The National Archives Learning Curve Exhibition: The Cold War Teacher Notes



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The National Archives Learning Curve Exhibition: The Cold War

Teacher Notes

Gallery 1: Did the Cold War really start in 1919-39?

The aim of the Gallery


As a teacher and examiner, I understand that relations between the West and the Bolshevik government, pre 1945, never form part of any examination course. That said, I have never felt it satisfactory to simply start the Cold War in 1945, because it begs the obvious question as to what had gone before. It begs a lot of other questions as well, such as:

  • Who were the Bolsheviks?

  • What did they stand for?

  • Did the people of Russia / the USSR support them?

  • Why was the West so suspicious and fearful of them?

The main aim of this gallery is therefore to provide a context for the study of the Cold War in Galleries 2-6. The most obvious uses involve teachers ‘mining’ the Case Studies for examples and stories; they could use these in a whole class introduction to the Cold War, perhaps in-depth research, or able and interested students looking to study the issue beyond the normal subject courses. This might also be a platform for post-16 students looking for ideas on a personal or coursework study.


There is no reason, other than time, why all students might not look at the material. If time is the most pressing issue, teachers might direct students to a number of key sources:

  • In Case Study 1, Source 3 gives a strong sense of Churchill’s attitude to Bolshevism and could be used to help students understand Stalin’s later suspicions of Churchill. Source 6 might achieve the same end.

  • In Case Study 2, the Zinoviev Letter itself provides an ideal indication of Western suspicions of the Soviet Union and its motives. The exercise relating to the letter would be time well spent.

  • In Case Study 3, Source 3 is the obvious source, indicating the USSR’s sense of outrage over the Munich Agreement.



Contents of the Gallery

Gallery 1: Did the Cold War really start in 1919-39?


Source

Case Study 1

Case Study 2


Case Study 3

1

Extract from the minutes of a meeting of the British War Cabinet in March 1919. This extract contains comments from Winston Churchill about the situation in Russia at that time

Extracts from a letter by Comintern President Zinoviev to the British Communist Party, September 1924, generally known as the Zinoviev Letter

A sketch map attached to The Munich Agreement of September 29th 1938. The shaded areas show the areas taken from Czechoslovakia and given to Germany

2

Extract from the minutes of a meeting of the British War Cabinet in March 1919. This extract contains comments from Austen Chamberlain, Andrew Bonar Law and Winston Churchill about the situation in Russia

Part of a private note from a senior Foreign Office minister to Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, giving advice on what to do about the Zinoviev letter, October 15th 1924

A private letter from Trade Minister Oliver Stanley to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, October 3rd 1938

3

Extract from the minutes of the British Cabinet in August 1919. This extract contains a report by Churchill on events in the Russian Civil War at the time

The public response of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald to the Zinoviev letter, October 24th 1924

A report from the British Ambassador in Moscow to the Foreign Office, October 1938. It is commenting on how the Soviet newspapers reacted to the Munich Agreement

4

Extract from the minutes of the British Cabinet in August 1919. This extract contains discussions about British policy towards Russia at the time

A cartoon from Punch Magazine, October 29th 1924, commenting on the Zinoviev letter

A British cartoon commenting on the Nazi-Soviet Pact. The cartoon appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper on October 26th 1939

5

A Bolshevik cartoon published in 1919. The dogs are labelled (from left to right) Yudenich, Kolchak, Denikin. These were the commanders of the three main White armies (David King Collection)








Methodology and technology


The obvious methodology for this Gallery to be used in the classroom is for pairs or small groups to work on sources allocated to them. If access to computers is a problem, the sources can be printed out as a single file. In terms of technology, the activity which accompanies the Zinoviev Letter source was conceived with a word processor in mind. That said, all of the sources in this Case Study can be tackled with nothing more advanced than a teacher with a black/white board and chalk/marker.

Gallery 2: How strong was the wartime alliance, 1941-45?



The aim of the Gallery


In some ways the aim of this Gallery is the same as the previous one, in that it provides context for a study of the Cold War which developed after WW2. That said, this Gallery contains Case Studies on the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences which are part of most examination course specifications on the Cold War. More to the point, I feel that the conferences are a bridge between the wartime cooperation and the postwar tensions which developed.
As such, the conferences make much more sense when looked at from a WW2 position as well as a postwar position. There is the added bonus that the wartime source material is absolutely fascinating and much of it is very powerful visually. A final point is that the Big Question involves students evaluating and possibly planning out their own documentary film on the wartime relationship. Almost everyone finds the process of film-making inherently fascinating.

