



  1. Like colonial policy of other imperial powers, the French also subjected the Vietnamese economy to the interests of homeland.

  2. Vietnam had to supply her natural resources and other essential goods to France on their terms.

  3. No doubt, the French took up vast irrigation works and built canals but mainly with forced labour consisting of Vietnamese people.

  4. Increased rice production was aimed to export rice to international market to make profit.

  5. Colonial economy of Vietnam was primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations.

11. How did students in Vietnam fight against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for White collar Jobs’? Explain.

Ans: (1) Students were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.

(2) This brought them into conflict with the Frency as well as the traditional elite, because both saw their positions threatned.

(3) By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student. School thus became an important place for political and cultural battles.



12. Why did a major protest erupt in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam? Explain.

Ans. (1) In 1926, a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School.

(2) A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the class and allow a local French student to occupu the front bench. She refused.

(3) The Principal, also a colon, expelled her.

(4) When angry students protested , they too were expelled, leading to a further spread of open protests.

(5) Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government forced the school to take the students back. The principal reluctantly agreed.

Such incidents went a long way in instilling patriotic feelings among the Vietnamese people.

13. What were the major features of the new school of western learning introduced in Vietnam by the French?

Ans: 1. The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a western style education.



  1. This education included classes in science, hygiene and frency.

  2. These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately.

  3. The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short hair cut.

  4. School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.

14. What was meant by the “Civilising Mission” of the colonisers?

Ans: 1. Civilizing Mission of the colonisers meant for bringing modern civilization to the Vietnamese.



  1. French were of the opinion that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization. So, it became the dutyof the Europeans to introduce modern ideas in their colonies.

  2. On this ground, they thought entitled themselves of destroying local cultures, religions and traditions because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development.

15. How did the French seek to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education?

Ans:1. Education was seen as one way to civilize the native.



  1. French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.

  2. They emphasized the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. They felt by learning the language, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France.

  3. Only the Vietnamese elite could enroll in the schools, and only a few among those admitted ultimately passed the school-leaving examination.

  4. School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. While Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward. Capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection. They were skilled copyists but not creative.

16. “The battle against French Colonial Education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence” Explain.

Ans.(1) School textbook glorified the French and justified colonial rule while Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward. But, teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated.



  1. The Saigon Native Girls school expelled a student from the school on the basis of racial biasness. This was strongly protested by the students and the school had to readmit the student.

  2. Students fought against the colonial governments’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.

  3. The Vietnamese students formed association and even political parties. The Party of Young Annan, was one such example. Also, they were publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.

  4. Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. Vietnamese intellectuals feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory, but its very identity. So, the battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialslism and for independence.

17. How did the textbooks represent Vietnamese during the period of French colonization? Explain.

1. School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule while Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward.

2. They were capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection.

3. They could work in the fields but not rule themselves.

4. They were skilled copyists but not creative.

5. School children were told that only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam. Since the establishment of French rule, the Vietnamese peasant no longer lives in constant terror of pirates.



18. What was the French Dilemma in educating the Vietnamese? Explain.

Ans: Dilemma faced by the French:



  1. In pursuance of the policy of civilizing mission, the French wanted to introduce modern ideas through Western education. But in this area, they were faced with a dilemma.

  2. The French required an educated labour force bur feared the education might create problems for them in future. Once educated, the Vietnamese might begin to question colonial domination.

  3. Moreover, the Colons or the French who lived in Vietnam began to fear that, once educated the Vietnamese might replace them in job and they would lose their jobs as teachers, policemen, etc.

  4. So, they did not know how far they should educate the natives.

  5. Many opposed to give the Vietnamese full access to French education.

19. What were the broad opinions over the issue of using French language in Vietnam?

Ans: The broad opinions over the issue of using French language in Vietnam:



  1. Some emphasized the need to use the French language as the medium of instruction. By learning the language, they left, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture and work for the French.

