|The Mardu Aborigines – Chapter 1
How were the first inhabitants of Australia speculated to originate?
The aborigines are thought to have come from Southeast Asia by way of some seaworthy watercraft. They were hunters and gatherers who used wood, stone, and bone and continue to maintain their hunter and gathering lifestyle in modern time. (p. 2)
What are the pros and cons of the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer lifestyle?
The hunter-gatherer lifestyle enforced mobility and created total dependence on natural resources, but it also allowed leisure time. The lifestyle forced the aborigines to keep their material wants to a minimum and direct their energy towards developing complex social and ceremonial lives thought necessary to reproduce resources. (p. 3)
How did foreign visitors affect Australian aborigine culture?
Some aborigines cooperated and conflicted with the first contact of visiting Europeans. The Europeans influenced aborigine material culture, but did not change aborigine society until the Europeans permanently settled on the southeast coast in 1788. (p. 5)
What makes Australian aborigines distinct from other groups?
Each social group is particularly bonded to a certain stretch of territory through material needs and sense of identity. Individual social groups also identify with other aboriginal social groups through shared language and values. Importance is stressed on intergroup contacts. (p. 8)
What does the name “Mardu” refer to?
Mardu refers to the linguistic groups that reside around Lake Disappointment on the western side of the Gibson Desert. “Mardu” is often used as a word for “people.” (p. 12)
The Mardu Aborigines – Chapter 2
Which resource tends to be the scarcest and what do the Mardu people do to find it?
Water, they follow animals, watch were plants grow, find water in known rock wells, and dig up roots of trees.
Do men or women hunt and/or gather the majority of the food? What percentage is it of their diet?
Women do of course ;-) They gather acacia seeds, bush plums, grass, small animals such as lizards, snakes, etc.
What are the primary ingredients for creating fire?
Side of a spear thrower, kangaroo dung and tinder-dry grass; side of a spear thrower forms part of the main fire-making toolset. A mixture of tinder-dry grass and powdered kangaroo dun is rammed into a split piece of dead wood. The thrower is sawed rapidly across the open crack and ignites the mixture. It usually takes only one or two minutes of hard sawing to produce fire.
The Mardu Aborigines – Chapter 7
What does “Mardu” mean?
What were European invaders and Missionaries called?
“Whitefella” & “Christian”
What was Jigalong’s history & usage?
The territory was originally Nyiyabarli, but was transferred to European invaders and turned into a maintenance depot for supplies but primarily Camel & Rabbit breeding. Then it was turned over to a protestant group as a missionary post. Jigalong provided government rations to the local aborigines. Now it is an aboriginal community.
Why did Aborigines abandoned their way of life (living off the land)?
Because they became dependant on rations like tea, flour, twist tobacco, sugar and other useful and easily portable items.
Aborigines had a community network that span over many miles & reached many aboriginal groups & communities. What did the Mardu call this system?
The Kinship system.
Polygamy: What were two of the ways that the aborigines dealt with beating the polygamous marriage system?
Child support allowance = independence. Singles camps = free of demands of marriage.
What was the problem camp?
What were monumental Legislation that affected aborigines?
Aboriginal land rights (northern territory act) of 1976 = first and strongest. Aboriginal land trust in 1972 = creation of an official Jigalong area, but not the traditional homelands that the Mardu thought as inalienably theirs.
Who was the segment of Mardu that got into the most trouble? And what was it?
The young men… From unemployment and boredom. Trouble was alcoholism, vandalism, break-ins theft, law breaking in sexual matters = etc.
AMAN Chapters 1-6
How is the Somali’s lineage tracked?
Through the father’s line
Is divorce acceptable in the Somalia culture?
Who is the descendant of the Profit and a religious leader? This person also married Aman’s mother.
How many wives can one man have at once?
Why does a woman have to stay home for 3 months after she is divorced?
To make sure she is not pregnant
A Somali girl with a white man was called what?
What is the new way of doing circumcision on girls called?
Sunna which is a symbolic ritual
What is amboolo made of?