Contents of the Gallery


Gallery 2: How strong was the wartime alliance 1941-45?

Source

Case Study 1

Case Study 2

Case Study 3

Case Study 4

1

A poster produced by the British government’s Ministry of Information in the second half of 1941

Extracts from a War Cabinet meeting concerning convoys of supplies to the USSR, December 1942

Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill at the Yalta Conference, 1945

A British cartoon published in the Daily Mail, July 16th 1945

2

Another poster from 1941, produced by the Ministry of Information

A telegram from the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden to the British Embassy in Moscow, February 17th 1943

Extract from the Yalta Protocol - the agreements signed by Britain, the USA and the USSR at the Yalta Conference, February 1945

Big Three at Potsdam

3

Handwritten notes on the cover of a report written by British officials in Moscow in December 1943. The report describes the reactions of the Soviet media to the Teheran Conference between Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill in November 1943

Part of a Foreign Office report on attitudes in the USA towards the USSR, April 6th 1943

Extracts from US President Roosevelt's speech to the US Congress on the Yalta Conference, March 1st 1945

Extract from a speech by President Truman on the Potsdam Conference, August 1945. This extract covers the issue of reparations from Germany

4

The reaction of the Soviet newspaper Izvestiya to the Teheran Conference in November 1943. The translation was by British officials and was put into a report sent back to the Foreign Office in London.

Extracts from the minutes of meetings of the British Cabinet on the question of the future of Poland. The minutes refer to meetings in January 1944

Extracts from US President Roosevelt's speech to the US Congress on the Yalta Conference, March 1st 1945, referring to the question of Poland

Extract from a speech by President Truman on the Potsdam Conference, August 1945. This extract concerns the use of the atomic bomb

5

A poster produced by the Ministry of Information in May 1944, commenting on RAF and American bombing raids




Telegram from Prime Minister Winston Churchill to US President Truman, May 12th 1945. It comments on relations between the Allies in the months after the Yalta Conference

A British cartoon commenting on the Potsdam Conference published in the Daily Mail, July 19th 1945

6

A poster produced by the Ministry of Information in May 1944, commenting on British and American supply convoys




Part of a report from British military leaders to the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, regarding a plan called 'Operation Unthinkable' - a surprise attack on the USSR, 1945

Extract from an article in the British journal The Economist, August 11th 1945



Methodology and technology


Thus, the purist teacher or the teacher pushed for time could simply use the Case Studies on the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Pupils can, of course, work their way through all the sources and the questions which accompany them. However, the questions were primarily designed to get students talking about the sources and, above all, thinking about the sources. This means looking at the sources and considering what they mean as much as what they say. ‘What they mean’ implies looking into the sources to seek out errors, intemperate language, selectiveness etc. It also means looking at the sources as a package of sources, and involves looking at that package within the wider context of their knowledge of the events of the period.
This is where the Case Study worksheet comes in. Its main aim is to get students to reach an overall judgement which synthesises the sources, or to come up with an answer which explains why and how it is difficult or even impossible to reach a judgement. Most students are capable of this kind of thinking if they are given sufficient time, structure and encouragement to do this. The Case Study worksheet tries to provide a structure. It can be printed off, but it is best suited to being used as a word processor file. Students can copy extracts into this worksheet and add their own linking text around the extracts to create supported statements which make up their judgements.
It is a similar position with regard to the template for the documentary provided in the Big Question. Students could copy the framework into a word processor (I have used this structure for planning documentaries on everything from Plague to Prohibition). Alternatively they could use presentation software like Microsoft PowerPoint to present their plans. If you want to pursue the film idea, there are web sites which provide templates for storyboards. One of the best can be found at the British Film Institute’s education pages (http://www.bfi.org.uk/education/teachers/).
Gallery 3: Who caused the Cold War?

