The Middle Ages Frankish Rulers
Franks- conquered the former Roman province of Gaul (Germany)
The strongest Germanic group.
Clovis- became king of the Franks in 481
Was the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism.
Mayors of the palace- government official that obtained power from the kings in the 700’s.
Charles Martel- “Charles the Hammer”, became mayor of the palace.
Stopped Muslim advance into Europe in the Battle of Tours.
Pepin the Short- son of Charles Martel, became king.
Anointed by the Pope, making him a divinely chosen ruler in the eyes of the people.
Charlemagne- son of Pepin, became king.
Also known as “Charles the Great.”
He defended Pope Leo III against Roman nobles.
In return he was crowned the new Roman emperor.
Counts- local officials that assisted Charlemagne run the empire.
After his death, Charlemagne’s 3 grandsons fought for control.
Treaty of Verdun- signed by the 3, agreeing to divide up the empire.
Vikings- raiders from Scandinavia that invaded the Frankish empire.
Skilled explorers and traders.
Very ferocious warriors.
Severely weakened the authority of the monarchs.
As a result, a new political and social system would be created to bring stability.
Feudalism- a highly decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power.
In short, giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid.
Started during the time of Charles Martel.
Fiefs- large estates with peasants granted to warriors and nobles.
Peasants were the largest social group.
Nobles would eventually assume the power of the government.
Knights- mounted warriors provided by nobles for the royal army.
Feudal relationships were like a pyramid.
Vassal- a noble who served a lord of the next higher rank.
Homage- solemn ceremony that officially tied a lord and a vassal.
Castle- fortified manor house for defense against enemies.
Tournaments- mock battles between knights.
Page-nobleman’s son started at age 7.
Squire-at 15 learned to use the weapons.
Once proved in battle, he officially became a knight.
Chivalry- code of conduct for knights.
Peasants- lived and worked on the lord’s land.
Manorialism- a economic system of agricultural production.
In exchange for a fee, peasants provided various services for the lord.
Manor system based on trade.
Three-Field System- new way of farming that allowed serfs to produce more crops.
Serfs- people who were bound to the manor and could not leave.
During the middle ages, the Catholic Church was the dominant spiritual influence.
The church decided who would receive salvation.
The Pope would become the strongest political leader in W. Europe
Sacraments- church rituals that were the only way to receive salvation.
Most people only have contact with parish priests.
Tithe- money given to church. Often associated with salvation.
Secular clergy- pope, bishops, and priests that are among society.
Regular clergy- includes monks and nuns that live apart from society.
Benedict- Roman official that founded a monastery at Monte Cassino.
Benedictine Rule-list of rules for monks to live by.
Abbot- monastery head or leader.
Pope Gregory I- adopted Benedictine Rule to spread Christianity in Europe.
The church would help to govern western Europe.
It had its own laws and courts.
Disobedience resulted in severe punishment for all.
Church also had feudal ties that boosted wealth and political power.
Many high church officials were nobles.
Church frequently received donations from nobles to ensure salvation.
This would lead to nobles influencing the church, having relatives appointed to church positions.
Many Christians would call for church reform.
A council would declare that political leaders could no longer choose the pope.
Cardinals- high ranking church officials that would now choose the pope.
Gregory VII- reform minded pope selected by cardinals in 1073.
Lay investiture- practice where secular rulers gave the symbols of office to the bishops they had appointed.
Innocent III- one of the most powerful popes that tried to reform the church.
Heresy- denial of basic church teachings.
Excommunication- expulsion from the church for crimes or heresy.
Inquisition- a court set up by the church to seek out and punish heretics.
Friars- wandering preachers that wanted to reform the church.
Followed monastic rules but did not isolate themselves from society.
Francis of Assisi- founded the Franciscan friars
Dominic- Spanish priest that organized the Dominican friars.
Anti-Semitism- very strong hatred of Jews.
Slowly monarchs began to build strong states.
King Alfred of Wessex- known as Alfred the Great, defeated the Danes and united the kingdom known as England.
When last Anglo-Saxon king died, there was a fight for the throne.
Battle of Hastings- fought in 1066 for the English throne.
Was between William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold Godwinson.
William would win, now known as William the Conqueror.
Henry II- set up system of common law, with grand and petit juries.
Eleanor of Aquitaine- Henry’s wife.
Thomas a Becket- archbishop of Canterbury, murdered by knights of Henry II.
Magna Carta- called the Great Charter, created in 1215.
Signed by King John, son of Henry II.
King must obey the law.
Prevented king from collecting taxes without the consent of the Great Council.
Intended to protect feudal rights, but protected all people.
A class between nobles and peasants.
Recognizing their increasing power, Henry III added knights and burgesses to his Great Council.
The Great Council would be soon be called Parliament.
In France, Louis VI started granting townspeople positions on his court.
Philip II- known as Philip Augustus, was determined to strengthen the French monarchy.
Louis IX- Philip’s grandson, made royal courts dominant over feudal courts.
Philip IV- called Philip the Fair, was Louis IX’s grandson.
Defeated both England and Flanders in war, increasing the empire.
In Germany, rulers remained weak and ineffective.
King Otto I- known as Otto the Great, tried to restore Charlemagne’s empire.
Pope John XII asked for Otto’s help against Roman nobles.
In return, he crowned Otto Holy Roman Emperor.
Powerful German lords prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from building a strong empire.
Henry VI- had a big argument with Pope Gregory VII over who appoints bishops.
The pope disposed Henry.
Concordat of Worms- agreement between the two that allowed the king to name bishops and grant them land, with the pope able to reject them.
The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016