The Motives Economic National Grandeur

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Lecture 03

Western Imperialism—19th Century

The Spread of Colonial Rule

Expansion into Africa and Asia

    • Christians and Spices” said Vasco da Gama

    • raw materials and markets

The Motives

    • Economic

    • National Grandeur

    • Moral purposes

The Tactics

    • From: Limited to controlling regional trade network and established a few footholds for trade and missionary work

    • To: solidifying hold over their territories for security control, national prestige, before economic interests

Global Land Grab

By 1900, almost all Africa and Asia under colonial rule

The Colonial System

Direct and Indirect rule

Philosophy of Colonialism

    • Social Darwinism

    • Comfortable Theory

    • Adaptation of Primitive Peoples

    • Brutality Ignored

Assimilation or Association?

India Under the British Raj

Colonial Reforms

    • Order and stability

    • Education

    • Outlawed Sati

    • Ended Brigandage

    • Technology and Progress

Costs of Colonialism

    • British textiles supplanted Indian textile industry

    • Zamindar system

Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia

Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia

    • British – Malayan peninsula: Singapore, Burma

    • French – Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

    • American – Philippines

The Nature of Colonial Rule

    • Indirect rule and some direct rule

Administration and Education

Economic Development

Empire Building in Africa

Growing European Presence in West Africa

Imperialist Shadow over the Nile

    • Napoleon

    • Muhammad Ali

    • Suez Canal, 1854-1869

    • Sudan

    • Algiers

Arab Merchants and European Missionaries

    • Increase slave trade for plantation agriculture in East Africa and islands off the coast

    • Rise of Western interest against slave trade and Christian missionary activity

Bantus, Boers, and British in South Africa

Boers – Afrikaans-speaking farmers

    • Great Trek – mid-1830s

    • Believed that white superiority was ordained by god

    • Set up the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal)


    • Abolished slavery in British Empire in 1834

    • More sympathetic to rights of local African population

The Scramble for Africa

Colonialism in Africa

Indirect Rule in West Africa

British Rule in East Africa

British Rule in South Africa

    • Higher percentage of European settlers

    • Growing division between English-speaking and Afrikaner elements

    • Discovery of gold and diamonds source of problems

    • Boer War – British defeated Afrikaans

    • Concession: gave power to vote only to whites in self-governing colonies

    • British created independent Union of South Africa for Afrikaans in 1910

    • British: Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaiziland, Rhodesia

Direct Rule, French style

    • Direct rule – centralized administrative system

    • Governor-general, commissioners, local administrators

    • Assimilate Africans

    • Africans eligible to run for office and serve in French National Assembly

    • Relative absence of racist attitudes, superiority of Gallic culture, belief in universality of human nature

Women in Colonial Africa

The Emergence of Anticolonialism

Religious Resentment

Sudan – Mahdi – strong Islamic overtones

India - The Sepoy Rebellion – 1857

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