  2. However, there were others who were opposed to the idea of marking French language the only medium of instruction. They wanted that in lower classes, Vietnamese should be the medium and French should be the medium for the higher classes.

  3. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.

20. “Education was seen as one way to civilize the natives’. In the context of this statement, explain the education policy of the French in Vietnam.

Ans: (1) French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French Schools for the Vietnamese.

(2) Some policy makers emphasized the need to use the French language as the medium of instructions.

(3) By learning the language they felt the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. This would help to create an “Asiatic France solidly tied to European France”.

(4) The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals. See the superiority of French culture, and work for the French.

(5) The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French Citizenship.



21. Explain any three limitations of the French education policty?

Ans: Following were the limitations of the French education policy:



  1. Only the Vietnamese elite could enroll in the school and only a few among those admitted.

  2. Most of the students could not pass the school leaving examination

  3. School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule

  4. Vietnamese were represented as primitive, backward capable of only manual labour.

  5. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French Citizenship.

22. Explain any three features of education provided in Tonkin Free School in Vietnam.

Ans: Following were the main features of Tonkin Free School:



  1. Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western style education to the Vietnamese.

  2. It provided education to rich classes in science, hygiene and French culture.

  3. These classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately.

  4. The school’s approach toward modernization was that to be modern, the Vietnamese also had to look modern.

  5. The school encouraged the adoption of Western styles such as having a short hair cut.

23. What was the “Civilising Mission” of the colonisers? Mention any two steps taken by the French regarding this mission.

Ans: 1. Civilising By French: (i) They introduced modern education. Tonkin Free School was opened.

(ii) They encouraged Western culture like short hair-cut, playing Western games, etc.

24. To counter Chinese influence what steps did the French take in the sphere of education? What were the two broad opinions on this question?

Ans: (1) TO counter Chinese influence, French took the following steps:



  1. They dismantled the traditional education system of Vietnam.

  2. They established French school for Vietnamese.

  3. They propagated Western culture among Vietnamese youths.

  4. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.

(2) Two broad opinions: (i) Some emphasized the need to use the French language as medium of instruction.

(ii) Other were opposed to French being the only medium of instruction. They suggested French to be taught in higher classes and Vietnamese in lower classes.



25. Describe the varioussteps taken by the French to dismantle Chinese influence on Vietnam.

Ans. The French adopted various measures to dismantle the Chinese influence on Vietnamese culture.



  1. They established French schools for the Vietnamese. They wanted to replace Chinese language in schools by French.

  2. Some policy markers emphasized the use of French language as the medium of instruction.

  3. In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide Western style education to spread French culture.

  4. In religion, the French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave a challenge to Confucianism.

  5. They propagated French culture among the youths. The few who learnt French and acquired French culture were to be rewarded with French citizenship.

26. How was the idea of “looking modern” implemented in Tonkin Free school? Explain.

Ans: The idea of “Looking Modern” was implemented in Tonkin Free school in the following ways:



  1. Students were suggested to adopt Western Style of education.

  2. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French.

  3. Traditionally, Vietnamese youths kept long hair. They were asked to cut their hair short.

  4. French asked the youths to drop stupid practices. Hair-cutting chart was introduced.

  5. French promoted the youths to study Western customs

27. Mention three features of the Resistance Movement against the French dominantion in Vietnamese schools.

Ans: Features of Resistance Movement:



  1. Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum prescribed by the French.

  2. A major protest erupted in Saigon Native Girls School in 1926.

  3. Students published nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.

  4. Students formed political parties such as the Party of Young Annan.

  5. Schools became an important place for political and cultural battle.

28. “French colonization was not based only on economic exploitation”. Justify the statement.

1. French colonization in Vietnam was not based only on economic exploitation, but it was also driven by the idea of a Civilising mission.

2. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisaion to the Vietnamese. They took for granted that Europe had developed the most advanced civilization.