The aim of the Gallery


This gallery is underpinned by some lofty and extremely ambitious aims. The fundamental aim is to try to make the bizarre (to many of our students) complexities of the early stages of the Cold War into a human story. It tries to capitalise on the current trend on TV for confrontational political interviews. Thus the Big Question puts the student in the position of an interviewer preparing to interview the key figures in the early stages of the Cold War – Stalin, Truman, Churchill. In practical terms, this may mean students looking at the role of Stalin, Churchill and Truman separately. It is thus conceivable that students would thus go over the same ground three times as they look at each leader. My experience has been that most students are quite keen to go over the ground three times, and many would like to go over it more times than that!
There is also a clear Citizenship dimension here. The only difference between the grilling of Truman, Stalin and Churchill here, and the interrogation of a local councillor on local roads or schools, is one of scale and time!

Contents of the Gallery




Gallery 3: Who caused the Cold War?


Source

Case Study 1

Case Study 2


Case Study 3

1

Extract from a document published by the Foreign Office in 1983. It analyses Soviet policy in Eastern Europe since 1945

Extracts from Churchill's Iron Curtain speech given in the USA in March 1946

Extracts from President Truman's speech of March 12th 1947 - The Truman Doctrine

2

Part of a report summarising the British government's view of Soviet policies, 1946-47

Extract from a Foreign Office report on the effects of Churchill's Iron Curtain speech in the USA

Extracts from a Foreign Office report on reactions to the Truman Doctrine expressed in the newspapers in Belgium, March 1947

3

A report to the British Cabinet in 1947, summarising future British policy towards the USSR

Extracts from a Foreign Office report on the reaction to Churchill's speech in the USSR

Telegram from US State Department officials in Hungary, Greece and Germany, to Washington on the need for economic aid, March 1947

4

Cartoon published in the British newspaper the Daily Mail, 1947




A speech by US Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard University in June 1947, setting out the 'Marshall Plan'

5

Extract from a report from the Foreign Secretary to the British Cabinet in March 1948. The title of the report was 'The Threat to Western Civilisation'




A British cartoon commenting on the Marshall Plan, January 1st 1948

6

Stalin's comments on his policies in Eastern Europe, printed in the Soviet newspaper Pravda in March 1946




An article in the Soviet newspaper Pravda commenting on the Marshall Plan, June 29th 1947

7

BBC translations and summaries of broadcasts by Moscow Radio in 1949








Methodology and technology


One of the most effective ways to introduce the exercise would be to show recorded clips of a particularly aggressive TV interview to students. In many ways, ‘Newsnight’ or similar programmes would be less effective as an introduction, than the afternoon talk shows like ‘Ricki Lake’ or ‘Jerry Springer’.
The Big Question is set in an hypothetical situation. However, there is no reason why it could not be made more real by role-playing the actual interviews or indeed the programme itself. Students do this kind of exercise regularly in Drama, English and Media Studies, so the skills should not be difficult to transfer. The skill of the teacher is central to allocating the best roles to the appropriate students. As a teacher, you may want to take on the role of a figure such as Stalin yourself. He is not exactly the easiest figure to identify with.
Clever use of groups could also make use of the possibilities. If the class were, for instance, in 6 groups, you could have 3 groups preparing questions, and 3 groups briefing the leader and preparing them for all the awkward questions they may face. If you wanted to make the absolute maximum from the technology, why not link up with another local school. Students could email their questions and answers back and forth to each other.
At the detailed level, it is worth noting that the Case Studies are not all of equal length. There is a good deal of material in the Soviet and US Case Studies, less so in the Churchill Case Study. That said, the final source in that study is long. More to the point, it is worth stressing to students the inherent interest of this source as evidence for historians. It is a British view of Soviet reactions to Churchill’s speech. As such, students might be tempted to dismiss its contents, but its purpose and context perhaps give it greater credence. Teacher intervention will almost certainly be needed with many students to make the most from this.
Gallery 4: How did the Cold War work?

