The Munich Pact On September 29



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The Munich Pact
On September 29th, 1938, the Munich Conference was held to try and solve the problem of the Sudetenland. Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy attended. Czechoslovakia and the USSR were not invited. On the 30th, all four nations signed the Munich Pact. Hitler was granted control of the Sudetenland in return for his promise to make this his final expansion of the German Reich (empire).
Neville Chamberlain, England’s Prime Minister who attended the Munich Conference, returned to England and announced, “I believe it is peace in our time”. Within a week, Winston Churchill began to openly criticize the Munich Pact as a “disaster” and “total…defeat”. The next day, Benes resigned as President of Czechoslovakia.
Poland and Hungary took control of portions of Czechoslovakia over the next few months as agreed upon in the Munich Pact. On March 14th, 1939 Slovakia declared itself an independent nation and allied immediately with Germany. Hitler then warned the Czech President of an impending air attack on the city of Prague. President Hacha ordered the Czech army to not fight. On March 16th German troops occupied Czechoslovakia in direct violation of the Munich Pact. Czechoslovakia no longer existed.
Decision Point: How should your nation respond to Germany’s action?
Relative Economic Strengths in Europe: 1930s




Unemployment Rate (%)




Economic (% Change)

1932

1934

1936

1938

1929-32

1932-37

GDP

Indus. Prod.

GDP

Indus. Prod.

Britain

17

12

8

9

-5.8

-11.4

25.7

52.9

France

15

14

15

10

-11.0

-25.6

7.9

20.0

Czech.

13

18

14

9

-18.2

-26.5

20.3

51.5

USSR

na*

na

na

na

6.9

66.7

146.7

59.3

Germany

44

14

na

1

-15.7

-40.8

67.5

122.2

USA

25

20

14

16

-28.0

-44.7

46.6

86.8

na = No Statistics available. * Under the Soviet system, there was officially no unemployment
Relative Military Strengths in Europe: 1938-1939




1938




1939

Army

Divisions



Airplanes

Army

Divisions



Airplanes

Battle

ships


Subs

Britain

2

1,050

4

1,750

15

57

France

63

1,195

86

1,234

7

78

Czech.

34

600

None

None

None

None

USSR

125

3,050

125

3,361

3

20

Germany

81

1,820

130

4,210

5

65


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