3. So, it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern ideas to the colony. However, this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development. Education was seen as one way to civilize the native.



29. “ The actions of the rat catchers in Hanoi tells us the numerous small ways in which French colonization was fought in everyday life. Elaborate.

1. In 1903, the modrn part of Hanoi was struck with plague. To stop this from spreading, a rat hunt was started.

2. The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed.

3. Since, this dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining.

4. Another innovative way they took was that they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as a proof of killing and released the rat, so that the process could be repeated. Some people began raising rats to earn bounty.

5. In this way, the rat menace marks the limit of French power and contradictionsintheir ‘civilising mission’. And the actions of the rat catches tell s of the numerous small ways in which colonialism was fought in everyday life.



30. “ The measures taken by the French to control the spread of bubonic plague in Hanoi created a serious problem”. Explain the statement.

1. The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed.

2. Rates began to be caught in thousands, but stil there seemed to be no end.

3. This dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining

4. Another innovative way they took was that they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as a proof of killing and released rat, so that the process could be repeated. Some people began raising rats to earn a bounty.

5. In this way, the rat menace marks the limit of French power and contradictions in their ‘civilising mission’. And the action of the rat-catchers tell us of the numerous small ways in which colonialism was fought in everyday life.



31. Explain the reasons for the French Colonisers to scrap the bounty programmefor rat hunting in 1902-03.

1. a. The modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague. To fight the plague, French started Rat Hunt programme in 1902.

b. The people were paid for each rat they hunted.

2. a. The purpose of rat hunt was finally defeated

b. The French hired Vietnamese workers to catch the rats and paid them for the same, proved a failed attempt.

c. Vietnamese befooled the government by just showing the tail and allowing the rat to go free.

d. They took it is as a to earn profit.

32. Why were the French forced to start the bounty programme to kill rats?

1. The French part of Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city with wide avenues and a well-laid-out sewer system, while the native quarter was not provided with any modern facilities.

2. The refuse from the old city drained straight out into the river or, during heavy rains or floods overflowed into the streets.

3. Thus, what was installed to create a hygienic environment in the French city became the cause of the bubonic plague.

4. The large sewers in the modern part of the city, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats.

5. The sewers also served as a great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem.

6. The rats began to enter the well-cared homes of the French through the sewage pipes. To stem his invasion, a rat hunt was started. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed.

33. How did the large modern sewers installed in the French Hanoi become a major cause for the outbreak of bubonic plague? What effort was made to check the menace of rats?

1. a) The large sewers installed in the French Hanoi, a symbol of modernity, were an ideal and protected breeding ground for rats.

b) The sewers also served as a great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem. And the rats began to enter the well-cared homes of the French through the sewage pipes.

2. To stem this invasion, a rat hunt was started. The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed.



34. Why was the rat hunt policy scrapped?

Ans: The rat hunt of 1902, wherein the French paid the Vietnamese for each rat they caught, failed due to the following reasons.



  1. The Vietnamese learnt the art of ‘Collective bargaining” and found that if they come together they could negotiate a higher bounty.

  2. Vietnamese were following a deliberate policy of catching the rats, clipping their tails and showing them as proof of killing.

  3. They, however, did not kill the rats but release them instead so that they could get more money for the same rats by showing their tails again.

  4. Some people even began raising rats to earn a bounty.

  5. Defeated by the resistance of the weak, the French were forced to scrap the bounty programme. None of this prevented the bubonic plague.

35. Explain, with examples, how religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

1. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. Christianity introduced by French missionaries, was intolerant of this easy going attitude and viewed the Vietnamese tendency to revere the supernatural as something, to be corrected.

2. Scholar’s Revolt in 1868 was an early movement against French control and spread by Christianity. This led a general uprising in Ngu An an Ha Tien provinces where thousands of Catholics were killed.

3. Huynh Phu So started Hoa-Hao Movement in 1939. It drew on religious ideas popular in Anti-French uprising of the society.