The aim of the Gallery


The main aim of this Gallery is for students to understand the nature of the Cold War as a conflict. It is an extremely subtle and complex conflict and it is not surprising that many students find it very challenging. Thus, this gallery provides the opportunity to study the Cold War through themes which students will find accessible (political, military, media, innocent civilians). The primary method here is for students to research using the sources, the archive and the extensive links to other web sites which are provided, and demonstrate their understanding by creating their own exhibition. Through the exhibition, students are encouraged to select sources and explain how those sources illustrate wider issues than the simple content of the sources themselves. In other words, the exhibition encourages students to make inferences from the sources and express those inferences clearly, coherently and to a word limit.
It is worth adding that there is a potential Citizenship dimension in this Gallery as well. Governments take decisions on behalf of all citizens and they are often faced with courses of action which are strategically in the interests of their country, but may be morally suspect. This Gallery offers a number of dilemmas of this sort which could be given a modern parallel. The intervention of the West in Cuba and Berlin contrasts noticeably with the lack of action taken over Soviet actions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). More up-to-date parallels might be drawn between action in the Middle East before and after the terrible events of September 11th 2001 in the USA.

Contents of the Gallery





Gallery 4: How did the Cold War work?

Source

Case Study 1

Case Study 2

Case Study 3

Case Study 4

1

An official Foreign Office map showing the situation in Berlin in 1948

A French news film from late 1950, which gives an overview of various aspects of the war in Korea

Extract from briefing notes on Soviet policies for the British Foreign Secretary, Autumn 1955

Extracts from a Foreign Office document, analysing Soviet leader Khrushchev's attitude to Germany and Berlin, April 1961

2

Extracts from the minutes of meetings of the British Cabinet in 1948, covering discussions of the early stages of the Berlin Blockade

Extracts from a Foreign Office report on the Soviet government's management of media coverage of the Korean War, July 7th 1950

Extracts from a Foreign Office telegram, reporting back to London on the situation in Hungary in October 1956

Part of the report of a meeting of the military and civil government of West Berlin, discussing refugees, July 1961

3

Extracts from the final report of the British Air Ministry on the Berlin Blockade, published in 1950

Comments on the Korean War by US politician, Dean Rusk, on a US TV show, January 29th 1951

A British news film showing the situation in Hungary in 1956

News film of the building of the wall and the reactions of Berliners to the wall going up, 1961

4

Letter from an American citizen to President Truman

Extracts from the minutes of a meeting of the British Cabinet, discussing the possible escalation of the war in Korea

Extracts from a Foreign Office report on the state of Hungary, 1959

Cartoon from the British newspaper the Sunday Telegraph, August 26th 1962

5

One day's work during the Berlin Airlift

Extracts from an intelligence report on North Korean forces, late 1951 to early 1952

A Foreign Office report on the origins of Czech discontent with Soviet control, 1956

Part of a Foreign Office report describing the strengthening of the Berlin Wall, November 1961

6

A cartoon produced by an American pilot serving in the Berlin Airlift

Extract from a report from British officials in Tokyo, on problems of achieving a peace settlement, January 1952

A British news report on the effects of the Prague Spring on the media in Czechoslovakia, 1968

Extract from the script of a film called ‘Outpost of Freedom - The Meaning of Berlin Today’, produced by the British Ministry of Information in 1962

7







Report to the British Cabinet summing up the situation in Czechoslovakia in August 1968





Methodology and technology


Different courses arrange their coverage of the Cold War under different headings and themes. There is nothing to stop students working their way through all of the Case Studies, but this was not envisaged when the gallery was created. My own vision of the exercise was that students would be given a theme to research (political, military, media, innocent civilians), and search for sources which demonstrated this to them across the range of Case Studies. However, it makes just as much sense to allocate particular Case Study areas to students and ask them to tease out the themes from within the confines of those Case Studies.
It is worth dwelling on the Big Question in terms of its structure, and the technological wizardry which has been developed specifically to support it. The Big Question sheet is able to stand alone as a guidance sheet for students who are tackling the work as a paper exercise. The framework in the Big Question page could be copied into a word processor and completed that way. This has the obvious advantages of being able to revise and review work. It also provides good practice in copying and pasting from the web site to a word processor. Students could present their work using presentation software instead of word processing software. They could still use the structure of the Big Question to organise their research and their thinking.
Finally, we at the National Archives would encourage you to encourage the students to use the online facility for creating a personal exhibition. We are especially keen to have students registering their work with the site. This means that they can save their work at the end of a class or a homework session and return to complete it or update it later. There is a fairly obvious motivational buzz to be gained from creating a product and seeing it published almost immediately on the web.
Gallery 5: The nuclear game – how close was it?

