The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920



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Name______________________ Date__________________




The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920




I. “Porfiriato”


  1. Porfirio Díaz was one of the generals of the Liberal army who was President of Mexico from 1877 until 1911, a period known as the ______________ because the figure of Porfirio Díaz dominated it.

2. During this period, the economy grew; new railways and telephone networks were built; new banks opened; industry, mining, agriculture and commerce expanded. Major concessions led to ________________________ over large sectors of the economy.




  1. Although President Díaz brought many benefits to Mexico, he was a dictator - a President who abused his power. Under Díaz, a few _____________________________ became very wealthy, but the majority of Mexicans remained poor.


II. The Rebellion Begins


1. During the first years of the 20th century, a new generation of ________________________, young Mexicans that did not belong to Díaz' group desired change. For the first time in thirty-three years other political parties were formed.



III. Francisco Madero


1. In 1910, the Mexican Revolution began as a result of frustration that Diaz's promise of free _____________________ was not kept and he declared that he had won yet another election. Francisco I. Madero was one of those who had organized another political party. After the election he led the revolt against Diaz who eventually resigned and was exiled to France.

IV. ZAPATA

1. Elections were then held, which Madero won, but the people were impatient and Madero was incapable of bringing order to the country. Madero only made moderate democratic reforms to relieve social tensions. He was challenged by Emiliano Zapata who wanted massive _____________________ that were expressed in his motto “Tierra y Libertad” ___________________________.
2. In 1913, After a Military coup supported by the United States, Madero was executed and another general, Victoriano Huerta took over as President.

V. General Victoriano Huerta



1. In 1913 he plotted secretly with Madero's enemies, and overthrew the president. Huerta established a military dictatorship, notable for political corruption and rule by imprisonment and assassination. He was supported by large land owners, the army, and _____________________. Numerous counterrevolutions broke out; the most important insurgent leaders of the Constitutionalist Movement were Venustiano Carranza, Francisco Villa, and Emiliano Zapata.

VI. Pancho Villa



  1. Pancho Villa led peasant rebels in the north amd attacked the Federal Army.  Villa  lead and fought in a decades worth of battles for the cause with his army known as ________________________(The Golden Boys).  The name was ironic considering that they were mostly makeshift Revolutionaries who were recruited from village to village where Villa and his men would pillage to have water, food and women.  During the course of the Revolution in Mexico, Villa seemed to be blessed never sustaining life threatening injuries.




  1. The revolutionaries, including Francisco Villa in the north, and Emiliano Zapata in the south, began a struggle to overthrow President Huerta.

3. The Mexican Revolution mobilized large segments of the population, both men and women. The Villista forces included railroad workers, cowboys, and townsfolk who took up arms against the army.




QUESTION:

How do these images reflect the nature of the mexican revolution?

VII. Venustiano Carranza

1. Steady insurgent military pressure forced Huerta to resign in July, 1914. When this happened, Venustiano Carranza then assumed power. Huerta fled to Europe and returned to the United States, where he was subsequently arrested for revolutionary activities; he died shortly after being released from an army jail.

2. Under Carranza's presidency a new ____________________ was adopted in 1917. The new Constitution took into account individual and social rights, particularly to protect the workers and the peasants, and was very _____________________. Carranza tried to flee to Vera Cruz. On May 20. 1920, he was killed as he slept in a small wooden hut in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo.
VIII. Alvaro Obregon


  1. Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata remained in control in their own home territories, but they could not wrest the government from control of the more _____________________ leaders in Mexico City.




  1. Obregón used his military skill and WWI tactics to defeat Villa’s calvalry in a series of bloody battles in 1915 and became president in 1920. The revolutionary program became official during his administration and advanced into a recognizable if not thoroughgoing system of agrarian and labor reforms, peonage was still rampant. 

IX. ZAPATA

1. On April 10, 1919, Zapata was tricked into a meeting with one of Carranza's generals who wanted to "switch sides." The meeting was a trap, and Zapata was killed as he arrived at the meeting.