4. Some religious organisations and groups in Vietnam were inspired and started movements against the colonial rule.

5. Although, religious movements had a contradictory relationship with mainstream nationalism. But, the significance of these movements in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments should not be underestimated.



36. Explain the contribution of Hoa Hao movement against religious and social evils in Vietnam.

Ans.Contribution of Hoa Hao Movement against religious and social evils in Vietnam were as follows:



  1. This movement used miracles to win the faith of the people and helped the poor.

  2. It criticized useless expenditure which had a wide appeal.

  3. The movement opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.

37. Who was the founder of Hoa Hao Movement? Explain any three points to highlight his contribution.

Ans: Hoa Hao Movement was founded b Huynh Phu So in 1939.

His contributions were as follows:


  1. He always helped the poor people.

  2. He criticized useless expenditure

  3. He opposed the sale of child brides.

  4. He opposed gambling and use of alcohol and opium.

38. Mention any three features of Hoa Hao Movement?

Ans: Following are the important features of Hoa Hao Movement in Vietnam.



  1. It was a Buddhist movement launched by Huynh Phu So in 1939.

  2. It gained popularity in the fertile Mekong River Delta area.

  3. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprising of the 19th century.

  4. Huynh Phu So performed miracles and helped the poor. He criticized useless expenditure. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.

  5. The French suppressed the movement and called Huynh Phu So and exiled him to Laos.

39. Explain any three features of Scholars Revolt in 1868 in Vietnam.

Ans: Following are the important features of Scholar’s Revolt in 1868 in Vietnam:



  1. It was an early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity.

  2. This revolt was led by the officials at the impertial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.

  3. They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provices where thousands of Catholics were killed.

  4. The French crushed this movement by force.

  5. But, this movement served to inspire other patriots to rise against the French.

40. Explain the ideas of Phan Chu Trinh to establish a democratic republic in Vietnam.

Ans: 1. Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarch and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. He desired to establish a democratic republic.



  1. Profound influenced by the democratic ideas of he West, he did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilization. He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideal.

  2. He wished to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights. His plan was the raise up the people to abolish the monarchy.

  3. He demanded that the French set up legal and educational institutions and develop agriculture and industries.

41. Who was Phan Chu Trinh? How did he help in the modernization of Vietnam?

1. Phan Chu Trinh was a Vietnamese nationalist.

2. He helped in the modernization of Vietnam in the following ways:

a. He sought to end France’s brutal occupation of Vietnam.

b. He was intensely hostile to monarchy and opposed the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court.

c. He wanted to establish a democratic republic.

d. He was influenced by Western ideals like liberty.

e. He demanded that French set up legal and educational institutions and should develop agriculture and industries.



42. “Early Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China”. Support your answer with three examples.

Ans: Early Vietnamese had close relationship with Japan and China.



  1. Japan and China were models for those looking a refuge for those who were escaping French Police.

  2. These countries provided locations for wider Asian network for revolutionaries.

  3. Phan Boi Chau laid foundation of “Go East Movement” Who lived in Japan.

  4. There had been establishment of restoration society in “Tokyo by Vietnamese students.

  5. The event that greatly inspired the Vietnamese was the overthrown of monarchy by Sun Yat-Sen in China.

43. With what aim was the ‘Go East Movement” started in Vietnam in the first decade of 20th century? What was its outcome?

Ans: 1. a . Early Vietnamese nationalists were greatly inspired by the ideals prevalent in Japan.

b. Japan provided models for those who were looking for a change and also gave refuge to who escaped French Police.

c. In the first decade of 20th century, a “Go East Movement” became popular. In 1907-08, nearly 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education.

d. For many of them the primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and re-establish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French.

e. The nationalists looked for foreign help and arms to fulfill their goals.

2. Outcome: Vietnamese students established a branch of Restoration Soceity in Tokyo but after 1908 Japanese ministry clamped them down. Many Vietnamese were deported and exiled to other countries.