The aim of the Gallery


In case your students are wondering what the title means, the question in this Gallery is about how close the world came to nuclear war in the 1950s and 1960s. In many respects this Gallery is an extension of the previous Gallery. It uses a similar approach and is based on a similar philosophy. It is in a separate Gallery because of the monumental importance of the issue and also to make clear to students how real the threat of nuclear annihilation seemed at the time.
As with the previous gallery, this one tries to bring an interesting human dimension to the rather arcane world of nuclear politics by centring the Big Question on the museum based in a nuclear bunker. Bunkers, like WW2 bomb shelters, have an inherent interest. There is also the grisly fascination with the planning which lay behind the bunker (planning which covers everything from maintaining law and order to the sewage arrangements inside the bunker).
The format for student work aims to make students aware of the possibilities in terms of multimedia technology. It is now very easy to use computer software to record sound files and integrate them into multimedia authoring software such as Hyperstudio or presentation software like PowerPoint.

Contents of the Gallery




Gallery 5: The nuclear game – how close was it?


Source

Case Study 1

Case Study 2


Case Study 3

1

British government report on the effects of nuclear explosions, 1954

Official US maps showing the alleged nuclear missile sites in Cuba, October 1962

Cartoon published in the Daily Mail, 28 February 1961

2

Secret British government report advising on the reporting of Britain's nuclear testing programme, 1957

Part of a speech by the British Foreign Secretary on the reasons for the crisis in Cuba, October 23rd 1962

A leaflet published by the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War in October 1959

3

Extract from discussion in the British Cabinet about Britain's nuclear weapons, particularly the Polaris nuclear missile system

A report by the British Joint Intelligence Committee on Soviet missiles in Cuba, October 26th 1962

A report from the Metropolitan Police Special Branch on a meeting of the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War, December 1959

4

Part of a report by the British Foreign Secretary on talks about nuclear disarmament in 1962

Extract from President Kennedy's TV broadcast, announcing the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba

Extracts from an illegal radio broadcast by anti-nuclear campaigners in 1962

5

Extracts from a report by Foreign Office officials in Moscow, concerning an alleged new kind of nuclear weapon developed by the USSR in 1964

Extracts from a speech by Soviet leader Khrushchev, in December 1962, covering the causes and consequences of the Cuban Crisis

Extracts from a discussion of the British Cabinet about a CND march in 1968

6

A poster produced by the Ministry of Information in 1965, informing people about H Bombs and Civil Defence

One person's memories of the Cuban Crisis, in October 1962




7




Notes from a meeting of the British Cabinet, looking back at the Cuban Crisis October 1962




Methodology and technology


There are many different ways to make use of the Case Studies within the Gallery. One way is to use this Gallery as a further set of Case Studies for the Big Question in Gallery 4. Alternatively, you could extend the Big Question in this Gallery to cover the sources in Gallery 4. This would allow a very wide range of tasks to be allocated to a class, so that pairs or small groups of students would all have plenty to work on.
Another way might be to use all or part of Case Study 1 in Gallery 5, as a background resource before looking at the Cuban Crisis, which is central to most courses on the Cold War. The posters which introduce Case Study 1 neatly set the tone of paranoia which characterised the time. If the poor citizens of Britain were not paranoid before they read the government safety poster (Source 6), they almost certainly were afterwards! Be aware that the poster is broken up into smaller, enlarged sections, so that the text and images can be seen clearly.
Case Study 2 contains some truly wonderful resources. Students will enjoy looking at Source 1 most of all. As well as giving a visual image of the island of Cuba, the annotations on the maps show the scribbles written onto the map by the military observers and planners, who were advising the President. How sure do they seem to be?!
Case study 3 may not be a feature for all history courses on the Cold War. Even if that is not the case, it is easy to see how it could be used as part of a Citizenship course. The freedom to disagree with the majority is a fundamental right in a democratic society. The treatment of the CND campaigners in the 1950s and 1960s provides a ready platform for modern studies of protesters who are out of step with the majority. Obvious modern cases for study would be environmental protesters opposed to new roads or nuclear power. There is also the ongoing concern over GM food and modern farming methods in general.
Gallery 6: Was Vietnam a turning point in the Cold War?