X. CIVIL WAR ENDED

1. Since 1920, with the Civil War over, a new _____________________________ ruled Mexico. However, the Revolution had devastated the nation. 1.5 million were killed, major industries destroyed, ranching and farming were disrupted.
XI. PANCHO VILLA


  1. In Jan., 1916, a group of Americans were shot by bandits in Chihuahua, and on Mar. 9, 1916, some of Villa's men raided the U.S. town of Columbus, N.Mex., killing some ________________. It is not certain that Villa participated in these assaults, but he was universally held responsible.

  2. Wilson ordered a punitive expedition under General Pershing to capture Villa _______________. The expedition pursued Villa through Chihuahua for 11 months but failed in its objective. Carranza violently resented this invasion and it embittered relations between Mexico and the United States.

XII. REVOLUTIONARY RESULTS



  • 1917 Mexican Constitution

  • Land reforms, limited foreign ownership of key resources

  • Guaranteed rights of _________________

  • restrictions on clerical education and _________________ ownership of property

  • educational reforms

  • Workers organized and were ___________________ in government

Question: The Mexican Revolution had a limited impact beyond its borders: WHY?


Name___________________________ Date______________
Mexico after the Revolution: Struggle for Democracy
Domination of the PRI (Party of Institutionalized Revolution)

  • Revolutionary leaders wanted to institutionalize the new regime.

  • Created a One-Party System known as the PRI.

  • Incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle class sectors.

  • They controlled politics sometimes through the use of repressive means.

  • Limited the President to a one six-year term.

Diego Rivera



  • Nationalism and Indigenism take hold in Mexico.

  • Attempts were made to “Indianize” Mexico. Stressed nationalism, glorified the past, and denounced Western capitalism.



  1. Describe and explain the use of two symbols in the painting used by Rivera?



  1. How does this painting of an Aztec Warrior reflect the ideals of Zapata and the Mexican Revolution?

Economy


  • For many years, Mexico followed a policy of economic nationalism. The government imposed high tariffs to protect local industries. By 1974, Mexico borrowed heavily from foreign nations to develop its oil industries.

  • By the 1980s, Mexico was in a debt crisis.

  • More recently, Mexico moved toward free trade, or trade that had low tariffs and no restrictions.

  • NAFTA (______________________ Free Trade Agreement)

  • Members were the countries of _________, __________, and ________________.

  • NAFTA would abolish most tariffs on goods traded among the three member nations.

  • Goal - Expand economy by building closer ties with U.S. and Canada.

Zapatistas



  • Calling themselves Zapatistas in honor of Emiliano Zapata, some nearly 2000 masked rebels attacked and captured four towns in Chiapas in 1994. They demanded work, land, housing, food, health care, and education.

  • Choosing Zapata as a symbol of the movement, the Zapatistas tried to show that the basic problems of a fair society remained unsolved and that the revolution was incomplete.

Challenges to the PRI

  1. To what is the cartoonist comparing the PRI? Why?



  1. Based on this image, what (or who) is going to bring about change?

Vicente Fox



  • Member of the National Action Party (PAN) was elected president at the end of 2000, thus ending the PRI’s dominance of the political system of more than half a century.

  • A charismatic reformer, President Fox is credited as playing a vital role in Mexico’s democratization, and with strengthening the country’s economy.

  • During his tenure, he succeeded in controlling inflation and interest rates, and in achieving the lowest unemployment rate in all of Latin America.

Felipe Calderon



  • Mr. Calderon's decision to pursue the drug cartels and traffickers seems to be the defining element of his presidency.

  • More than 30,000 people have died in drug-related violence since 2006: A sign for some the gangs are being squeezed, while others see the rising murder rate in parts of Mexico as an indication of the traffickers' power.

  • The issue of illegal migration, and the treatment of Mexicans on the border, is a source of abiding tension between the US and Mexico.

  • President Calderon has argued for immigration reform in the US, where there are an estimated 12 million illegal immigrants.

  • Mr. Calderon's term in office also coincided with the global economic downturn. Given its close trading relationship with its northern neighbor, Mexico is exposed to US weaknesses.


Question: How has Mexico fared in its struggle for democracy? What are some of the obstacles to democracy that they continue to face?


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