44. Who were Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh? What was the goal for which both of them worked? How did their opinion differ in achieving their goal?

Ans: 1. a . Phan Boi Chau was a major figure in anti-colonial resistance in Vietnam.

b. Phan Chu Trinh was hostile to monarchy. He opposed the idea of resisting France.

2. Their Goals: a. Phan Boi Chau lamented the loss of sovereignty of severing ties with china.

b. Phan Chu Trinh wanted to establish a democratic republic influenced by democratic ideas of west.

3. a . Phan Boi chau was in favour of taking support of the monarchy to overthrow the French but Phan Chu Trinh was intensely against it.

b. Chau educated in Confucian tradition, was influenced by Chinese reformer, Liang Qichao while Trinh was motivated by democratic ideas of the West.

c. Chau advocated that first the foreign enemy should be driven out and after achieving independence, other things could be discussed. Trinh wished to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights.

d. Chau was not in favour of raising people to abolish the monarchy while Trinh was for it.

45. How did the battle against French Colonialism become the part of the battle for independence in Vietnam? Explain.

Ans:


  1. French colonialism was resisted at many levels and in various forms. In the late nineteenth century, resistance to French domination was very often led by Confucian scholar activists who saw their world crumbling.

  2. Educated in the Confucian tradition, Phan Boi Chau was one such nationalist.

  3. Another nationalist was Phan Chu Trinh. He was intensely hostile to the monarchy and oppose to the idea of resisting the French with the help of court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic.

  4. In the first decade of the twentieth century a Go East Movement became popular. Some Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. The main objective for them was to drive out the French from Vietnam.

  5. Vietnamese were also inspired by the developments in China where monarch was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun-Yat-Sen.

Now, the nature of the Anti-French independence movement changed. The objective was no longer to set up a constitutional monarchy but a democratic republic.

46. How did prolongation of Vietnam War create strong reactions even within the US? Explain.

1. Many were critical towards Government’s approach:

a. People became critical of the government for getting involved in a war they saw as indefensible.

b. When the youth were drafted for the war, the anger spread.

c. Compulsory service in the armed forces was waived off for university graduates. Only minorities and children of working class families were sent to war.

d. The US faced heavy casualties.

2. Critical to understand the reason of war:

a. People were not able to understand the reason for this war.

b. Francies Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now’, reflected the moral confusion that the war had caused in the US.

3. Fear of domino effect:

a. The war grew out of a fear among US policy makrs that the victory of Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect i.e., communist governments would be established in the other countries of the area.

b. They underestimated the power of nationalism to move people to action and fight for independence.



47. The phase of struggle between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese. Explain the reasons.

1. Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time B52s.

2. The wide-spread attacks and use of chemical weapons-Napalm, Agent Orange.

3. Between 1961 and 1971, some 11 milliion gallons of this chemical, Agent Orange was sprayed from cargo planes by US forces. Their plan was to destroy forests and fields. Dioxin, an element of Agent Orange, is known to cause cancer, deformities and brain damage in children.

4. Phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles.

5. Civilians died in large numbers.



48. Why did the US Government decide to intervene in the Civil War of Vietnam? What were its effects on the people of Vietnam?

Ans. 1. a. After 8 years of intense fighting, Vietminh finally defeated French in 1954 at the fortress of Dien Bien Phu.

b. The Geneva conference concluded with the division of Vietnam into North and South.

c. USA was apprehensive of an alliance between National Liberation Front and Ho Chin Minh.

d. The US was worried about communists gaining power, it decided to intervence decisively.

e. They underestimated the power of a nationalism to move people to action, to sacrifice and fight for independence.

2. a. The phase of struggle especially, between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese.

b. Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks.

c. The wide-spread attacks and use of chemical weapons and phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.

49. “ US entry into the war marked a new phase that proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans. “Explain.