Dried meat, beans, and white corn
Sheikhs, religious specialists, are devoted to what?
What is the language of Somalia?
Somalia is a __________ based culture
What religion is Aman?
What Aman’s main method of transportation?
Animals were used for what?
Food, exchange for money when needed, for blood money, they stand for wealth, status, esthetics art
What disease was compared to AIDS in Somalia?
AMAN Chapters 6-12
What happens when Aman starts working for the district commissioner?
He starts sexually assaulting her
She leaves her job and starts to look for other work
This brings her to the Italian Compound where she starts work for the white people
When Aman starts spending time at the Italian Compound what happens?
She meets Anthony, an Italian teenage boy
Aman and Anthony start a relationship
Aman and Anthony start getting into trouble because a relationship between Somalis and Whites are not acceptable. Aman is called a “Sharmuto” (Prostitute).
Why does Aman marry her first husband?
After her grandmother and Anthony are not in her life anymore, she is in a bad place
She feels that this is the only way she can contribute to her family and become accepted in society again after being seen with a white man
She doesn’t think of all the things that will come with marriage
When Aman’s mother becomes sick, what is her treatment?
She is treated by the zar people and they perform a ritual of cleansing her from a bad spirit
She has to breathe in incense smoke until she vomits, drink a goat’s blood
She becomes calmer after receiving the treatment for a couple of weeks
What happens to Aman in her wedding night?
Her husband is unable to devirgin her because he is an old man
He wants to cut Aman’s circumcision open himself but Aman convinces him that a doctor should do it
She takes the opportunity to run away
After running away, where does Aman end up?
She goes to the city of Mogadishu with a girlfriend
She enjoys that no one in the city knows her
She enjoys her freedom
She gets new clothes and gets her hair straightened
She starts going out a lot and also starts going out with men
AMAN Chapters 12-18
What does the term nashuusha mean? Page 171
What did Aman lose while in the city that was so precious to her? Page 178
How was Aman’s father’s wealth different from city wealth? Page 190
How did Aman’s young age affect her first marriage? Review Ch. 8 (her being inexperienced).
Why would Aman and her friends not want to be seen sitting in the bar with a white man? Page 199
The Yolgnu Boy
1. In Yolngu Boy, why was Baru represented as the law?
a)Baru represented nature
b)Baru represented troublemakers
c)Baru represented it's ancestors*
d)all of the above
2. In Yolgnu Boy, what did they consider sacred?
The New Yorkers Articles
1) What did Aborigines do when they had realized they did not have sufficient English to proof their relationship with the land? Pg.89
A. They seeked Aborigines translators
B. They Paint
C. Hired American Lawyers
D. Sent their Children to School
2) Who are the Artists that created the Ngurrara paintings? (Pg90)
A. Aborigines Elites
B. Aborigines Young Women
C. Aborigines Old Men (correct answer)
D. Aborigines Young boys
3) What did they Prime Minister John Howard want to do to take away Aborigines' voice in the National government? (Pg 94)
A. Change the commission after Djerrkura's
B. Break up the commission
C. Adoptin Aborigines consultants to the government agencies
D. All the above (correct answer)
“ New In Town: The Somalis of Lewiston” (Reader)
Q1. Why did the Somali man produce the Somali play and translate it to English?
He produced the play to show the Lewiston locals that the Somalis in Lewiston are not just desert bush people but that they have a background and also culture.
Q2. Why do Somalis in Lewiston continue to have animosity toward each other?
They continue to have animosity toward each other because they come from different tribes and clans in Somalia.
1) How is time described in The Dreaming?
a)Time is described as circular; the past and the present exist at the same time.
b)Time is linear, just like in America culture.
c) Time moves from present to past.
d) Time is irrelevant in the dreaming culture.
2) What is the relationship between the clouds, people, land, and animals?
a) It is a hierachical relationship.
b) They coexist as equals. Everything is sacred and interconnected.
c) The land is most important.
d) They are not related.
3) The Dreaming is usually taught through initiations to:
a) Young women
b) Young men
c)Young men AND Young women
d) Older men AND older women.