The aim of the Gallery


Students have access to so much material on the Vietnam War that it can be utterly bewildering. The aim of this Gallery is to provide a collection of source material which is tightly focused on American policy, its aims, and the extent to which the aims were achieved. This in turn feeds into the wider question of how American disappointments in Vietnam affected the policy of containment, and contributed in part to the development of Détente in the 1970s.
The other main aim is to help students organise and express their thoughts in a coherent fashion. The Big Question is effectively an extended writing frame to help students gather their thoughts from the individual sources into a wider picture, which takes into account the events in Vietnam and the events which preceded and followed that conflict.

Contents of the Gallery





Gallery 6: Was Vietnam a turning point in the Cold War?

Source

Case study 1

Case study 2

1

British news film showing US Marines landing at Da Nang in Vietnam in 1965

Notes from British Cabinet discussions of the war in Vietnam, 1966

2

Extracts from a British Foreign Office document Ho Chi Minh and the Communist Movement in Indo China. It was published in August 1953

British news report on protests in the USA against the Vietnam War, 1967

3

US President Eisenhower explaining the Domino Theory in 1954 (US Government Printing Office)

Notes from British Cabinet discussions of the war in Vietnam, 1968

4

Discussions on US policy in Vietnam at a meeting of the British Cabinet in 1965

US Secretary of Defence, Clark Clifford, on the impact of the Tet Offensive, 1968

5

US President Johnson explaining why the USA was involved in Vietnam, 1965 (US Government Printing Office)

Notes from British Cabinet discussions of the war in Vietnam, 1969

6

Extract from an interview in 1970 with senior US politician Cyrus Vance

British news report on the nature of the fighting in Vietnam, 1969

7

British news film showing protests by South Vietnamese people against their own government in 1965

British cartoon commenting on US President Nixon's Vietnam policies, 1972

8

British cartoon from the New Statesman Magazine, April 1965, commenting on US entry into Vietnam War

British cartoon commenting on US President Nixon's Vietnam policies, 1973


Methodology and technology


The first question in this gallery is whether students will study both Case Studies. In each Case Study, there are more sources than most of the other Galleries, and the sources themselves are comparatively long. Also, remember that the archive contains more sources and suggested internet sites for further research.
If you decide to focus on one Case Study, the other Case Study can be readily summarised through one key source. If you were looking for one source to sum up Case Study 1, the obvious candidate would be Source 3, President Eisenhower’s exposition of the Domino Theory. In Case Study 2, the cartoon Sources 7 and/or 8 would do the job very effectively.
As students work their way through the Case Study/ Studies, it is important to continually remind them of the Big Question. The framework of the Big Question can be copied into a word processor and filled and updated as the students work. This is the single greatest advantage of using a word processor rather than paper to record thoughts and findings.


Introduction

Use this introduction, add to it, or change it completely if you don't like it!


Students can note here whether they plan to change the introduction, eg. they might be focusing only on US aims


The main issue in this question is the USA's attitude to Communism. America went to war in Vietnam because it feared Communism spreading - the 'Domino Theory'. However, the Vietnam War showed that the USA could not always achieve its aims. To understand this, we must look in detail at America's aims, and why US policies did not work.

Suggested sources:
Here students can note which sources will provide them with information they can use as evidence to support the points they make in this paragraph (see below)

When the USA got involved in Vietnam in the 1960s, it seemed that American aims were clear. The aims were …
A number of sources show this. For example …

Suggested sources:

Case Study 1, Source 3, Eisenhower on Domino Theory



US Presidents believed their policies were right. For example …

Suggested sources:

However, there were critics of US policy in the USA and among its allies. Examples of critics were …


Suggested sources:

By the late 1960s, the attitude of the USA was changing. To begin with, it was clear that US military methods were not working. This is shown by …


Suggested sources:

There was also evidence that the war was dividing American society and was unpopular with America's allies. Evidence for this is …


Suggested sources:

So in conclusion …

Related resources



Topics


  • Heroes and Villains - http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/heroesvillains/



Lessons


  • IWB behind the smiles, evaluating the film of Potsdam -- http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/focuson/film/activities/cold-war/2-behind-the-smiles-iwb.htm



Workshops


  • AS and A2 level : Cold War - http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/educationservice/as.htm#a16


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