Ans: Of course, US entry into the war proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans in the following ways.



  1. a. From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 US service personnel served in Vietnam.

  1. Even though the US had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualities were high. About 47,244 died in battle and 303,704 were wounded.

  2. Many people in the US were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they saw as indefensible.

  1. a. The phase of struggle between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal for Vietnamese.

b. Thousand of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks.

c. The wide-spread attaches and use of chemical weapons and phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.



50. Explain various challenges faced by the “New Republic of Vietnam”.

1. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai as their puppet.

2. Faced with the French offensive the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.

3. In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and South were split.

4. The division set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death and destraction to its people as well as the environment. The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government.

5. With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the North, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US watched this alliance with fear and decided intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms.



51. Explain the importance of Ho Chi Minh Trail and the nature of war that Vietnamese fought against the US.

1. a. This refers to a long network of footpaths and roads to transport men, war materials and food supplies from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.

b. It was used by the followers of Ho Chi Minh to support the NLF of south Vietnam in their movement against Diem.

2. It tells us following about the Vietnamese war against the imperialist forces: against the US and for the unification of Vietnam.

a. The Vietnamese used their limited resources to their advantage in their fight against the US and for the unification of Vietnam.

b. The trial was improved from the late 1950s. and from 1967 about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail.

c. The trail had support hospitals and bases along the way. Materials were transported by trucks sometimes, but mostly by men and women.

d. Regular bombing by the US troops on the trail to disrupt supplies did not deter the Vietnamese who rebuilt the trail quickly.



52. What were the reasons behind the long war between the French and Vietnamese forces till 1954?

Ans.(1) Colonial domination was exercised by control over all areas of private and public life. The French occupied Vietnam not only militarily, they also sought to reshape its social and cultural life. French colonialism was resisted at many levels and in various forms. In the late nineteenth century, French rule was resisted by various nationalists.



  1. The Great Depression of the 1930 had a profound impact on Vietnam. The prices of rubber and rice fell leading to rising rural debts unemployment and rural uprisings. The French but these uprisings down with great severity.

  2. In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam. The League for the Independence of Vietnam which came to be known as Vietminh fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed.

  3. The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor Bao Dai, as their puppet.

  4. Faced will the French offensive, the Vietminh were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight/years of fighting, the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.

53. Explain the circumstances responsible for withdrawal of the US forces from Vietnam.

Ans. 1. The prolongation of the war created strong reactions within the US. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they saw was indefensible.



  1. The US had failed to achieve its objectives- the Vietnamese resistance had not been crushed, the support of Vietnamese people for US action had not been won.

  2. In the meantime, thousands of young US soldiers had lost their lives and countless Vietnamese civilians had been killed.

  3. Battle scenes were shown on the daily news programme.

  4. Many became disillusioned with what the US was doing.

  5. The scholar Noam Chomsky called the war the greatest threat to peace, to national self-determination and to international peace.

All these circumstances forced the US forces to withdraw from Vietnam.

54. Explain any three impacts of Great Depression on Vietnam:

1. The great Depression of the 1940s had a profound impact on Vietnam.

2. The prices of rubber and rice fell, leading to rising rural debts, unemployment and rural uprsing, such as in the provinces of Ngu An and Ha Tien.

3. The French put these uprisings down with great severity, even using planes to bomb demonstrators.



55. Who was Ho Chi Minh? State his contribution in the Freedom movement of Vietnam.

Ans. 1. Ho Chi Minh was the first Communist Chairman of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.



  1. His contributions to Vietnam are as follows:

  1. In 1930, he brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist Party.

  2. He was inspired by the militant demonstration of the European Communist parties.

  3. In 1940, Japanese occupied Vietnam. So, now they had to fight against the Japanese as well as French.

  4. A league called ‘Vietminh’ was formed to fight the Japanese and they got back Hanoi in 1945.

  5. The democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became its Chairman.

56. Explain the circumstances that led to division of Vietnam into North and South Vietnam.

Ans: Following were the circumstances that led to division of Vietnam in to North and South:



  1. There was formation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam under the Chairmanship of Ho Chi Minh.

  2. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai as their puppet.

  3. Defeat of France in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu in the hands of he Vietnamese.

  4. In the peact negotiation in Geneva, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the Country into north and south Vietnam.

  5. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in the north while Ba Dai’s regime was put in power in the south.

57. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life in the US itself?

Ans.1. a. USA was apprehensive of an alliance between National Liberation Front and Ho Chi Minh.

b. The US was worried about communists graining power, it decided to intervene decisively.

c. They underestimated the power of a nationalism to move people to action, to sacrifice and fight for independence.

2. Following were the impacts on life in the US:

a. Many people in US were critical of the government for getting involved in a war they saw as indefensible.

b. US media and film played a major role in supporting and criticizing the war.

c. Hollywood made film in support of war such as John Wayne’s ‘Green Berets’ in 1968, whereas, Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalyse Now (1979) reflected the moral confusion caused by the war in US.

d. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates. This meant that many of those sent to fight did not belong to the privileged elite but were minorities and children of working middle-class families.

58. How could you relate Communist Movement with ‘ Vietnamese Nationalism’. Explain in four points.

Ans. 1. Ho Chi Minh was inspired by the militant demonstration of the European communist parties. In 1930, he brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist Party.



  1. Later their party was renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party that played important role in the Communist Movement in Vietnam.

  2. After Japan occupied Vietnam, the nationalist had to fight against the Japanese as well as French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam fought the Japanese and recaptured Hanoi in 1945.

  3. This victor led to the formatin of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh became the Chairman.

  4. Ho Chi Minh trail, which proved successful against the US army, emerged as a communist symbol. It kept the movement alive in Vietnam by providing means of transport during the war.

59. The war grew out of a fear among US policy planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh government would start a domino effect”. Support the statement explaining three reasons?

a. The US feared that communist governments would be established in the other countries in the area.

b. The US feared that the nationalism will move people to action and inspire them to sacrifice leading to the Victory of a Communist Movement.

c. US believed that Vietnam was a small country. If the Communist Movement is oppressed there, it would work as a signal for others not to take the same route. It was supposed to be a war between a small country and the most technically advanced country.



60. Who wrote the play based on the lives of Trung sisters? What was depicted in the play?

Ans.1. In 1913, the Nationalist Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of the Trung sisters. These sisters had fought against Chinese domination in 39-43 CE.



  1. a. In this play, he depicted these sisters as patriots fighting to save the Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.

b. They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism of the Vietnamese.

c. They gathered a force of over 30,000 resisted the Chinese for two years. Ultimately when they were defeated, they committed suicide, instead of surrendering to the enemy. After Phan’s play, the Trung sisters came to be idealized and glorified.



61. Who was Trieu Au? How did she become a sacred figure?

1. a. Trieu Au was one of the most venerated women rebel of the past in Vietnam.

b. She lived in the third country CE. Orphaned in childhood, she lived with her and resisted Chinese rule.

2. a. On growing up she left home, went into the jungles, organized a large army and resisted Chinese rule.

b. Finally, when her army was crushed, she drowned herself.

c. She became a sacred figure, not just a martyr who fought for the honour of the country. Natinalists popularized her image to inspire people to action.

62. Evaluate the role of Vietnamese women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam.

Ans: Following are the roles of Vietnamese women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam.



  1. During the anti-imperialist struggle, the Vietnamese women played an important role. They were brave fighters.

  2. They formed women militia and shot down fighter planes.

  3. They were brave and dedicated. They joined army took the rifle and tackled enemy.

  4. Besides fighting, they managed other works. Women selflessly worked and fought to save the country.

  5. They helped in nourishing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels.

63. Explain the role of women as worriors in the Vietnamese War of 1960.

Ans: The role of Vietnamese women during the US intervention in 1960s:



  1. The acts of Trung sisters and Trieu Au inspired the nationalist sentiment amongst the Vietnamese women, they began to involve themselves in the nationalist movement.

  2. They acted as worriors. They performed different functions. They were in regular army, the militia and the local forces and professional teams.

  3. They shot down jets, fought battles and carried weapons.

  4. They nursed the wounded. They worked as coolies and porters. They repaired Ho Chi Minh Trail.

  5. They constructed underground tunnels and room along the trail.

  6. a. They were not only the brave fighters, they were hard workers too. The Vietnamese women were depicted as having rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other.

b. In the peace time, they started working in the fields and agricultural cooperatives

c. They also worked in factories and other production units.



64. Explain the role of “Trung Sisters” in the nationalist movement of Vietnam.

1. Trung Sisters fought against the Chinese domination in 39-43 CE.

2. These sisters fought as patriot to save Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.

3. Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on their lives and they were idealized and glorified. They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism towards Vietnam.

4. These sisters gathered a force of over 30,000 and resisted the Chinese for two years.

5. Ultimately, when they defeated, they committed suicide, instead of surrendering to the enemy.



65. Explain the role of Vietnamese women as warriors against the Chinese domination.

Ans 1. Rebel women of the past were similarly celebrated. In 1913, nationalist Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of “Trung Sisters” who had fought against Chinese domination.



  1. These sisters were portrayed as patriots, fighting to save Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.

  2. Trung sisters were came to be idealized and glorified. They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as representing the indomitable will and patriotism.

  3. They had gathered a force of 30,000, resisted Chinese for two years and when ultimately defeated, committed suicide instead of surrendering.

  4. Other women rebels of the past were part of the popular nationalist love. For eg. Trieu Au who lived in the third century. She organized a large army and resisted Chinese rule. Finally, when her army was crushed, she drowned herself. She became a sacred figure, not just a martyr who fought for the honour of the country.

66. Describe , giving examples, reactions of the people to French colonialism.

Ans 1. In 1926, a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. The girls and other students refused to follow the orders of the Principal. Schools became an important place for political and cultural battles.



  1. In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck with bubonic plague, to prevent the spread of disease, a rat hunt started. Since, this dirty work was done only by Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining. Another innovative way they took was they clipped only the tail of rat to show as proof of killing and released the rat, so the process could be repeated. The actions of the rat catcher tell us of the numerous ways in which colonialism was fought in everyday life.

  2. The Scholar’s Revolt of 1868 was an early revolt against French control and spread of Christionity. It was led by angry officials at the imperial court. They organized an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces and killed nearly a thousand Catholics. However the movements was crushed by the French.

  3. Another movement named Hoa Hao Movement began in 1939. This movement used popular religious ideas in anti-French uprising of the 19th century.

  4. Women played an important role in Vietnam’s struggle for freedom both in the past and present.

67. How did the long war between the US and Vietnam come to an end? Describe

Ans. 1. The US failed to achieve its objective. Vietnam’s resistance could not be crushed.


  1. It proved costly to the US. There were high casulaties on the US side.

  2. It was the first war shown on the television. Battles were shown on daily news world over.

  3. People were disillusioned with the US and its policy of war was criticized.

  4. Widespread questioning of government policy strengthened moves to end war. Finally, a peace treaty was signed in Paris in January 1974.

68 How was Vietnam unified? Explain.

Ans: 1. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through efforts of different sections of society.



  1. In 1911, Chinese revolution under Sun Yat-Sen had great impact on Vietnamese nationalism.

  2. Vietnamese students who moved to Japan for modern education organized the Association for the restoration of Vietnam

  3. Under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh competing nationalist groups were gathered together and Vietnamese Communist Party was formed in 1930.

  4. After defeating France and Japan, Vietnam achieved its independence after prolonged war in 1945.


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